Characteristics of Adult Learning.
Badea Ana,Teacher Training House Arges
This paper work ...
3. Through socialization, individuals acquire maturity (capability of self,
self-discipline, autonomy, self-understanding)...
- Adults have a rich life experience
They need to recognize their previous experience and even to be
- Adults a...
Whatever form courses (evening of short duration, distance) adult
invests time, they need to "break" from other activities...
education shows internal and external determinism capacity, availability and
need for learning human nature.
Carl Gustav J...
Since the so-called "adult extended period" from 55 to 65 years, the
learning reasons are arising from involutive dynamics...
The Physicist David Bohm believes that maturity must be determined on
the basis of capacity "to study processes at which t...
individual throughout life, highlights the synergy adults ages plateau of
maturity. Focusing on adult learning component a...
Studies on the evolution of the ontogenesis of the intellectual, physical
and sensory characteristics of adult, made in th...
what some authors define "normal predictable life cycle", meaning
behaviors and roles associated with each age period.
which defin four subidentities correlative of maturity: husband, social
citizenship, and parental training subidentity.
The method used to identify training needs in the county of Arges was
focus group.
Target group: teachers of pre-universit...
O5 Empowering students to use information resources to streamline the
management activity
The program is structured in thr...
Teachers Training House- Arges.The announcement was posted on the
official website of the institution. First training grou...
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  1. 1. Characteristics of Adult Learning. Badea Ana,Teacher Training House Arges Abstract This paper work presents the particularities of adult learning reflected in practical application, continuing education course directors, guidance and control in Arges- efficient and effective management of university education. The training program is provided by the Teacher Training House Arges, accredited by Ministry of Education, with a total of 25 professional transferable credits. Key Words Adult learning, education management, training, communication, personal/professional development Introduction Approaching learning tools used in adults and also for children is easy but inappropriate. Although both the child and the adult carries self Policy - learning - there are essential differences between them. If the learning process engages cognitive dimensions and also affective, motivational and volitional dimensions of human personality that support "intentional modification or conversion of human behavior conditioned by the experience," then the differences become more apparent. Dominance learning in children is given by the accumulation and structuring. In adults learning is deep restructuring and creation, is participation, and builds his entire working life experience. Therefore, in contrast to the children learning, adult learning is based on real situations, cut fromlife, thus taking advantage of their experience. Second paragraph After Kidd (1981), adult learning is a "struggle" with the emphasis on being active individual who seeks finds, establish, acquire (knowledges, skills, habits). He wants something, does something, acquire something. All these active verbs suggests that adult learning is not a simple accumulation, but a reorganization, restructuring (sometimes unlearning) of what is known. Moreover, it means a transformation of the entire personality, a qualitative change in how to think, feel and act. Among adult learning characteristics, Kidd identifies the following: 1. People learn throughout life, even through periods of development or decline in this action 2. Learning effect is to change the role of the individual (acquired status of a friend, a citizen, a family member, worker, etc.). 1
  2. 2. 3. Through socialization, individuals acquire maturity (capability of self, self-discipline, autonomy, self-understanding) and from this perspective he approaches life events. 4. Experience (more, more diverse, organized differently) has great importance in the adult decision to engage in learning. 5. The desire to act, to engage, to "wake up" to life leads to the status of self-taught many adults - people who study life. Adult learners have special significance during and aging. They perceive reality in a proper manner, "see distant goals and value their time, contacts, considers satisfactory social situations." Resistance to learning is an attitude often manifested among adults. It is the result of perception learning as "a painful process of change personally and intellectually, as well as on that of the manual operations involved in learning" (Kidd, 1981). Adults become susceptible when they are required to overcome new difficulties or learning approach, with the awareness of the condition and their special role. Overcoming these obstacles can be achieved by placing learning in a group context stimulating creating an ambience (even from physically) enjoyable and encouraging. Promote collaboration, respect their learning pace, avoiding external constraints, all this leads to stimulation of appetite for learning and building self-confidence. To understand "how adults learn" must not only identify new roles that they assume, the tasks facing, but also life circumstances they face. Vivian Landsheere suggests that the articulation of work and learning in a unified approach. Adults learn for themselves, to evolve professionally