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  1. 1. CopyrightAuthorized Self-Study Guide: Building Scalable Cisco Internetworks (BSCI), Third EditionDiane TeareCatherine PaquetCopyright © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc.Published by:Cisco Press800 East 96th StreetIndianapolis, IN 46240 USAAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from thepublisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review.Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0First Printing December 2006Library of Congress Number: 2004114556Warning and DisclaimerThis book is designed to provide information about building scalable Cisco internetworks. Every effort has been made to make thisbook as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied.The information is provided on an "as is" basis. The authors, Cisco Press, and Cisco Systems, Inc. shall have neither liability norresponsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book orfrom the use of the discs or programs that may accompany it.The opinions expressed in this book belong to the author and are not necessarily those of Cisco Systems, Inc.Corporate and Government SalesCisco Press offers excellent discounts on this book when ordered in quantity for bulk purchases or special sales.For more information, please contact: U.S. Corporate and Government Sales 1-800-382-3419corpsales@pearsontechgroup.comFor sales outside of the U.S. please contact: International Sales 1-317-581-3793 international@pearsontechgroup.comTrademark AcknowledgmentsAll terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. CiscoPress or Cisco Systems, Inc. cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regardedas affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.Feedback InformationAt Cisco Press, our goal is to create in-depth technical books of the highest quality and value. Each book is crafted with care andprecision, undergoing rigorous development that involves the unique expertise of members from the professional technicalcommunity.
  2. 2. Readers feedback is a natural continuation of this process. If you have any comments regarding how we could improve the qualityof this book, or otherwise alter it to better suit your needs, you can contact us through e-mail at Pleasemake sure to include the book title and ISBN in your message.We greatly appreciate your assistance.Publisher: Paul BogerCisco Representative: Anthony WolfendenCisco Press Program Manager: Jeff BradyExecutive Editor: Mary Beth RayManaging Editor: Patrick KanouseDevelopment Editor: Andrew CuppProject Editor: Seth KerneyCopy Editor: Keith ClineTechnical Editors: Mark Gallo, Joe HarrisPublishing Coordinator: Vanessa EvansBook and Cover Designer: Louisa AdairComposition: ICC Macmillan Inc.Indexer: Tim WrightAmericas HeadquartersCisco Systems, Inc.170 West Tasman DriveSan Jose, CA 408 526-4000800 553-NETS (6387)Fax: 408 527-0883Asia Pacific HeadquartersCisco Systems, Inc.168 Robinson Road#28-01 Capital TowerSingapore 6317 7777Fax:+65 6317 7799European HeadquartersCisco Systems International BVHaarlerbergparkHaarlerbergweg 13-191101 CH AmsterdamThe +31 0 800 020 0791Fax: +31 0 20 357 1100Cisco has more than 200 offices worldwide. Addresses, phone numbers, and fax numbers are listed on the Cisco Website©2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. CCVR, the Cisco logo, and the Cisco Square Bridge logo are trademarks of CiscoSystems, Inc.; Changing the Way We Work, Live, Play, and Learn is a service mark of Cisco Systems, Inc.; and Access Registrar,Aironet, BPX, Catalyst, CCDA, CCDP, CCIE, CCIP, CCNA, CCNP, CCSP, Cisco, the Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert logo,Cisco IOS, Cisco Press, Cisco Systems, Cisco Systems Capital, the Cisco Systems logo, Cisco Unity, Enterprise/Solver,
  3. 3. EtherChannel, EtherFast, EtherSwitch, Fast Step, Follow Me Browsing, FormShare, GigaDrive, GigaStack, HomeLink, InternetQuotient, IOS, IP/TV, iQ Expertise, the iQ logo, iQ Net Readiness Scorecard, iQuick Study, LightStream, Linksys, MeetingPlace,MGX, Networking Academy, Network Registrar, Packet, PIX. ProConnect, RateMUX, ScriptShare, SlideCast, SMARTnet,StackWise, The Fastest Way to Increase Your Internet Quotient, and TransPath are registered trademarks of Cisco Systems, Inc.and/or its affiliates in the United States and certain other countries.All other trademarks mentioned in this document or Website are the property of their respective owners. The use of the wordpartner does not imply a partnership relationship between Cisco and any other company. (0609R)DedicationsIf a man empties his purse into his head, no man can take it away from him. An investment in knowledge always pays the bestinterest.—Benjamin FranklinFrom Diane:This book is dedicated to my loving husband, Allan Mertin, who again has encouraged, supported, and "held the fort" during thisproject; to our charming son, Nicholas, whose inquisitive mind, knowledge, and antics are both entertaining us and making surethat we will be life-long learners; and to my parents, Syd and Beryl, for their continuous caring and support.From Catherine:To my parents and sister—Maurice, Florence, and Hélène Paquet—for your continuous support: Thank you. To my children,Laurence and Simon: "Develop a passion for learning. If you do, you will never cease to grow" (Anthony J. DAngelor). And, finally,to Pierre Rivard, my soul mate, husband, and an eternal learner: Your enthusiasm is contagious. Thanks for sharing it with us.
  4. 4. About the AuthorsDiane Teare is a professional in the networking, training, and e-learning fields. She has more than 20 years of experience indesigning, implementing, and troubleshooting network hardware and software and has also been involved in teaching, coursedesign, and project management. She has extensive knowledge of network design and routing technologies and is an instructorwith one of the largest authorized Cisco Learning Partners. She was recently the director of e-learning for the same company,where she was responsible for planning and supporting all the companys e-learning offerings in Canada, including Cisco courses.Diane was part of the team that developed the latest version of the BSCI course. She has a bachelors degree in applied science inelectrical engineering (BASc) and a masters degree in applied science in management science (MASc). She is a certified CiscoSystems instructor and currently holds her CCNP and CCDP certifications. She coauthored the Cisco Press titles CampusNetwork Design Fundamentals and the first two editions of this book; and edited CCDA Self-Study: Designing for CiscoInternetwork Solutions (DESGN) and Designing Cisco Networks.Catherine Paquet has in-depth knowledge of security systems, remote access, and routing technology. She is a CCSP, a CCNP,and a CCSI with one of the largest Cisco Learning Partners. She started her internetworking career as a LAN manager, moved toMAN manager, and eventually became the nationwide WAN manager with a federal agency. Prior to starting Netrisec Inc., anetwork security consultancy, Catherine was the director of technical resources for a Cisco Learning Partner. Catherine currentlyworks on network design and implementation projects and lectures on topics related to security frameworks, regulations, andreturn on security investments. In 2002 and 2003, she volunteered with the U.N. mission in Kabul, Afghanistan, to train Afghanpublic servants in the area of networking. Catherine has a masters degree in business administration with a major in managementinformation systems (MBA [MIS]). She coauthored the Cisco Press titles Campus Network Design Fundamentals, The BusinessCase for Network Security: Advocacy, Governance, and ROI, and the first two editions of this book, and edited Building CiscoRemote Access Networks.
