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# Portion Distortion

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See how portion sizes have changed over the years and what you can do to prevent portion distortion.

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• As one example, Dr. Wansink gave away five-day-old popcorn to moviegoers.Some people receivedenormous buckets while other received smaller ones. Both sizes held more popcorn than a typical person could finish.Yet when the buckets were weighed after the movie, those with the bigger buckets ate an average of 53 percent more.
• If you downsize your portion size and feel a smaller portion looks too small … serve it on a smaller plate so it looks larger. Note the difference in the appearance of one cup of cereal when a smaller bowl is used. Using a smaller plate or bowl also can help you eat less according to research by Professors Brian Wansink and Koert van Ittersum. Larger plates can make a serving of food appear smaller. For example, in a study conducted at a health and fitness camp, campers given larger bowls consumed 16% more cereal than those given smaller bowls. Their estimates, however, were 7% lower than the estimates of those eating from the smaller bowls.
• The Nutrition Facts label on this 20-oz. beverage bottle it lists the number of calories in an 8-oz. serving (100) even though the bottle contains 20 oz. or 2.5 servings. To figure out how many calories are in the whole bottle, you need to multiply the number of calories in one serving by the number of servings in the bottle (100 x 2.5). You can see that the contents of the entire bottle actually contain 250 calories even though what the label calls a &quot;serving&quot; only contains 100.
• ### Portion Distortion

1. 1. 1
2. 2. Alice Henneman, MS, RD ahenneman1@unl.edu UNL Extension in Lancaster County Amy Peterson, MS, RD apeterson3@unl.edu UNL Extension in Polk County Save Time – Do More with our FREE educational resources: http://food.unl.edu/web/fnh/educational-resources2 This is a peer reviewed publication • March, 2012
3. 3. IMPORTANT If you plan to use these slides to present to others:  You are welcome to remove any slides you feel aren’t needed by your audience.  MyPlate food amounts are based on a 2,000 calories for ages 19 and over, the calorie level used on a Nutrition Facts panel. The calorie levels for your audience may be higher or lower, based on their calorie needs — adjust or explain accordingly.3 Alice & Amy
4. 4. ―We’re finding that portion size can influence intake as much as taste. Large packages and containers can lead to overeating foods we do not even find appealing.‖ ~ Brian Wansink, PhD, John Dyson Endowed Chair in the Applied Economics and Management Department at Cornell University, and author of “Mindless Eating”4
5. 5. As portion sizes have gotten larger over the years, so have we!5
6. 6. Larger portions add up!6
7. 7. Beware of the cost of extra calories7
8. 8. Maintaining a healthy weight is a balancing act8
9. 9. Today’s Menu 1. Portion Distortion 2. MyPlate Guidelines 3. Portion Size Guidelines9
10. 10. Today’s Menu 1. Portion Distortion10
11. 11. Portion distortion over the years Food portion sizes have changed in 20 years. Slides marked by this icon are adapted from “Portion Distortion” by the 1111 National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute at http://hin.nhlbi.nih.gov/portion
12. 12. Portion distortion The following illustrations are representative of comparative sizes. Calories expended by various physical activities are approximations and will vary with age, gender, height/weight, and intensity of the activity. Two different weights are used as examples in the following slides.12
13. 13. Guess the calorie difference! 20 Years Ago Today 3-inch diameter 6-inch diameter Blueberry bagel photo courtesy of pengrim™ at http://flic.kr/p/41qvEZ under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommerical license:13 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/
14. 14. Guess the calorie difference! 140 calories 350 calories 210 more calories14
15. 15. How long would you have to rake leaves to burn 210 more calories?15
16. 16. How long would you have to rake leaves to burn 210 more calories? 50 minutes16 Based on 130-pound person
17. 17. Guess the calorie difference! 20 Years Ago Today 1 cup spaghetti 2 cups spaghetti with sauce & with sauce & 3 small meatballs 3 large meatballs17
18. 18. Guess the calorie difference! 500 calories 1,025 calories 525 more calories18
19. 19. How long would you have to clean house to burn 525 more calories?19
20. 20. How long would you have to clean house to burn 525 more calories? 2 hours and 35 minutes20 Based on 130-pound person
21. 21. ―My idea of housework is to sweep the room with a glance.‖ ~Erma Bombeck, American Humorist21