and socially. From this perspective, must be activated and used adult's ability and willingness to assume responsibility for their own training and to plan the project to expand the knowledge, ability to overcome obstacles, as well as that of their (self) assess skills and opportunities to progress. We notice that the most obvious feature of adult learning is given by the responsibility with which they seek to acquire knowledge and skills. The adult is the "motivated" of his plans for life, his aspirations. He is an independent man (contrary of child who is dependent) and engage in an activity (learning) only if there is a correlation between their projects of life and the urge to achieve them. Adult learner decides to revert to learn, only if ge considers that must change his status (provided psychosocial learning) - as a professional member of the family or in small groups. If any professional work or social work or family situation did not cause this desire, then you can convince him very difficult to learn (Urbanczyk, 1975). How do adults learn? Malcolm Knowles performed a characterization of the defining features for adult learners, highlighting the following: - Adults are independent Therefore they should be allowed to express themselves freely. It is advisable to be involved in the implementation of projects to reveal their professional interests and knowledge, thus showing them how solving various training tasks can help them in achieving personal goals. 2
  3. 3. - Adults have a rich life experience They need to recognize their previous experience and even to be exploited. - Adults are proposing to undertake to achieve whatever goal It is recommended that the training program in which they are engaged to be revealed in a transparent manner the goals and objectives that must be achieved. - Adults are attracted to what is relevant They need to understand the rationale for the need to learn something new. It is recommended that they be given the opportunity to choose their own projects they will realize, for just such projects will reflect their own learning needs. - Adults have common sense That means that must be demonstrated how what they learn is useful in everyday life. Adult learning barriers Unlike children, adults have many responsibilities, which creates, by default, many barriers to engaging in a learning process.The reasons given most often by adults are: "I already know" Participants who expressed such an attitude are generally those who think it does not require the training because it is considered to be already trained in this area. Typically, these are people who come more for a diploma. It requires the trainer to use their experience in order to reach his goal. "Previous experience" There is necessary to prepare exciting training sessions for participants who believe that participation in the learning session is irrelevant or boring. Generally people are used to learn in a traditional style of type: trainer dictates, they take their notes. The trainer should propose innovative methods of content delivery "Too old to learn" This general attitude can be seen in older people, who for various reasons do not have to believe that you learn. This behavior is determined by the complex evolution of technology or specialized languages (eg trainer, feedback). Many of them are not aware of the significance of these languages and feel embarrassed that they are not able to participate actively. Totally wrong! People learn as long as they live and it is a shame to not be familiar with certain concepts. Active participation in class is a way to learn new things. "Lack of trust" The fact that students attend a training session with different backgrounds and different functions makes some of them do not participate actively in class for fear of being derided (shy) or because they do not trust the rest participants. They have emotions when they have to speak and avoid getting involved in activities. They should be involved as much without being singled out individually. "Lack of time" 3
  4. 4. Whatever form courses (evening of short duration, distance) adult invests time, they need to "break" from other activities and concerns of its existence. "Lack of money" The number of institutions that offer free training is very low. Therefore, the money is often a barrier to access adult education services, especially in underdeveloped countries. "Family responsibilities" Caring for children, relationship with husband / wife household obligations, "steal" the study time. "Organizing schedule": work and the family obligations often requires the study timetable changes and sacrifices. "Problems of motivation" They are inefficient adults in training process because they were forced to learn, them having their own motivation. "Lack of confidence" Low self-esteem, past failures marks the adult, preventing him to overcome frustrations and fears. The most effective way to motivate adults is to increase the number of arguments in favor of their own involvement in the educational process and to decrease the number of factors-barrier or even removing. It's recommended that the trainer/ instructor to know the attitude of adult learning. Thus, he could find the motivation strategies, demonstrating the correlation between adult learners and training activities and the successful achievement of goals. Everyone can learn at any age, any field of study. It is vital to apply effective strategies and relevant training your own style, find those inner resources to mobilize us. There are not valid arguments that with age and decrease our intellectual performance, we