  5. 5. About the Technical ReviewersMark Gallo is a Systems Engineering Manager at Cisco within the Channels organization. He has led several engineering groupsresponsible for positioning and delivering Cisco end-to-end systems, and for designing and implementing enterprise LANs andinternational IP networks. He has a bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering from the University of Pittsburgh and holdsCisco CCNP and CCDP certifications. Mark resides in northern Virginia with his wife, Betsy, and son, Paul.Joe Harris, CCIE No. 6200, has both CCIE Security and Routing and Switching certifications and is a Commercial SystemsEngineer with Cisco specializing in advanced routing and security. He has more than 12 years of experience in the field ofdesigning and implementing Cisco network solutions. Joe holds a bachelor of science degree from Louisiana Tech University andresides with his wife and two children in Frisco, Texas.
  6. 6. AcknowledgmentsWe would like to thank many people for helping us put this book together:The Cisco Press team: Mary Beth Ray, the executive editor, coordinated the entire team and ensured that everything was linedup for the successful completion of the book. Drew Cupp, the development editor, has once again been invaluable with his eye fordetail and speedy responses to our many queries. We also want to thank Seth Kerney, the project editor, and Keith Cline, the copyeditor, for their excellent work in steering this book through the editorial process. Finally, we want to thank Brett Bartow, theexecutive editor on the previous editions to this book (and our other books), for sticking with us all these years!The Global Knowledge and Cisco Systems team: Many other people were involved in the development of the latest version ofthe BSCI course, and we want to extend our thanks to them—our apologies if we have forgotten someone! The Global Knowledgeteam included Ray Dooley and his team—Carol Kavalla, Bill Treneer, and Norma Douthit—Patti Hedgspeth, Kimberly Ferguson,Ammarah Abbasi, Karie Krueger, Joy Rau, Richard Chapin, and Margaret Prince. The Cisco team included Ray Garra, BobMartinez, Roger Beatty, Cynthia Barnette, Peter Wood, Dennis Keirnan, Brenda Nichols, Glenn Tapley, Drew Blair, Mike Bevan,James Cagney, Kathy Yankton, Ray Viscaina, Andy Esponsa, Eric De Jesus, Christy Faria, Jeremy Creech, Lee Rogers, AdrianaVascan, and Charles Newby. Thanks also to the other members of the development teams of the original BSCN and BSCIcourses, including Patrick Lao, Kip Peterson, Keith Serrao, Kevin Calkins, Won Lee, and Imran Quershi.The technical reviewers: We want to thank the technical reviewers of this book—Mark Gallo and Joe Harris—for their thorough,detailed review and very valuable input.Our families: Of course, this book would not have been possible without the constant understanding and patience of our families.They have always been there to motivate and inspire us. We thank you all.Each other: Last, but not least, this book is a product of work by two friends, which made it even more of a pleasure to complete.Icons Used in This Book
  7. 7. Command Syntax ConventionsThe conventions used to present command syntax in this book are the same conventions used in the IOS Command Reference.The Command Reference describes these conventions as follows:Boldface indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown. In actual configuration examples andoutput (not general command syntax), boldface indicates commands that are manually input by the user (such as a showcommand).Italics indicate arguments for which you supply actual values.Vertical bars (|) separate alternative, mutually exclusive elements.Square brackets [ ] indicate optional elements.Braces { } indicate a required choice.Braces within brackets [{ }] indicate a required choice within an optional element.
  8. 8. ForewordAuthorized Self-Study Guide: Building Scalable Cisco Internetworks (BSCI), Third Edition, is an excellent self-study resource for theCCNP BSCI exam. Whether you are studying to become CCNP certified or are just seeking to gain a better understanding ofswitching technology, implementation and operation, planning and design, and troubleshooting, you will benefit from the informationpresented in this book.Cisco Press Self-Study Guide titles are designed to help educate, develop, and grow the community of Cisco networkingprofessionals. As an early-stage exam-preparation product, this book presents a detailed and comprehensive introduction to thetechnologies used to build scalable routed networks. Developed in conjunction with the Cisco certifications team, Cisco Pressbooks are the only self-study books authorized by Cisco Systems.Most networking professionals use a variety of learning methods to gain necessary skills. Cisco Press Self-Study Guide titles are aprime source of content for some individuals and can also serve as an excellent supplement to other forms of learning. Trainingclasses, whether delivered in a classroom or on the Internet, are a great way to quickly acquire new understanding. Hands-onpractice is essential for anyone seeking to build, or hone, new skills. Authorized Cisco training classes, labs, and simulations areavailable exclusively from Cisco Learning Solutions Partners worldwide. Please visit to learn moreabout Cisco Learning Solutions Partners.I hope and expect that you will find this guide to be an essential part of your exam preparation and a valuable addition to yourpersonal library.Don FieldDirector, CertificationsCisco System, Inc.December 2006
  9. 9. IntroductionInternetworks are growing at a fast pace to support more protocols and users and are becoming more complex. As the premierdesigner and provider of internetworking devices, Cisco Systems is committed to supporting these growing networks.This book teaches you how to design, configure, maintain, and scale a routed network. It focuses on using Cisco routersconnected in LANs and WANs typically found at medium-to-large network sites. After completing this book, you will be able toselect and implement the appropriate Cisco IOS services required to build a scalable, routed network.In this book, you study a broad range of technical details on topics related to routing. Routing protocol principles are examined indetail before the following routing protocols are explored: Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP), Open ShortestPath First (OSPF), Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS), and Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). Running multiplerouting protocols and controlling the information passed between them are examined, and IP multicast and IP version 6 (IPv6) areexplored.Configuration examples and sample verification outputs demonstrate troubleshooting techniques and illustrate critical issuessurrounding network operation. Chapter-ending Configuration Exercises and Review Questions illustrate and help solidify theconcepts presented in this book.This book starts you down the path toward attaining your CCNP, CCIP, or CCDP certification, because it provides in-depthinformation to help you prepare for the BSCI exam.The commands and configuration examples presented in this book are based on Cisco IOS Release 12.4.Who Should Read This BookThis book is intended for network architects, network designers, systems engineers, network managers, and networkadministrators who are responsible for implementing and troubleshooting growing routed networks.If you are planning to take the BSCI exam toward your CCNP, CCIP, or CCDP certification, this book provides you with in-depthstudy material. To fully benefit from this book, you should be CCNA certified or should possess the following knowledge:A working knowledge of the OSI reference modelAn understanding of internetworking fundamentals, including commonly used networking terms, numbering schemes,topologies, distance vector routing protocol operation, and when to use static and default routesThe ability to operate and configure a Cisco router, including displaying and interpreting a routers routing table, configuringstatic and default routes, enabling a WAN serial connection using High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) or PPP,configuring Frame Relay permanent virtual circuits (PVC) on interfaces and subinterfaces, configuring IP standard andextended access lists, and verifying router configurations with available tools, such as show and debug commandsWorking knowledge of the TCP/IP stack, and configuring IP addresses and the Routing Information Protocol (RIP)If you lack this knowledge and these skills, you can gain them by completing the Cisco Introduction to Cisco NetworkingTechnologies (INTRO) and Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) courses or by reading the related Cisco Press books.Whats New in This EditionThis book is an update to CCNP Self-Study: Building Scalable Cisco Internetworks (BSCI), Second Edition (ISBN 1-58705-146-X).This third edition addresses changes to the BSCI course. The following are the major changes between books:Each topic has been rewritten. Any items that were removed from the main portion of the previous edition because ofcourse changes have been put in an appendix or sidebar, as appropriate. The appendixes have been modified andupdated to reflect the content of the book.New chapters on network architecture framework and design models, IP multicast, and IPv6 are included.Route authentication is included for EIGRP, OSPF, and BGP.
