Пединститут ЮФУТема: Lexical Expressive means and stylistic devices Волгина Екатерина АндреевнаКандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры теории и практики английского языка, Ул.Большая Садовая,33.тел.240-82-09 г.Ростов-на-Дону,28.09.2011.
Волгина Екатерина АндреевнаКандидат филологических наук, доценткафедры теории и практики английского языка, Ул.Большая Садовая,33.тел.240-82-09 г.Ростов-на-Дону,28.09.2011.
Основные пункты презентации 1.Transferrence 2. Tropes 3. Figures of quantity 4. Figures of quality
Список источников• Арнольд И.В.Стилистика. Современный английский язык. Учебник для вузов (7-ое издание). — М., Флинта-Наука. 2007.• Волгина Е.А. Стилистический анализ. РГПУ, 2004• Знаменская Т.А. Стилистика английского языка (основы курса) М. 2002.• Скребнев Ю. М. Основы стилистики английского языка М.: Высш.шк., 2002• Peter Verdonk. Stylistics.Oxford,2003.• H.C.Widdowson. Practical Stylistics. Oxford University Press, 1992.
Literature on Metaphor 1.Aristotle. Poetics and Rhetoric 2. I.A.Richards.The Philosophy of Rhetoric, 1936 3.Kenneth Burke. Grammar of Motives, 1945 4.Lakoff G. & M.Johnson. Metaphors We Live By, 1980 5. Thornbury,S. Metaphors We Work By, 1991 6. Cameron &Low. Metaphoric Intelligence and Foreign Language Learning.2001 7. Robin Tolmach Lakoff. The Language War, 2000.
Literature on Metaphor Eggigton, W. The English Language Metaphors We Plan By., 1997. Gwynn R. “Captain on My Ship”: Metaphor and the Discourse of Chronic Illness” in L.Cameron & G.Low. 1999
LEXICAL STYLISTIC DEVICES (1)Figures of Quantity: Hyperbole, Understatement (Meiosis).Figures of Quality:Metonymy - based on contiguity,Metaphor - based on similarity, likeness, affinity,Irony – two objects are diametrically opposite.
Interaction of differenttypes of lexical meanings(Galperin)(2) Interaction of primary & contextually imposed meanings=metaphor, metonomy, irony Interaction of logical & emotive meanings= epithet, oxymoron Intensification of a certain feature of a thing = hyperbole.
Epithet (3)-Interaction of logical and emotive meaning From Greek “epitheton” Epithet = an individual emotional appraisement of an object, state or action . E.g. He found himself waving a school- masterish finger in front of his face.
Epithet (4) By an adjective: a monstrous fish By participle I or II: crabbed age, a god- fearing man By an of-phrase: an air of indifference By an adverb: she glanced at him furtively
STRUCTURAL:(7) Composition:simple- sleepless baycompound- heart-burning sigh,phrase epithet in preposition – the sunshine-in-the- breakfast-room smell, don’t –you- touch -me lookreversed (Galperin) this devil of a woman,Or (metaphorical)= the shadow of a smileSyntactical epithet A dog of a fellow Her brute of a brother
Distributional: String epithets: a plump, rosy- cheeked, wholesome, apple- faced young woman. Transferred epithets: sleepless pillow, merry hours, unbreakfasted morning drunken dark
Slide 9.Hyperbole I was scared to death when he entered the room. The girls were dressed to kill. Her family is one aunt about a thousand years old.
Oxymoron (10) Interaction of logical and emotive meanings: Oxymoron: 1.“It was you who made me a liar”, she cried silently. 2.O serpent heart, hid with a flowing face. Did ever dragon keep so fair a cave? Beautiful tyrant, friend angelical. Dove feather’s raven, wolfish – ravening lamb. Despised substance of divinest show. Just opposite to what thou justly seems A damned saint, an honourable villain
METONYMY(11)-interaction ofdictionary and contextual logicalmeanings She is coming, my life , my fate. He made his way through the perfume and conversation.
Metonymy(12) 1. Language metonymy: the Crown – Monarchy the bar –the lawyers the pulpit – the priests 2. Speech metonymy: From the cradle to the grave
TYPES of METONYMY (13) 1. Names of tools instead of names of actions : Give every man thine ear and few thy voice . (Shakespeare) 2. Consequence instead of cause: It (fish) desperately takes the death. 3. Characteristic feature of the object: The moustache was standing by the window. Symbol instead of object symbolized:Crown for King, or Queen.
Synecdoche (14) Return to her and fifty men dismissed? No, rather I abjure all roofs, and choose To wage against the enmity o’ the air, To be a comrade with the wolf and owl. Shakespeare, King Lear). Hands wanted. All hands on deck.
METAPHOR (15) Trite: Seeds of evil, to burn with desire. Fresh: He smelled the ever-beautiful smell of coffee imprisoned in the can. They walked along, two continents of experience and feeling, unable to communicate.
Prolonged Metaphor (16) We need you here. It’s a dear old town, but it’s a rough diamond, and we need you for the polishing, and we’re ever so humble…
Catachresis (17) “For somewhere”, said Poirot to himself, indulging in an absolute riot of mixed metaphors, “ there is in the hay a needle, and among the sleeping dogs there is one on whom I shall put my foot, and by shooting the arrow into the air, one will come down and hit a glass-house”. To look for a needle in a haystack, To let sleeping dogs lie, To put one’s foot down, I shot an arrow into the air.
Personification (18) Now the bright morning-star, day’s harbinger, Comes dancing from the East, and leads with her The flowery May, who from her green lap throws The yellow cowslip and the pale primrose. (Milton, Song on May Morning)
Personification (19) E.g. But the privations, or rather the hardships, of Lowood lessened. Spring drew on; she had indeed already come, the frosts of winter had ceased; its snows were melted; its cutting winds ameliorated.
IRONY (20)- from Greek “eironeia’ She turned with the sweet smile of an alligator Mr Micawber said in his usual plain manner. Verbal Irony: E.g. Last time it was a nice, simple, European-style war.
Irony (21) He was fond of everyone who was good to him – of his pony- of Lord Southdown who gave him the horse - of Molly, the cook who told him stories at night – of Briggs, his mother’s companion whom he laughed at – and of his father. (Thackeray, Vanity Fair).
Lexical stylistic devices(22) 1. Transference and transferred meaning. 2. Tropes (stylistic devices) as figurative, image-bearing stylistic means. 3. Classification of tropes in the English language. 4.The structural types and functions of the tropes.
Terms for the lecture “lexical expressive means” (23) Transfer of names Transference, denomination Trope Imaginative, figurative, lingual Inconsistent Variable Contiguity Qualitatively Quantitatively Meiosis Epithet Metaphor Metonymy irony
Transference andtransferred meaning.(24) 1. Transference is the act of name- exchange, substitution. 2. Transferred meaning is the interrelation between two types of lexical meaning: dictionary and contextual (Galperin). 3. Name-exchange, substitution, interrelation, interaction -= “a transfer of name” or transference.
Tropes (25) 1. From the Greek “tropos” - “turning”. 2. Stylistic markers, stylistic devices, figures of speech, figures of replacement, trope. 3. Tropes are descriptive, figurative stylistic means. A tropes is based upon comparison between two phenomena which resemble each other in certain features.
Screbnev’s theory Quantitative deviation is the overestimation of the dimensions of the object Qualitative deviation is a radical difference between the usual meaning of a linguistic unit and its actual reference