lose our memory, we infantile thinking. They're just subterfuges of our own, cheap and wrecks. We can learn, we have the potential to unexplored depths. It really matters if we really want to know more today than we knew yesterday, that tomorrow we can do what we did today, thae tend to find other Americas, other bikes and new theories of the match. Adult education is an area of enormous complexity and, at first glance, it seems to exist more current than the counter-current, more paradox than consensus. In the literature can also be found phrases like "adult education" , "continuing education" (permanent education), "recurrent education", "Lifetime Education" (lifelong education), "lifelong learning" . Each of these terms put some relevant aspect of the phenomenon examined, making it common idea of continuity of learning throughout life.Theoretical problem of adult education began developing his psychological and sociological aspects, namely by identifying and studying the psychological development of adult periods E. Thorndike, LP Jung, D. Super, E.H. Erikson, H. Moers, V.V. Ghinzburg, V.V. Bunak, U. Şchiopu, E. Green I. Şchiopu) and social processes (OG Brimm, GH Mead). These approaches in terms of two complementary domains essential for science 4
  5. 5. education shows internal and external determinism capacity, availability and need for learning human nature. Carl Gustav Jung, the psychologist considered age-centered psychology, suggests further development in social life and institutions where religion and myths have an important place. The psychologist Erik H. Erikson, attracted by the ideas of Jung was interested in adult features, phenomenons neglected in psychological literature, and teaching. According to Erikson, there are eight stages or life cycles, including 3 adult - youth or early adulthood, middle adulthood and old age. In other studies such as the life cycles, reference name being D. Super, although there are outlined five stages of psychological development, adult stages remain the same: -Youth of 25 to 44 years of age, maturity period in which the integration of the job and, in some cases, identify specific professional field; - Maintain state between 44-65 years, dominated by professional integration; -Advanced ages characterized by professional disengagement. How easily noticeable, D. E. Super uses position criterion to find professional employment. Allport outlines six specific features adult such as: self-consciousness scale, relationships and intimate relationships, emotional security fundamental concern of objective self-objectification, relative harmony with their purchases from personal experience. Another criterion for determining the stages of mental development that can provide information on the need for adult learning is fundamental type of activity and the type of relationships that define the four correlative sub- identities of maturity: husband sub-dentity, social citizenship, and parental training The literature mentions that between 35-45 years adult consumes stability, the implantation training, there is an intensive, cumulative , active and creative work. Often at this age is also pursuing a college or a doctorate, school improvement, recycling etc.. The reasons for the implications of an educational nature lies in the feeling of competition seised by the adults in the younger generation entering production. The gender aspect, given the development of sub-identity, women require parenting education. At this age, the 4 mentioned sub-identities interact equally, ensuring an individual emotional-motivational balance. Age period between 45 and 55 years is characterized by assuming greater social responsibility and citizenship training. Educational implications influence the development of these sub-identities proportional to the number of recycles covered. By this age, learning reported in Performance - learning-motivating factor for adult ages, cited by several researchers, involves personal value and socio-professional learning which means that learning from a professional person seeks to develop itself and streamlining the benefit of professional training 5
  6. 6. Since the so-called "adult extended period" from 55 to 65 years, the learning reasons are arising from involutive dynamics of the person and her marital sub-identities and social- citizenship. Grounds-order needs are more attenuated and the reasons are ego- interests centered. According to B.G. Ananev approach "rough" periodization problem maturity, "rounded" lower and upper limits of adulthood and also insufficient study of boundaries between adulthood periods complicates the highlight moments of the past, of qualitative transformation having a progressive or melts nature. This picture summarizing the adult periods presented in terms of the stages of mental development and educational implications exogenous, can be completed with some considerations developed by A.N.Leontievthe Russian scientist, who sees in the psychological dialectic a dialectical movement from simple behaviors, reduced primary motivation in complex behaviors maintained by a consistent ans socialised motivation. Creative activity of the adult, in which is included the learning activity, is mediated by normative and general evaluative symbols serving which mantle as a guide of a behaviour and own cultural patterns and aspirations, this assembly being social personality setting where internal motivations are in perfect harmony with the regulatory requirements of the social environment. Socialization as a factor for adult learning requires motivation rather than the acquisition of an