  10. 10. Examples and Configuration Exercises now use Cisco IOS Release 12.4 on Cisco 2811 routers; outputs have been redoneusing this new release on these routers.The "Advanced IP Addressing" chapter was removed; much of the information from this chapter has been included inAppendix C, "IPv4 Supplement."Objectives of This BookWhen you complete the readings and exercises in this book, you will be able to describe the converged network requirements ofvarious networked applications within the Cisco architectures. You will also be able to describe advanced IP routing principles,including static and dynamic routing characteristics and the concepts of classful and classless routing and address summarization.You will be able to implement and verify EIGRP, OSPF, and Integrated IS-IS for scalable multiarea networks, and BGP forenterprise Internet service provider (ISP) connectivity. You will also be able to manipulate routing updates and packet flow. You willbe able to implement and verify IP multicast forwarding using Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) and related protocols, anddescribe how IPv6 functions to satisfy the increasingly complex requirements of hierarchical addressing.Summary of ContentsThe chapters and appendixes in this book are as follows:Chapter 1, "Network Architecture Framework and Design Models," introduces converged networks and the variety of trafficwithin them. Some strategies, frameworks, and models used in the network design process are presented.Chapter 2, "Routing Principles," covers the principles of routing, including static and dynamic routing characteristics,classful and classless routing, and the differences between distance vector, link-state, and hybrid routing protocol behavior.Chapter 3, "Configuring the Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol," introduces EIGRP. Topics include EIGRPterminology and concepts, EIGRP configuration, verification, and troubleshooting. EIGRP authentication is also included.Chapter 4, "Configuring the Open Shortest Path First Protocol," introduces the OSPF routing protocol. Basic configurationof OSPF, in both single and multiple areas is described. OSPF configuration over specific network types is also explored.Chapter 5, "Advanced Open Shortest Path First Protocol Configuration," covers advanced operation, configuration, andverification of the OSPF protocol. The different types of OSPF routers and link-state advertisements (LSAs) areintroduced. OSPF route summarization configuration is covered and default routes are introduced. Stub areas, virtual links,and OSPF authentication configuration are explored.Chapter 6, "Configuring the Integrated Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System Protocol," provides an overview of theIntegrated IS-IS protocol, including its operation and configuration (and basic configuration examples).Chapter 7, "Manipulating Routing Updates," discusses different ways to control routing update information. Routeredistribution to interconnect networks that use multiple routing protocols is explained. Information between the protocolscan be controlled by using distribute lists and route maps and by changing the administrative distance; the chapterdiscusses the configuration of each of these techniques. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the Dynamic HostConfiguration Protocol (DHCP) and how to enable DHCP server functionality on a Cisco IOS device.Chapter 8, "Configuring the Border Gateway Protocol," introduces BGP, including terminology and the fundamentals ofBGP operation, configuration, and troubleshooting techniques. BGP authentication and the use of route maps formanipulating BGP path attributes are also introduced.Chapter 9, "Implementing IP Multicast," provides an introduction to IP multicast, multicast addressing and protocols, andthe implementation of IP multicast on Cisco devices.Chapter 10, "Implementing IPv6," introduces IPv6 and the IPv6 addressing scheme. Routing protocols that support IPv6are explored, and the details of OSPF for IPv6 configuration are presented. The chapter also discusses how IPv4 networkscan be transitioned to IPv6."Acronyms and Abbreviations" identifies abbreviations, acronyms, and initialisms used in this book and in theinternetworking industry.Appendix A, "Answers to Review Questions," contains the answers to the review questions that appear at the end of eachchapter.Appendix B, "Configuration Exercise Equipment Requirements and Backbone Configurations," contains information on theequipment requirements for the Configuration Exercises, along with the initial configuration commands for the backbonerouters.In addition to the material in the printed book, you can also find the following appendixes at on your My RegisteredBooks page after you register your book (see the next section, "Online Material," for details):Appendix C, "IPv4 Supplement," provides job aids and supplementary information that are intended for your use whenworking with IPv4 addresses. Topics include subnetting job aid, decimal-to-binary conversion chart, IPv4 addressing
  11. 11. review, IPv4 access lists, IP address planning, hierarchical addressing using variable-length subnet masks (VLSMs), routesummarization, and classless interdomain routing (CIDR).Appendix D, "Manipulating Routing Updates Supplement," provides supplementary information about the features andconfiguration of policy-based routing (PBR).Appendix E, "BGP Supplement," provides supplementary information on BGP covering the following topics: BGP routesummarization, redistribution with interior gateway protocols (IGPs), policy control and prefix lists, communities, and routereflectors.Appendix F, "Summary of BSCI Router Commands," lists some of the Cisco router IOS commands you might find in thisbook, organized in various categories.Appendix G, "Open System Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model," is a brief overview of the OSI seven-layer model.Online MaterialAfter you register your book on the Cisco Press website, you can find helpful material related to this book.To register this book, go to and enter the books ISBN located on the backcover. Youll then be prompted to log in or join to continue registration.After you register the book, a link to the supplemental content will be listed on your My Registered Books page. There you can findthe supplemental material in Appendixes C through G. You can also download three configuration files for use in the booksConfiguration Exercises, as well as a copy of the network diagram used for the Configuration Exercises.The printed book does contain helpful references to the online appendixes to guide you in making the best use of this supplementaland background material.Configuration Exercises and Review QuestionsConfiguration Exercises at the end of the chapters let you practice configuring routers with the commands and topics presented. Ifyou have access to real hardware, you can try these exercises on your routers; refer to Appendix B for a list of recommendedequipment and initial configuration commands for the backbone routers. However, even if you do not have access to any routers,you can go through the exercises and keep a log of your own running configurations. Commands used and solutions to theConfiguration Exercises are provided within the exercise sections.At the end of each chapter, you can test your knowledge by answering Review Questions on the subjects covered in that chapter.You can compare your answers to the answers provided in Appendix A to find out how you did and what material you might need tostudy further.Authors Notes, Key Points, Sidebars, and CautionsThe notes, sidebars, and cautions found in this book provide extra information on a subject. The key points highlight specific pointsof interest.