22. 22. Guess the calorie difference! 20 Years Ago Today 2.4 ounces 6.9 ounces22
23. 23. Guess the calorie difference! 210 calories 610 calories 400 more calories23
24. 24. How long would you have to walk leisurely to burn 400 more calories?24
25. 25. How long would you have to walk leisurely to burn 400 more calories? 1 hour and 10 minutes25 Based on 160-pound person
26. 26. Guess the calorie difference! 20 Years Ago Today 6.5-oz. soda 20-oz. soda26
27. 27. Guess the calorie difference! 85 calories 250 calories 165 more calories27
28. 28. How long would you have to garden to burn 165 more calories?28
29. 29. How long would you have to garden to burn 165 more calories? 35 minutes29 Based on 160-pound person
30. 30. Guess the calorie difference! 20 Years Ago Today30
31. 31. Guess the calorie difference! 333 calories 590 calories 257 more calories31
32. 32. How long would you have to lift weights to burn 257 more calories?32
33. 33. How long would you have to lift weights to burn 257 more calories? 1 hour and 30 minutes33 Based on 130-pound person
34. 34. Guess the calorie difference! 20 Years Ago Today Coffee, 8 oz. Mocha coffee, 16 oz. (with whole milk & sugar) (with steamed whole milk & mocha syrup) Large coffee image courtesy of renee_mcgurk (Renee McGurk) at http://flic.kr/p/9agbB4 under a Creative Commons Attribution license:34 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
35. 35. Guess the calorie difference! 45 calories 350 calories 305 more calories35
36. 36. How long would you have to walk to burn 305 more calories?36
37. 37. How long would you have to walk to burn 305 more calories? 1 hour and 20 minutes37 Based on 130-pound person
38. 38. Guess the calorie difference! 20 Years Ago Today 1.5 ounces 4 ounces38
39. 39. Guess the calorie difference! 210 calories 500 calories 290 more calories39
40. 40. How long would you have to vacuum to burn 290 more calories?40
41. 41. How long would you have to vacuum to burn 290 more calories? 1 hour and 30 minutes41 Based on 130-pound person
42. 42. Guess the calorie difference! 20 Years Ago Today 5 cups 11 cups42
43. 43. Guess the calorie difference! 270 calories 630 calories 360 more calories43
44. 44. How long would you have to do water aerobics to burn 360 more calories?44
45. 45. How long would you have to do water aerobics to burn 360 more calories? 1 hour and 10 minutes45 Based on 160-pound person
46. 46. Guess the calorie difference! 20 Years Ago Today46
47. 47. Guess the calorie difference! 500 calories 850 calories 350 extra calories47
48. 48. How long would you have to golf (walking & carrying clubs) to burn 350 more calories?48
49. 49. How long would you have to golf (walking & carrying clubs) to burn 350 more calories? 1 hour49 Based on 160-pound person
50. 50. ―You better cut the pizza in four pieces, because I’m not hungry enough to eat six.‖ ~Yogi Berra, former American Major League baseball player5050
51. 51. Guess the calorie difference! 20 Years Ago Today 1.5 inch diameter 3.5 inch diameter Small cookie photo courtesy of National Cancer Institute /51 Renee Comet, Photographer
52. 52. Guess the calorie difference! 55 calories 275 calories 220 more calories52
53. 53. How long would you have to wash the car to burn 220 more calories?53
54. 54. How long would you have to wash the car to burn 220 more calories? 1 hour and 15 minutes54 Based on 130-pound person
55. 55. ―A balanced diet is a cookie in each hand‖ ~Author unknown Unfortunately … NOT!55
56. 56. Today’s Menu 2. MyPlate Guidelines56
57. 57. MyPlate gives guidelines for foods and amounts57
58. 58. A sample MyPlate food pattern … The following foods and amounts are for a 2,000 calorie daily food pattern for ages 19 and over and do not apply to everyone.58
59. 59. For a personalized plan for YOUR calorie level, based on age, gender, height/weight, and activity level — and for ages 2 through 18 — visit www.choosemyplate.gov/myplate/index.aspx59
60. 60. More specific plans for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding are at: www.choosemyplate.gov/pregnancy-breastfeeding.html60
61. 61. Additional information on losing weight at: www.choosemyplate.gov/weight-management-calories.html61
62. 62. Grains Eat 6 ―ounce- equivalents.‖* * Based on a 2,000 calorie daily food pattern for ages 19 and over;62 amounts may vary depending on your calorie needs
63. 63. Grains Ounce-equivalents: • 1 slice bread • 1 cup ready-to-eat cereal (such as flakes) • ½ cup cooked pasta, cooked rice, or cooked cereal63 Rice photo courtesy of National Cancer Institute / Renee Comet, Photographer
64. 64. At least half your grains should be whole grains.64 64
65. 65. Bran Endosperm Whole grains contain the entire grain seed or ―kernel.‖ Germ65
66. 66. Bran Endosperm Refined grains contain only the endosperm. Germ66