old material synthesis, the idealistic change of its point of view is based on realistic capacity purchase confrontation with conflicting requirements and develop competence to practice some specific roles. Leontiev and Rubinstein argue that the influence of external conditions is achieved through internal subjective conditions. Internal subjectivity conditions is a dynamic formation and evolution, is a specific age forms of physical, mental, spiritual and social development of the human personality. I. A. Zimniaia supports the idea of subjectivity as a internal specific learning factor, using measurable variables: age, gender, intellectual, capabilities, level of aspiration and self-assessement etc. She uses a systemic approach to his research learning motivation and noticed that with the age dominant needs and their hierarchy change. Training motivation is not expressed by developing positive and negative attitudes towards learning worsening, but the structural complexity of the motivational sphere factors that make up this area and triggers the emergence of new relations more complicated, sometimes contradictory. "Growing up" state and relations between them push, incite and cause the individual to meet their maturation occurs with it. Realities, designated as the mature or adult, are virtually identical, only the connotative register of noun Maturityand of the verb Mature record some shades of ascent to performance, relevant to our research. For example, the feminine noun Maturity means "period of human life between youth and old age" but also "state of full development, advanced stage experience, of acquiring knowledge, diligence, depth (determined by age, by experience). 6
  7. 7. The Physicist David Bohm believes that maturity must be determined on the basis of capacity "to study processes at which things become what they are, from what they once were and it continues to change in the future to become something else." Romanian researcher I. Frăţilă link the concept of maturity with the concept of performance. In his opinion, to be mature is to be capable of a certain performance. He argues that the performance is the relevant indicator, the defining feature of the state (status) of maturity. In this context, the process of maturation, examined in relation to achieving a high performance approaches, proves motivating learning approaches during adult age. According to developer vectors maturation process, in literature, an indication of the chronological limit "top" of this process is proposed by Romanian explanatory dictionary, namely old age. In many researchers opinions regarding periodization ages, converge on the splitting of involution (the decline of mental life, physical potential decreased, reducing the sphere of communication and social relations between 65 and almost 90. Such we can conclude that with the age about 70 years performance as motivational valence of learning, loses relevance. Thorndike and Lorge and Wechsler later developed general learning capacity curve, respectively, the intellectual capacities curve. Scientists say there is a cognitive and intellectual plateau 15-20 and 30-40 years. For this age range is characteristic of maintaining biological and psychological maturation of the individual and his (advanced stage experience, to acquire knowledge, diligence, depth). According to expert opinion, "Thorndike's experiments and conclusions are considered "cornerstone" of adult education. Carefully and very thoroughly, Thorndike shows that age is not an important factor for learning and sustains that all men and women can learn. He made three general observations on adult learning: 1. The most advantageous time for learning is between 20-25 years 2. From now until around the age of 42 years occurs a decline in learning capacity of about 1% per year 3. Correlated with age, the curve intellectual influence learning ability is poor. People most capable and the common people has almost the same curve 4. The authors of several works referring to adult education mention Thorndike's research notes on the issue of development plateaus. Refuting research that considers all years after age 20 is a slip on slope decline by introducing ceiling of 45, Thorndike encouraged "continuous raising of the age at which it can be anticipated an excellent result learning." If there is an upper limit to the performance, before accompanying aging phenomena exert a strong negative influence, then, most likely, that it will be at the age of 45 or the age at which most body functions begin to decade. In case of biological aging - no accidents, illness, higher living standards, widening motivation, increased length of enrollment in school may continue to raise such a ceiling Applying the concept of maturity in the analysis stages of mental development, cognitive capacity and intellectual development of the 7