  12. 12. 1 of 2Part I: Network Architecture and DesignChapter 1 Network Architecture Framework and Design ModelsChapter 1. Network Architecture Framework and Design ModelsThis chapter discusses network architecture framework and design models. It covers the following topics:Converged NetworksCisco Intelligent Information NetworkCisco Service-Oriented Network Architecture FrameworkCisco Enterprise ArchitectureCisco Hierarchical Network ModelCisco Enterprise Composite Network ModelRouting and Routing Protocols Within the Enterprise Composite Network ModelThis chapter introduces converged networks and the variety of traffic within them. To accommodate the requirements of suchnetworks, Cisco has introduced the Intelligent Information Network (IIN) strategy along with the Service-Oriented NetworkArchitecture (SONA) framework that guides the evolution of enterprise networks toward an IIN, both of which this chapterdescribes.The components of the Cisco enterprise-wide systems architecture are introduced. Two network design models—the traditionalhierarchical network model and the Enterprise Composite Network Model are described. The chapter concludes with a discussionof how routing protocols fit within the Enterprise Composite Network Model.Converged NetworksA converged network is one in which data, voice, and video traffic coexists on a single network. When voice and video aretransported across a network, the voice and video are seen by the network as being just like any other application data.Converged networks contain a variety of different types of traffic, including the following:Voice and video traffic— Examples include IP telephony, involving applications such as contact centers, and videobroadcast and conferencing.Mission-critical traffic— This data is generated by applications critical to an organization (for example, informationgenerated by a stock exchange application at a finance company, patient records at a hospital, and so forth).Transactional traffic— This information is generated by applications such as those for e-commerce.Routing protocol traffic— Data from whichever routing protocols are running in the network, such as the RoutingInformation Protocol (RIP), Open Shortest Path First Protocol (OSPF), Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol(EIGRP), Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System Protocol (IS-IS), and Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).Network management traffic— Including information about the status of the network and its devices.The requirements on the network differ significantly depending on the mix of traffic types, especially in terms of security andperformance.For example, voice and video performance requirements include low delay and jitter (variation in delay), whereas transactional
  13. 13. 2 of 2traffic requires high reliability and security with relatively low bandwidth. Voice applications, such as IP telephony, also require highreliability and availability because user expectations for "dial tone" in an IP network are exactly the same as in the traditionaltelephone network. Video traffic is frequently carried as IP multicast traffic, requiring multicast features to be enabled on thenetwork. To meet these traffic requirements, converged networks use quality of service (QoS) mechanisms so that, for example,voice and video traffic are given priority over web-based traffic.Several security strategies, such as device hardening with strict access control and authentication, intrusion protection, intrusiondetection, and traffic protection with encryption, can minimize or possibly eliminate network security threats. Security is a key issuein all networks and becomes even more important in wireless networks where access is possible virtually anywhere.
  14. 14. 1 of 1Cisco Intelligent Information NetworkTo accommodate todays and tomorrows network requirements, the Cisco vision of the future includes the IIN, a strategy thataddresses how the network is integrated with businesses and business priorities. The IIN encompasses the following features:Integration of networked resources and information assets that have been largely unlinked— The modernconverged networks with integrated voice, video, and data require that IT departments (and other departments that weretraditionally responsible for other technologies) more closely link the IT infrastructure with the network.Intelligence across multiple products and infrastructure layers— The intelligence built in to each component of thenetwork is extended network-wide and applies end to end.Active participation of the network in the delivery of services and applications— With added intelligence, the IINmakes it possible for the network to actively manage, monitor, and optimize service and application delivery across theentire IT environment.The IIN offers much more than basic connectivity, bandwidth for users, and access to applications—it offers an end-to-endfunctionality and centralized, unified control that promotes true business transparency and agility.With the IIN, Cisco is helping organizations to address new IT challenges, such as the deployment of service-orientedarchitectures, web services, and virtualization (as described in the upcoming "Phase 2" bullet). The IIN technology vision offers anevolutionary approach that consists of three phases in which functionality can be added to the infrastructure as required. The threephases are as follows:Phase 1:Integrated transport— Everything (data, voice, and video) consolidates onto an IP network for secure networkconvergence. By integrating data, voice, and video transport into a single, standards-based, modular network,organizations can simplify network management and generate enterprise-wide efficiencies. Network convergence also laysthe foundation for a new class of IP-enabled applications, now known as Cisco Unified Communications solutions.NoteCisco Unified Communications is the name, launched in March 2006, for the entire range of what were previouslyknown as Cisco IP communications products. These include all call control, conferencing, voicemail andmessaging, customer contact, IP phone, video telephony, videoconferencing, rich media clients, and voiceapplication products.Phase 2: Integrated services— When the network infrastructure is converged, IT resources can be pooled and shared,or virtualized, to flexibly address the changing needs of the organization. By extending this virtualization concept toencompass server, storage, and network elements, an organization can transparently use all of its resources moreefficiently. Business continuity is also enhanced because in the event of a local systems failure, shared resources acrossthe IIN can provide needed services.Phase 3: Integrated applications— This phase focuses on making the network application aware so that it can optimizeapplication performance and more efficiently deliver networked applications to users. With Application-Oriented Networking(AON) technology, Cisco has entered this third IIN phase. In addition to capabilities such as content caching, loadbalancing, and application-level security, the Cisco AON makes it possible for the network to simplify the applicationinfrastructure by integrating intelligent application message handling, optimization, and security into the existing network.NoteYou can access the IIN home page at
  15. 15. 1 of 2Cisco Service-Oriented Network Architecture FrameworkThe Cisco SONA is an architectural framework that illustrates how to build integrated systems and guides the evolution ofenterprise networks toward an IIN. Using the SONA framework, enterprises can improve flexibility and increase efficiency byoptimizing applications, business processes, and resources to enable IT to have a greater impact on business.The SONA framework leverages the extensive product-line services, proven architectures, and experience of Cisco and itspartners to help enterprises achieve their business goals.The SONA framework, shown in Figure 1-1, shows how integrated systems can allow a dynamic, flexible architecture and providefor operational efficiency through standardization and virtualization. In this framework, the network is the common element thatconnects and enables all components of the IT infrastructure.Figure 1-1. Cisco SONA FrameworkThe SONA framework outlines the following three layers:Networked infrastructure layer— Where all the IT resources are interconnected across a converged network foundation.The IT resources include servers, storage, and clients. The network infrastructure layer represents how these resourcesexist in different places in the network, including the campus, branch, data center, wide-area network (WAN),metropolitan-area network (MAN), and with the teleworker. The objective of this layer is to provide connectivity, anywhereand anytime.
