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    1. 1. Content ESL <br />Alice Ying Nie<br />ELF in Budapest, Hungary<br />
    2. 2. Problem<br />Current English language instruction, both at the national as well as international realm, focuses mainly grammar using repetitive grammar exercises as means of instruction. <br />Most English language classrooms are designed in such a way where there is no link between English and the authentic language used in content classes or for academic purposes. <br />
    3. 3. Systemic Functional Grammar<br />first made popular in the 1960s by Michael Holliday<br />Language as a network of systems<br />Views language from a social context<br />Practical uses of language <br />
    4. 4. Neurolinguistic research The link between content and comprehension<br />1) The frequency of a word's occurrence in common usage and 2) the relationship of a word to prior context = two of the most powerful determinants of performance in studies of word recognition.<br />Subjects are faster or more accurate to respond to words that are congruent with the preceding context (Fischler & Bloom, 1979; Kleiman, 1980; Morton, 1964; Stanovich & West, 1981, 1983; Tulving & Gold, 1963; Underwood & Bargh, 1982). <br />
    5. 5. Traditionally Language Teaching<br />Content Language Teaching<br />Language learning is disconnected from cognitive or academic development<br />Language used for identification and not for deeper cognitive expression<br />Research have shown that ELs lack native-like production skills of speaking and writing due to an overemphasis on grammar <br />If language is used for communication, then students need to be taught the academic language for discussion of academic topics.<br />Content language allows students to apply language to more sophisticated tasks<br />Students learn the language and the academic application of that language making the language useful<br />Because content language is more demanding, this approach helps student progress pass the plateau-stage of language development <br />
    6. 6. Cummins<br />Characterization of Language Tasks<br /><ul><li>Content Reduced</li></ul>Cognitively undemanding<br />Little contextual support for learner to derive meaning<br /><ul><li>Context Embedded</li></ul>Meaning for Communication<br />Cognitively demanding<br />
    7. 7. Content English Education<br />Content of lesson must be taught simultaneously with the linguistic skills.<br />Content goals can not supersede language goals nor vice versa. <br />Language is not taught in a linear progression but naturally as the need for certain language functions arise. <br />
    8. 8. Steps for Content Rich ESL Lessons<br />Find out what students are learning in their content classes, speak with content teachers. <br />Select themes to focus on for different units.<br />Find supplementary, level-appropriate (not dumbed-down) reading material.<br />Pick out key vocabulary words and key language objectives connected with content.<br />Example: would not teach past tense if discussing chemical properties.<br />
    9. 9. Ways to integrate Language and Content Learning<br />Use graphic organizers – give students a visual to help relate information<br />Teach vocabulary – provide students with thematic lists of words for each unit<br />Teach students prefixes and suffixes and roots to help understand and remember new words<br />Make flashcards with students that they can keep and refer back to<br />Use dialogue journals<br />Teach discipline-specific Genres <br />Patterns of organization, transitional words, frames for sentences (cause and effect), scaffolding (sentence starters)<br />Reverse the lesson – instead of introducing a new idea through reading, start with an activity, video, lab, and then use text to reinforce the content information and academic language<br />Access prior knowledge<br />Use Academic Language and Authentic Text<br />
    10. 10. Gradation of Words<br />Big<br />Enormous<br />Gigantic<br />Colossal<br />Large<br />Monumental<br />
    11. 11. Accessing Prior Knowledge<br />“In a cyclical pattern, the more prior knowledge one possesses, the more such knowledge will facilitate reading and writing as activities that lead to the integration of skill more knowledge, and so forth.” <br />Empowers students by validating what they have to contribute and engages students by making the topic more relevant to them.<br />
    12. 12. Teaching Academic Language<br />ESL students must read authentic texts. <br />Integrate writing so that it is purposeful and meaningful in context. <br />Higher-order thinking and critical thinking skills.<br />Scaffolding is critical when ESL students learn abstract concepts.<br />
    13. 13. Higher order thinking skills <br />predicting using previous knowledge, visual or textual clues<br />observing, comparing, contrasting and classifying<br />sequencing and prioritising information<br />recording and interpreting information, <br />hypothesising and raising questions, <br />understanding cause and effect, making inferences, <br />drawing conclusions and communicating results.<br />
    14. 14. LOGICAL RELATIONSHIP TRANSITIONAL EXPRESSION <br />Similarity -also, in the same way, just as ... so too, likewise<br />Exception/Contrast -but, however, in spite of, on the one hand ... On the other hand, nevertheless, nonetheless, in contrast, on the contrary, still, yet <br />Sequence/Order -first, second, third, ... next, then, finally <br />Time -after, afterward, at last, before, currently, during, earlier, immediately, later, meanwhile, now, recently, simultaneously, subsequently<br />Example -for example, for instance, namely, specifically, to illustrate <br />Emphasis -even, indeed, in fact, of course, truly <br />Place/Position -above, adjacent, below, beyond, here, in front, in back, nearby, there <br />Cause and Effect -accordingly, consequently, hence, so, therefore<br />Additional Support -additionally, again, also, and, as well, besides, equally important, further, furthermore, in addition, moreover, then <br />Conclusion/Summary -finally, in a word, in brief, briefly, in conclusion, in the end, in the final analysis, on the whole, thus, to conclude, to summarize, in sum, to sum up, in summary  <br />
    15. 15. Compare and contrast phrases – Social studies<br />Example: comparing and contrasting different governmental systems.<br />Sequencing – Science<br />Example: discussing the evolutionary process<br />Cause and Effect – Science or Social Studies<br />The cause and effect of chemicals reacting together<br />The cause and effect of migration<br />
    16. 16. It is essential for teachers to ensure that content is accessible to students despite their limited language skills<br />Scaffolding input understanding and output productivity through sentence starters<br />
    17. 17. Scaffolding with Academic Language<br />Sentence Starters:<br />As a result of the migration, megacities were created.<br />As a result of __________, ______________.<br />In addition to the construction of roads, skyscrapers were also built due to the rise in population.<br />In addition to ________________, ________________.<br />
    18. 18. The End<br />Thank you!!!<br />