  8. 8. individual throughout life, highlights the synergy adults ages plateau of maturity. Focusing on adult learning component ages "self": self-autonomy, self-management, self-regulation, self-realization, self-assessement, self- direction, homing require adult subject learning aspect of self-organization process. Being an evolutionary system, human person expresses through learning self-programming capability, acquiring informations, operations and functions through the work performed. According to one of the key ideas of synergetic, the future state of a system organizes, forms, changes somehow the current state of the system. In this context, we live ages that are motivating in relation to their timeliness, and "in terms of motivation, an essential fact or agitation can be continued instability and subsequent interstimulation characterize all living systems." Similarly, Walter B. Cannon pointed out that the system (human body) is open, trained in a free exchange with the outside world and that the structure itself is not permanent but constantly wear ground operation and continually reconstructed through recovery processes. Bodies made of a material with an extreme volatility and instability have learned in one way or another the means to maintain constancy and keeping balance. The activities that we call learning (defined by education, giving itself more intrinsic procedural meanings, dependent on physical ability, sensory, intellectual, emotions and will of the person) is conducted in a single organism. Mental and emotional qualities of the human being are very complicated and unstable, but that at least you can count on a certain stability in the body. All these lead us to conclude that the essence of education must be understood in a new way. In this context, it is relevant the statement made by Paul Lengrand: "Education can not be simply added to the human life as something imposed from outside. In philosophical terms, we can say that education does not belong to the category defined as "to have" but to that of "being". Human existence in a state of "becoming" at every stage and in different situations is the real essence of education. " As mentioned above, the objective human learning ability increases and tends phylogenetically trivial aspect of involution (1%) in the ontogenetic aspect, and the most important qualities of the human intellect is able to find itself the source motivation and evaluation. Nature created all the prerequisites for ensuring biological and neuro- cognitive human information interaction with the outside world throughout his life. The human brain develops throughout life, it does not atrophy. However, according to James Robbins Kidd, "if not used, it seems that there are negatively affected neural connections and functioning of individual brain cells. Here's what some psychologists have argued that often senility may be superfluous, being caused, allegedly, in almost 85 percent of cases, by the lack of intellectual effort. " 8
  9. 9. Studies on the evolution of the ontogenesis of the intellectual, physical and sensory characteristics of adult, made in the context of the learning ability of its active principle of interaction,support older binomial learning. Also, according to the summary conclusion of several studies conducted in different time periods: the early twentieth century - the last decades of the twentieth century (E. Thorndike, JR Kidd) 'in any of the healthy period of life, age has no veto power on learning". JRKidd in his "How adults learn," wrote the following: "Human beings seem to pursue learning, learning seems to be a prerequisite for a healthy body. The objective is to ensure the climate, the atmosphere, freedom and self-discipline in which learning is facilitated. You can not work too much in relation to the body-mind-emotions without meeting the conditions in which the person will start on a path of learning . A human being requires an "open field" for the kind of fight that is learning. Under convenient, suitable, men and women can demonstrate their learning". The steps above supporting human capacity to learn at adult ages and logical development of knowledge as a permanent psychological process can be continued. But we thought that we caught on a pleading of origin intrasystemic to justify the aims of the education system imperfection age in educational action. The relationship "age-learning" is not a problematic ontological aspect of human development, but in the aspect of social development. Informational and cognitive human interaction with the world is produced naturally by empirical methods, based on previous cognitive structures, affective-volitional by the potential of the individual. In this context, John Dollard said: "He who learns is a person who wants something, the learner is a person who sees something, the learner is a person who does something, the learner is a person who acquires something". To note that all of these verbs are active. In this sense, we consider balanced debate dichotomous development and learning: learning and development. With the exit of young developers aged periods (20-24 years) and shelf stability developers entering the adult (25-45 years) with priority of involution (55 years), we consider relevant all learning theories which describes the background of the development. Inspired by psychological and sociological sciences for ages, learning problem has been examined not only from its stage optics, as well as status and social role (Sorin Radulescu). Polish sociologist J. Szczepanski in "Basic Sociology" highlight the fact that the age group has an identity and its own dynamics, including a set of roles and relationships of interaction between these roles. Social role involves an expected, wanted or typical behavior, which is associated with a given position expressed by status. These notions are related and stages of economic development of society. Industrial societies are characterized by standards supported by multiple legal rules that establish the main social events occurring and to intervene in the life of the individual, as well as the time at which the transition from one age period to another: for example, childhood is associated with the period of schooling, apprenticeship training to youth, adulthood with marriage, a family and work activity, aging with the withdrawal of occupation. Social norms and regulations on age and cultural significance of life course creates 9