  16. 16. 2 of 2Interactive services layer— Enables efficient allocation of resources to applications and business processes deliveredthrough the networked infrastructure. This layer comprises these services:- Voice and collaboration services- Mobility services- Security and identity services- Storage services- Computer services- Application networking services- Network infrastructure virtualization- Services management- Adaptive management servicesApplication layer— This layer includes business applications and collaboration applications. The objective of this layer isto meet business requirements and achieve efficiencies by leveraging the interactive services layer.NoteYou can access the SONA home page at
  17. 17. 1 of 2Cisco Enterprise ArchitectureCisco provides an enterprise-wide systems architecture that helps companies to protect, optimize, and grow the infrastructure thatsupports their business processes. As illustrated in Figure 1-2, the architecture provides for integration of the entirenetwork—campus, data center, branches, teleworkers, and WAN—offering staff secure access to the tools, processes, andservices they require.Figure 1-2. Cisco Enterprise Architecture[View full size image]The Cisco Enterprise Campus Architecture combines a core infrastructure of intelligent switching and routing with tightly integratedproductivity-enhancing technologies, including IP communications, mobility, and advanced security. The architecture provides theenterprise with high availability through a resilient multilayer design, redundant hardware and software features, and automaticprocedures for reconfiguring network paths when failures occur. IP multicast capabilities provide optimized bandwidth consumption,and QoS features ensure that real-time traffic (such as voice, video, or critical data) is not dropped or delayed. Integrated securityprotects against and mitigates the impact of worms, viruses, and other attacks on the network, including at the switch port level.For example, the Cisco enterprise-wide architecture extends support for security standards, such as the Institute for Electrical andElectronic Engineers (IEEE) 802.1x port-based network access control standard and the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP).It also provides the flexibility to add IPsec and Multiprotocol Label Switching virtual private networks (MPLS VPNs), identity andaccess management, and virtual local-area networks (VLANs) to compartmentalize access. These features help improveperformance and security while decreasing costs.The Cisco Enterprise Data Center Architecture is a cohesive, adaptive network architecture that supports requirements forconsolidation, business continuance, and security while enabling emerging service-oriented architectures, virtualization, andon-demand computing. Staff, suppliers, or customers can be provided with secure access to applications and resources,simplifying and streamlining management and significantly reducing overhead. Redundant data centers provide backup usingsynchronous and asynchronous data and application replication. The network and devices offer server and application loadbalancing to maximize performance. This architecture allows the enterprise to scale without major changes to the infrastructure.The Cisco Enterprise Branch Architecture allows enterprises to extend head-office applications and services (such as security, IPcommunications, and advanced application performance) to thousands of remote locations and users or to a small group ofbranches. Cisco integrates security, switching, network analysis, caching, and converged voice and video services into a series ofintegrated services routers (ISRs) in the branch so that the enterprises can deploy new services without buying new routers. Thisarchitecture provides secure access to voice, mission-critical data, and video applications—anywhere, anytime. Advanced routing,VPNs, redundant WAN links, application content caching, and local IP telephony call processing features are available with high
  18. 18. 2 of 2levels of resilience for all the branch offices. An optimized network leverages the WAN and LAN to reduce traffic and savebandwidth and operational expenses. The enterprise can easily support branch offices with the ability to centrally configure,monitor, and manage devices located at remote sites, including tools, such as AutoQoS, which configures devices to handlecongestion and bandwidth issues before they affect network performance.The Cisco Enterprise Teleworker Architecture allows enterprises to securely deliver voice and data services to remote small orhome offices over a standard broadband access service, providing a business-resiliency solution for the enterprise and a flexiblework environment for employees. Centralized management minimizes the IT support costs. Integrated security and identity-basednetworking services enable the enterprise to extend campus security policies to the teleworker. Staff can securely log in to thenetwork over an always-on VPN and gain access to authorized applications and services from a single cost-effective platform.Productivity can further be enhanced by adding an IP phone, thereby providing cost-effective access to a centralized IPcommunications system with voice and unified messaging services.The Cisco Enterprise WAN Architecture offers the convergence of voice, video, and data services over a single Cisco UnifiedCommunications network, which enables the enterprise to cost-effectively span large geographic areas. QoS, granular servicelevels, and comprehensive encryption options help ensure the secure delivery of high-quality corporate voice, video, and dataresources to all corporate sites, enabling staff to work productively and efficiently wherever they are located. Security is providedwith multiservice VPNs (IPsec and MPLS) over Layer 2 or Layer 3 WANs, hub-and-spoke, or full-mesh topologies.
  19. 19. 1 of 2Cisco Hierarchical Network ModelTraditionally, the three-layer hierarchical model has been used in network design, providing a modular framework that allowsdesign flexibility and facilitates implementation and troubleshooting. The hierarchical model divides networks or modular blockswithin a network into the access, distribution, and core layers, as illustrated in Figure 1-3. The features of the hierarchical layers areas follows:Access layer— This layer is used to grant users access to network devices. In a network campus, the access layergenerally incorporates switched LAN devices with ports that provide connectivity to workstations and servers. In the WANenvironment, the access layer at remote sites or at teleworkers homes provides access to the corporate network acrossvarious WAN technologies.Distribution layer— This layer aggregates the wiring closets and uses switches to segment workgroups and isolatenetwork problems in a campus environment. Similarly, the distribution layer aggregates WAN connections at the edge ofthe campus and provides policy-based connectivity (in other words, it implements the organizations policies).Core layer (also referred to as the backbone)— The core layer is a high-speed backbone and is designed to switchpackets as fast as possible. Because the core is critical for connectivity, it must provide a high level of availability and adaptto changes quickly.Figure 1-3. Cisco Hierarchical Network ModelThe hierarchical model can be applied to networks that include any type of connectivity, such as LANs, WANs, wireless LANs(WLANs), MANs, and VPNs. For example, Figure 1-4 demonstrates the hierarchical model applied to a WAN environment.Figure 1-4. Hierarchical Model Applied to a WAN[View full size image]
  20. 20. 2 of 2The hierarchical model is useful for smaller networks, but does not scale well to todays larger, more complex networks. TheEnterprise Composite Network Model, introduced in the following section, provides additional modularity and functionality.