67. 67. Fruits Eat 2 cups of fresh, canned, or frozen fruits.* * Based on a 2,000 calorie daily food pattern for ages 19 and over;67 amounts may vary depending on your calorie needs
68. 68. Fruits 1 cup fruit equals: • 1 cup fruit • 1 cup 100% fruit juice • ½ cup dried fruit68
69. 69. Fruits Make most of your choices whole or cut-up fruit rather than juice, for the benefits dietary fiber provides.69
70. 70. Vegetables Eat 2½ cups of fresh, frozen, canned vegetables, or an equivalent amount of dried/dehydrated vegetables.* * Based on a 2,000 calorie daily food pattern for ages 19 and over;70 amounts may vary depending on your calorie needs
71. 71. Vegetables 2 cups of raw leafy greens equal 1 cup of vegetables.71
72. 72. Dairy Consume 3 cups of fat-free or low-fat milk (1%) or equivalent Dairy Group foods.* * Based on a 2,000 calorie daily food pattern for ages 19 and over;72 amounts may vary depending on your calorie needs
73. 73. Dairy 1-cup dairy equivalents: • 8 oz. milk (1 cup) • 1 cup yogurt • 1½ oz. natural cheese • 2 oz. processed cheese • 8 oz. calcium-fortified soy beverages73 Yogurt photo courtesy of National Cancer Institute, Renee Comet, photographer
74. 74. Protein Eat 5½ oz. (or equivalent) of LEAN meat, poultry, or fish.* * Based on a 2,000 calorie daily food pattern for ages 19 and over;74 amounts may vary depending on your calorie needs
75. 75. Protein 1-ounce meat equivalents: • 1 oz. meat, poultry, or fish • ¼ cup cooked beans or peas (does not include green beans and peas) • 1 egg • 1 tablespoon peanut or almond butter • ½ oz. of nuts or seeds • ¼ cup (about 2 oz.) of tofu • ¼ cup roasted soybeans75
76. 76. Today’s Menu 3. Portion Size Guidelines76
77. 77. Keep an ―eye‖ on your food portion sizes77
78. 78. Portion sizes: Cheese 1 ½ ounces of cheese = 4 stacked dice78
79. 79. Portion sizes: Meat or Poultry 3 ounces cooked = a deck of cards79
80. 80. Portion sizes: Fish 3 ounces cooked = a check book80
81. 81. Portion sizes: ½ and 1 cup 1 cup = 1 baseball ½ cup = ½ baseball81
82. 82. Portion sizes: 1 teaspoon & 1 tablespoon 1 teaspoon = the tip of a thumb to the first joint 1 tablespoon = 3 thumb tips82
83. 83. Using a smaller plate, bowl, or glass can help you eat less This cup of cereal looks like83 more in the smaller bowl.
84. 84. When possible, know how much you’re eating by dishing up a portion of food vs. eating directly from the container84
85. 85. Start with a smaller portion — have more if you’re still hungry85
86. 86. Cut portions by sharing restaurant meals — especially desserts — with others86
87. 87. Ask for a ―to-go‖ box and take part of your restaurant meal home (refrigerate within 2 hours)87 Photo courtesy of National Cancer Institute, Renee Comet, photographer
88. 88. Be an able label reader Check the size and number of servings … if you drank this entire 20 oz. beverage, you would consume 250 calories! 100 calories x 2.5 servings = 250 calories88
89. 89. Be an able label reader Check the size and number of servings … if you drank this entire 20 oz. beverage, you would consume 250 calories! 100 calories x 2.5 servings = 250 calories89
90. 90. A final thought … ―Never eat more than you can lift.‖ ~Miss Piggy, the Muppet90
91. 91. ―Thank you‖ to the following people (in alphabetical order) for reviewing these slides! • Lorinda Elson • Toni Kuehneman • Lisa Franzen-Castle • Joyce Reich • Rita Frickel • Natali Sehi • Vicki Jedlicka • Kathi Taylor • Cheryle Jones Syracuse • Nancy Urbanec • Linda Wetzel • Cassandra Whitmore91
92. 92. References • Choose MyPlate at http://ChooseMyPlate.gov • Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 at www.cnpp.usda.gov/DGAS2010- PolicyDocument.htm • Keep an Eye on Portion Size Serving Size card Dept. of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute at http://hp2010.nhlbihin.net/portion/servingcard7.pdf • Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults Between 1985 and 2010, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Portion Distortion Quiz, Dept. of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute at http://hp2010.nhlbihin.net/portion/ • Rethink Your Drink, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/healthy_eating/drinks.html • Selected Messages for Consumers, USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion at www.choosemyplate.gov/print-materials-ordering/selected-messages.html • Wansink, Brian and Koert van Ittersum (2006), "The Visual Illusions of Food: Why Plates, Bowls and Spoons Can Bias Consumption Volume," FASEB Journal, 20:4 (Mar 6) A618- A618, Part 192
93. 93. Extension is a Division of the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln cooperating with the Counties and the United States Department of Agriculture. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension educational programs abide with the nondiscrimination policies of the University of Nebraska–Lincoln and the United States Department of Agriculture.93