  10. 10. what some authors define "normal predictable life cycle", meaning behaviors and roles associated with each age period. Prejudices and stereotypes about age determines how it is perceived /perceive themselves a certain age group in society. Sorin Radulescu states that there are rare cases where the biases associated with age acts as a "stigma" that under the labeling process mechanisms, prediction creative fires. In other words, individuals can be identified, often with the image conveyed by social stereotypes, adopting behaviors that correspond to this image. "For all age steps, social structure destroy barriers motivation to perform traditional roles, and once you lose motivation, it is establishing a vicious circle: the skills and capabilities are damaged by neutralization and neutralization actually encourages physical and mental incompetence. To the extent that incompetence is obvious,it follows the social stereotype which further undermines achievement motivation ". The transition to postindustrial economy, boundary between social roles and expected behavior became less rigid. The climate epoch is more liberal, for which age-related norms have become more fluid and unstable than in traditional societies. B.L. Neugarten notes that we live in a society irrelevant in terms of age who are no longer fixed in precise chronological scales for the exercise of roles. Thus, many people change their profession 40 or 50 years and return to school at any age. These findings indicate changes in mentality and attitudes about age in contemporary society. In the same vein, Constantin Cucoş states the following: Cultural "monochronic" single action based on the principles as enshrined specific separate activity (such as current civilization), are more efficient, but generate boredom and stress. Multiplication and diversification of "simultaneity", could be the way out of the impasse. Demographic processes that record aging and declining birth rates, on the one hand, and increasing longevity, on the other hand, weighted relationship between age and learning. Moreover, from the point of view of sociology ages, educational influences permanence is considered one of the factors enhancers responsible for human longevity and activism. - Training motivation for learning is not expressed simply by developing positive attitudes and negative attitudes towards learning worsening, but the development of structural complexity sphere motivational factors that make up this area and triggers the emergence of new relations more complicated, sometimes contradictory. The above analysis allows us to conclude that, as the individual matures: -Self-concept moves from dependency to self-direction. -The tank is fill of experience and is a resource for learning. -Time perspective changes from delaying application of knowledge to immediate application -Education carried out on human individual over the age of 30 years is, on the one hand, education for development, and on the other hand, keeping education and to deal with involution. -Criterion we can provide information regarding need for adult learning is the fundamental type of activity and the type of relationship involved 10
  11. 11. which defin four subidentities correlative of maturity: husband, social citizenship, and parental training subidentity. -Training motivation for learning is not expressed simply by developing positive attitudes and negative attitudes towards learning worsening, but the development of structural complexity sphere motivational factors that make up this area and triggers the emergence of new relations more complicated, sometimes contradictory -Maintain and develop performance is the most common cause of learning citied by adults. -Learning motivation is weaker than the motivation for work and playful, and should be sensitized by developing to the adults, the ability to learn throughout their lives by exploring emotional valence, valence of learning and applied learning outcomes. I treated age binomial interaction and learning as a sui generis relationship, interdependent and inter-motivational valence synergetic triggers caused by a number of factors human characteristics, carrying the two realities - characterand action one.Motivational approach to the binomial requires synthesis of views on learning and personality theories of optical human activity and the importance of motivation for learning in terms of learning theory. Third paragraph Practical business plan coverage of the topic is represented by devising training programs effective and efficient educational management education. The program was designed according to the modular methodology for Accreditation of training programs for staff in higher education, approved by OMECTS No. 5564 of 7 October 2011, the long hours spent with a number of 102 hours and 25 professional transferable credits Training program "Efficient and effective education in secondary management Education," training for teachers in secondary education is designed as a result of the needs analysis, which is according with the policies and strategies of the Ministry of Education, in the context of the National Education Law no. 1/2011 with subsequent amendments. Training program "Efficient and effective education in secondary management Education," is correlated with the objectives of national and European strategic documents. Training program "Efficient and effective education in secondary management Education" aims to develop and cross skilling interaction and communication with the social and educational environment, taking responsibility for the organization, strategic management and performance improvement professional groups, self-control and reflective analysis of their activities by the school managers. In order to reveal the information and training needs of school managers on current approaches of education policy at the national and European, a needs analysis was undertaken. 11