  21. 21. 1 of 3Cisco Enterprise Composite Network ModelCisco has developed a set of best practices for security, comprising a blueprint for network designers and administrators for theproper deployment of security solutions to support network applications and the existing network infrastructure. This blueprint iscalled "SAFE." SAFE includes the Enterprise Composite Network Model, which network professionals can use to describe andanalyze any modern enterprise network. This model supports larger networks than those designed with only the hierarchical modeland clarifies the functional boundaries within the network.NoteYou can access the SAFE blueprint home page at Enterprise Composite Network Model first divides the network into three functional areas, as illustrated in Figure 1-5 anddescribed as follows:Enterprise Campus— This functional area contains the modules required to build a hierarchical, highly robust campusnetwork. Access, distribution, and core principles are applied to these modules appropriately.Enterprise Edge— This functional area aggregates connectivity from the various elements at the edge of the enterprisenetwork, including to remote locations, the Internet, and remote users.Service Provider Edge— This area is not implemented by the organization; instead, it is included to represent connectivityto service providers such as Internet service providers (ISPs), WAN providers, and the public switched telephone network(PSTN).Figure 1-5. Enterprise Composite Network Model Functional AreasAs illustrated in Figure 1-6, each of these functional areas contains various network modules. These modules can in turn includehierarchical core, distribution, and access layer functionality.Figure 1-6. Modules Within the Enterprise Composite Network Model[View full size image]
  22. 22. 2 of 3The Enterprise Campus functional area comprises the following modules:Building— Containing access switches and end-user devices (including PCs and IP phones).Building Distribution— Includes distribution multilayer switches to provide access between workgroups and to the Core.Core— Also called the backbone, provides a high-speed connection between buildings themselves, and between buildingsand the Server and Edge Distribution modules.Edge Distribution— The interface between the Enterprise Campus and the Enterprise Edge functional areas. This moduleconcentrates connectivity to and from all branches and teleworkers accessing the campus via a WAN or the Internet.Server— Represents the campuss data center.Management— Represents the network management functionality, including monitoring, logging, security, and othermanagement features within an enterprise.Figure 1-7 illustrates how the Building, Building Distribution, and Core modules map directly onto the hierarchical models access,distribution, and core layers. The figure also shows how multiple buildings can be represented by multiple sets of a Building and aBuilding Distribution module, with each connected to the Core.Figure 1-7. Multiple Buildings Represented Within the Enterprise Campus[View full size image]
  23. 23. 3 of 3The Enterprise Edge functional area is the interface between the Enterprise Campus functional area (through the Edge Distributionmodule) and the Service Provider Edge functional area. It is composed of the following four modules:E-commerce— Includes the servers, network devices, and so forth necessary for an organization to provide e-commercefunctionality, such as online orderingCorporate Internet— Provides Internet access for the organization, and passes VPN traffic from external users to theVPN and Remote Access moduleVPN and Remote Access— Terminates VPN traffic and dial-in connections from external usersWAN— Provides connectivity from remote sites using various WAN technologiesThe three modules within the Service Provider Edge functional area are as follows:ISP— Represents Internet connectionsPSTN— Represents all nonpermanent connections, including via analog phone, cellular phone, and Integrated ServicesDigital Network (ISDN)Frame Relay/Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)— Represents all permanent connections to remote locations,including via Frame Relay, ATM, leased lines, cable, digital subscriber line (DSL), and wirelessNoteFor further information and details about network design, refer to the Cisco Press book CCDA Self-Study: Designing forCisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN).
  24. 24. 1 of 1Routing and Routing Protocols Within the Enterprise Composite Network ModelRouting protocols are an integral part of any network. When designing a network using the architectures and models introduced inthis chapter, routing protocol selection and planning are among the design decisions to be made. Although the best practice is touse one IP routing protocol throughout the enterprise if possible, in many cases multiple routing protocols might be required, asillustrated in Figure 1-8. For example, BGP might be used in the Corporate Internet module, whereas static routes are often usedfor remote-access and VPN users. Therefore, enterprises might have to deal with multiple routing protocols.Figure 1-8. Multiple Routing Protocols May Be Used Within a Network[View full size image]The Enterprise Composite Network Model can assist in determining where each routing protocol is implemented, where theboundaries between protocols are, and how traffic flows between them will be managed.Each routing protocol has its own unique characteristics, some of which Table 1-1 identifies. The next part of this book, Part II,focuses on the characteristics, operation, and configuration of IP routing protocols.Table 1-1. Routing Protocol ComparisonParameters EIGRP OSPF IS-ISSize of network(small-medium-large-very large)Large Large Very largeSpeed of convergence (veryhigh-high-medium-low)Very high High HighUse of VLSM (yes-no) Yes Yes YesSupport for mixed-vendor devices(yes-no)No Yes YesNetwork support staff knowledge(good, fair, poor)Good Good Fair
  25. 25. 1 of 1SummaryIn this chapter, you learned about converged networks and network architecture frameworks and design models. The IIN strategyand the SONA framework that guides enterprises toward an IIN were described. The components of the Cisco enterprise-widesystems architecture were explored, and the traditional hierarchical network model was introduced. The Enterprise CompositeNetwork Model was described, along with how routing protocols fit within this model.
  26. 26. Review QuestionsAnswer the following questions, and then refer to Appendix A, "Answers to Review Questions," for the answers.1. What is a converged network?2. What are the three phases of the IIN?3. Which are layers within the SONA framework?Accessa.Network Infrastructureb.Interactive Servicesc.Enterprise Edged.Applicatione.Edge Distributionf.4. What are the components of the Cisco Enterprise Architecture?5. Which are the layers within the hierarchical network model?Accessa.Network Infrastructureb.Corec.Distributiond.Applicatione.Edge Distributionf.Network Managementg.6. Describe each of the functional areas of the Enterprise Composite Network Model.7. Which modules are within the Enterprise Campus functional area?8. Why might a network need to have more than one routing protocol running?