  12. 12. The method used to identify training needs in the county of Arges was focus group. Target group: teachers of pre-university education with leadership, guidance and control FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEW GUIDE SUBJECT: Efficient and effective education in secondary management Education INTERVIEW GUIDE 1. Lately it talks more about the management and managerial efficiency. What's your managerial effectiveness? 2. How would you describe an effective manager? 3. How would you characterize current management into your school? 4. What are the strengths? But weaknesses? 5. In your opinion, how could it be removed weaknesses? 6. How would you argue the role of communication in effective management? 7. What are commonly used communication channels at the institution where you come from? 8. In terms of inter-and intra-institutional communication, did you identified disturbance? Please details! 9. Frequent changes of any kind may be, characterizes society. How to adjust the school and the management of these changes? 10. What generates, in your opinion, organizational crisis situations? 11. How do you think these situations can be prevented? 12. How can respond Teachers Training House to the school managers training needs? Conclusions: The analysis and interpretation of data obtained revealed the need to implement training program "Efficient and effective education in secondary management Education" program for the purposes of addressing issues related to the development and effectiveness of communication, time management and stress management, change management and crisis, partnership relations and news in information. PURPOSE of the program: Specific professional skills development for achieving efficient and effective management activities for management of schools and acquiring these skills for teachers who aspire to leadership positions. GOAL: -Improve the quality of pre-university educational management; -Improving professional skills categories of senior management, guidance and control of secondary education REFERNCE OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING PROGRAMME O1 optimization intra and inter-process communication; O2 Empowering students to manage time effectively; O3 Empower learners to successfully adapt to change;Identification O4 Identify crisis and finding ways of resolving these situations; 12
  13. 13. O5 Empowering students to use information resources to streamline the management activity The program is structured in three modules and addresses the following topics: I.1. Comunication. Ttheoretical considerations. I.2. The types of communication. Classification criteria. I.3. The types of communication. Criterial classifications I.4. Interpersonal communication. I.5. The types of communication. Classification criteria. I.6.Communication factors. I.7. Communication styles I.8. Effects of communication media - advantages and risks. Evaluation Criteria Press. I.9Elements (types) of communication with the media. II.1.1. Time management concept. II.1.2. Causes of inefficient management time. II.1.3. Time as a management resourse. II.1.4. Effective time management principles. II.1.5. Job organisation II.1.6. Management meetings II.1.7. Behavioral styles of time management II.1.8. Management Time and its techniques. II.2.1. Defining stress II.2.2.Stressors II.2.3. Stress causes II.2.4. Stages stress. II.2.5. Time- a significant generating source of stress II.2.6. Stress symptoms. II.2.7. Strategies to cope with stress. II.2.8. Solutions to reduce stress II.2.9. Emotionality-emotion-stress II.2.10. Emotional states control III.1. Change management and organizational change stages III.2. Factors change. Types of organizational changes. III.3. Change barriers III.4. Change management instruments. III.5. Implementing and evaluating change. III.6. Crisis management. Techniques for overcoming the crisis. III.7. Management cooperation and conflict resolution III.8. Partnerships mamagement.School and its partners. III.9. Educational projects. Typologies. Funding sources. Project Management Introduction. Conclusions The training program is in implementation, being promoted among eligible teachers as proposed target group. The responsible Training program is the author of this work, Teacher Ana BADEA, director of the 13
  14. 14. Teachers Training House- Arges.The announcement was posted on the official website of the institution. First training group will begin on 1st June, this year. After following the training program, participating teachers will acquire specific educational management skills, , and also communication and psychosocial skills. REFERENCES Abric, Jean-Claude (2002) Communication Psychology, Polirom Bougnoux, Daniel,(2000) Introduction to Sciences Communication, Polirom Dinu, Mihai,(2005) Fundamentals of interpersonal communication, All, Bucharest Hariuc, Constantin, (2002) Communication Psychology, Publisher Licorna Ionescu, Ruxandroiu,(2003) Language and Communication, All, Bucharest McQuail, Denis,(1999) Communication, European Institute Melnic, Diana,(2009) Intra and inter-communication, Publisher Educational Workshop, Bucharest Şerban, Iosifescu,(2000), Educational Management 14