  27. 27. 1 of 7Part II: IP Routing ProtocolsChapter 2 Routing PrinciplesChapter 3 Configuring the Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing ProtocolChapter 4 Configuring the Open Shortest Path First ProtocolChapter 5 Advanced Open Shortest Path First Protocol ConfigurationChapter 6 Configuring the Integrated Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System ProtocolChapter 7 Manipulating Routing UpdatesChapter 8 Configuring the Border Gateway ProtocolChapter 2. Routing PrinciplesThis chapter discusses IP routing principles. It covers the following topics:IP Routing OverviewCharacteristics of Routing ProtocolsRIPIP Routing Protocol ComparisonsThis chapter covers IP routing principles, including static and dynamic routing characteristics, classful and classless routing, andmanual and automatic route summarization across network boundaries. It explains the difference between distance vector,link-state, and hybrid routing protocols; and includes comparisons of IP routing protocols. Characteristics and configuration of theRouting Information Protocol (RIP) are described.NoteThe online Appendix C, "IPv4 Supplement," includes job aids and supplementary information related to IPv4 addressesthat you should understand before reading the rest of the book. Therefore, you are encouraged to review any of thematerial in Appendix C that you are not familiar with before reading the rest of this chapter.IP Routing OverviewRouters forward packets toward destination networks. To forward the packets, routers must know about these remote networksand determine the best way to reach them. This section addresses the ways in which routers learn about networks and howrouters can incorporate static and dynamic routes.Routers must be aware of destination networks to be able to forward packets to them. A router knows about the networks directly
  28. 28. 2 of 7attached to its interfaces; it calculates the subnet or network number of an interface by using the address and subnet maskconfigured on that interface. For networks not directly connected to one of its interfaces, however, the router must rely on outsideinformation. A router can be made aware of remote networks in two ways: An administrator can manually configure the information(static routing), or a router can learn from other routers (dynamic routing). A routing table can contain both static and dynamicallyrecognized routes.Network administrators can use static routing, dynamic routing, or a combination of both.Principles of Static RoutingThis section explains the situations in which static routes are the most appropriate to use.A static route can be used in the following circumstances:When it is undesirable to have dynamic routing updates forwarded across slow bandwidth links, such as a dialup link.When the administrator needs total control over the routes used by the router.When a backup to a dynamically recognized route is necessary.When it is necessary to reach a network accessible by only one path (a stub network). For example, in Figure 2-1, there isonly one way for router A to reach the network on router B. The administrator can configure a static route onrouter A to reach the network via 2-1. Configuring Static Routing[View full size image]When a router is underpowered and does not have the CPU or memory resources necessary to handle a dynamic routingprotocol.When a route should appear to the router as a directly connected network.A perfect use for static routing is a hub-and-spoke design, with all remote sites defaulting back to the central site and the one ortwo routers at the central site having a static route for all subnets at each remote site. However, without proper design, as thenetwork grows into hundreds of routers, with each router having numerous subnets, the number of static routes on each router alsoincreases. Each time a new subnet or router is added, an administrator must add a static route to the new networks on a numberof routers. The administrative burden to maintain this network can become excessive, making dynamic routing a better choice.Another drawback of static routing is that when a topology change occurs on the internetwork, an administrator might have toreroute traffic by configuring new static routes around the problem area. In contrast, with dynamic routing, the routers must learnthe new topology. The routers share information with each other and their routing processes automatically discover whether anyalternative routes exist and reroute without administrator intervention. Because the routers mutually develop an independentagreement of what the new topology is, they are said to converge on what the new routes should be. Dynamic routing providesfaster convergence.Key Point: ConvergenceA network is converged when routing tables on all routers in the network are synchronized and contain a route to alldestination networks. Convergence time is the time it takes for all routers in a network to agree on the new topology.Configuring a Static RouteThe following command, explained in Table 2-1, is used to create static routes:RouterA(config)#ip route prefix mask {address | interface} [distance][permanent] [tag tag]
  29. 29. 3 of 7Table 2-1. ip route Commandip route Command Descriptionprefix mask The IP network and subnet mask for the remote networkto be entered into the IP routing table.address The IP address of the next hop that can be used to reachthe destination network.interface The local router outbound interface to be used to reachthe destination network.distance (Optional) The administrative distance to be assigned tothis route.permanent (Optional) Specifies that the route will not be removedfrom the routing table even if the interface associated withthe route goes down.tag tag (Optional) A value that can be used as a match value inroute maps.NoteUse static routes pointing to an interface on point-to-point interfaces only, because on multiaccess interfaces the router willnot know the specific address to which to send the information. On point-to-point interfaces, the information is sent to theonly other device on the network.If no dynamic routing protocol is used on a link connecting two routers, such as in Figure 2-1, a static route must be configured onthe routers on both sides of the link. Otherwise, the remote router will not know how to return the packet to its originator located onthe other network; there will be only one-way communication.While configuring a static route, you must specify either a next-hop IP address or an exit interface to notify the router whichdirection to send traffic. Figure 2-1 shows both configurations. Router A recognizes the directly connected networks and10.1.1.0. It needs a route to the remote network Router B knows about the directly connected networks and10.1.1.0; it needs a route to the remote network Notice that on router B, the next-hop IP address of the router A serialinterface has been used. On router A, however, the ip route command specifies its own Serial 0/0/0 interface as the exit interface.If a next-hop IP address is used, it should be the IP address of the interface of the router on the other end of the link. If an exitinterface is used, the local router sends data to the router on the other end of its attached link. When an exit interface is specified,the router considers this a directly connected route.Configuring a Static Default RouteIn some circumstances, a router does not need to recognize the details of remote networks. The router is configured to send alltraffic, or all traffic for which there is no entry in the routing table, in a particular direction, known as a default route. Default routesare either dynamically advertised using routing protocols or statically configured.To create a static default route, use the normal ip route command, but with the destination network (the prefix in the commandsyntax) and its subnet mask (the mask in the command syntax) both set at This address is a type of wildcard designation;any destination network will match. Because the router tries to match the longest common bit pattern, a network listed in therouting table is used before the default route. If the destination network is not listed in the routing table, the default route is used.In Figure 2-2, on router A, the static route to the network has been replaced with a static default route pointing to router B.On router B, a static default route has been added, pointing to its Internet service provider (ISP). Traffic from a device on the routerA network bound for a network on the Internet is sent to router B. Router B recognizes that the destination networkdoes not match any specific entries in its routing table and sends that traffic to the ISP. It is then the ISPs responsibility to routethat traffic to its destination.Figure 2-2. Configuring the Static Default Route[View full size image]
  30. 30. 4 of 7In Figure 2-2, to reach the network, router B still needs a static route pointing out its S0/0/0 interface.Entering the show ip route command on router A in Figure 2-2 returns the information shown in Example 2-1.Example 2-1. show ip route CommandRouterA#show ip route<output omitted>Gateway of last resort is not setC is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0C is directly connected, Serial0/0/0S* [1/0] via of Dynamic RoutingDynamic routing allows the network to adjust to changes in the topology automatically, without administrator involvement. Thissection describes dynamic routing principles.A static route cannot respond dynamically to changes in the network. If a link fails, the static route is no longer valid if it isconfigured to use that failed link, so a new static route must be configured. If a new router or new link is added, that informationmust also be configured on every router in the network. In a very large or unstable network, these changes can lead toconsiderable work for network administrators. It can also take a long time for every router in the network to receive the correctinformation. In situations such as these, it might be better to have the routers receive information about networks and links fromeach other using a dynamic routing protocol.When using a dynamic routing protocol, the administrator configures the routing protocol on each router, as shown in Figure 2-3.The routers then exchange information about the reachable networks and the state of each network. Routers exchange informationonly with other routers running the same routing protocol. When the network topology changes, the new information is dynamicallypropagated throughout the network, and each router updates its routing table to reflect the changes. The following are someexamples of dynamic routing protocols:RIPEnhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS)Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)Figure 2-3. Routers Running a Dynamic Routing Protocol Exchange Routing Information[View full size image]The information exchanged by routers includes the metric or cost to each destination (this value is sometimes called the distance).Key Point: MetricA metric is a value (such as path length) that routing protocols use to measure paths to a destination.Different routing protocols base their metric on different measurements, including hop count, interface speed, or more-complexmetrics. Most routing protocols maintain databases containing all the networks that the routing protocol recognizes and all thepaths to each network. If a routing protocol recognizes more than one way to reach a network, it compares the metric for eachdifferent path and chooses the path with the lowest metric. If multiple paths have the same metric, a maximum of 16 can be
  31. 31. 5 of 7installed in the routing table, and the router can perform load balancing between them. EIGRP can also perform load balancingbetween unequal-cost paths.NotePrior to Cisco IOS Release 12.3(2)T, the maximum number of parallel routes (equal-cost paths) supported by IP routingprotocols was 6; in Cisco IOS Release 12.3(2)T that maximum was changed to 16.To configure an IP dynamic routing protocol, use the router protocol command. Protocols other than RIP also require specificationof either an autonomous system or a process number. You also need the network command under the router configuration modeof all routing protocols except IS-IS and BGP.For RIP, EIGRP, and OSPF, the network command tells the router which interfaces are participating in that routing protocol. Anyinterface that has an IP address that falls within the range specified in the network statement is considered active for that protocol.In other words, the router sends updates from the specified interfaces and expects to receive updates from the same interfaces.Some protocols look for neighbors by sending hello packets out those interfaces. Thus, because a network statement identifiesinterfaces on the local router, it is configured only for directly connected networks. A router also originates advertisements for thenetworks connected to the specified interfaces.RIP allows only major network numbers (Class A, B, or C network numbers) to be specified in the network command. EIGRP andOSPF permit exact specification of interfaces with a combination of a subnet or interface address and a wildcard mask.The network statement functions differently in BGP. BGP requires its neighbors to be statically configured. The networkstatement in BGP tells the router to originate an advertisement for that network. Without a network statement, BGP passes alongadvertisements it receives from other routers, but it does not originate any network advertisements itself. In BGP, the networklisted in the network statement does not have to be directly connected, because it does not identify interfaces on the router as itdoes in other protocols (this process is explained in detail in Chapter 8, "Configuring the Border Gateway Protocol").Integrated IS-IS does not use the network statement. Instead, interfaces participating in the IS-IS routing process are identifiedunder interface configuration mode. (OSPF also permits the interfaces to be specified this way, as an alternative to using thenetwork command.)Example 2-2 shows the configuration of the routers in Figure 2-3. Both routers A and B are configured with RIP. Router A has twodirectly attached networks and RIP is used to advertise to neighbors on both of those interfaces. Therefore, network statementsare configured for both the network and the network. Router A sends RIP packets out interfaces Fa0/0 andS0/0/0, advertising the networks that are attached to those interfaces.Example 2-2. Configuring RIProuterA(config)#router riprouterA(config-router)#network route Serial0/0/1routerB(config)#router riprouterB(config-router)#network B also has two directly attached networks. However, router B wants only the network it shares with router A to participate inRIP. Therefore, a network statement is configured only for the network. As explained earlier, with RIP, only the majornetwork number is actually used in the network command. Router B also has a static default route pointing toward its ISP to reachother networks. Router B sends RIP packets out its interface S0/0/0, but not out its interface S0/0/1. It does not advertise the192.168.1.0 network attached to S0/0/1 or the static default route unless specifically configured to do so.Principles of On-Demand RoutingA drawback of static routes is that they must be manually configured and updated when the network topology changes. Adrawback of dynamic routing protocols is that they use network bandwidth and router resources. In a hub-and-spoke network withhundreds of spokes, both the configuration needed for static routes and the resource usage of dynamic routing can beconsiderable.There is a third option: on-demand routing (ODR). ODR uses the Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) to carry network informationbetween spoke (stub) routers and the hub router. ODR provides IP routing information with minimal overhead compared to adynamic routing protocol and requires less manual configuration than static routes.ODR is applicable in a hub-and-spoke topology only. In this type of topology, each spoke router is adjacent only to the hub.Another name for a spoke router is stub router. The stub router may have some LAN networks connected to it and typically has aWAN connection to the hub router. The hub router needs to recognize the networks connected to each spoke, but the spokes
  32. 32. 6 of 7need only a default route pointing to the hub.When ODR is configured, the stub routers use CDP to send IP prefix information to the hub router. Stub routers send prefixinformation for all their directly connected networks. ODR reports the subnet mask, so it allows different subnets within the samemajor network to have different subnet masks. This is known as variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) and is described in detailin Appendix C.The hub router, in turn, sends a default route to the spokes that points back to itself. It installs the stub networks reported by ODRin its routing table and can be configured to redistribute these routes into a dynamic routing protocol. For a next-hop address, thehub router uses the IP address of the spoke routers as reported to it by CDP.ODR is not a true routing protocol because the information exchanged is limited to IP prefixes and a default route. ODR reports nometric information; the hub router uses a hop count of 1 as the metric for all routes reported via ODR. However, by using ODR,routing information for stub networks can be obtained dynamically without the overhead of a dynamic routing protocol, and defaultroutes can be provided to the stub routers without manual configuration.Configuring ODRODR is configured on the hub router using the router odr global configuration command.On the stub router, there must be no IP routing protocol configured. In fact, from the standpoint of ODR, a router is automaticallyconsidered a stub when no IP routing protocols have been configured. Figure 2-4 shows a hub-and-spoke topology.Figure 2-4. Hub-and-Spoke Topology: Configuring ODR[View full size image]ODR can also be tuned with optional commands, including using a distribute list to control the network information that isrecognized through ODR, and adjusting the ODR timers with the timers basic router configuration command.ODR relies on the CDP to carry the information between the hub router and the spoke routers. Therefore, CDP must be enabledon the links between the hub router and spokes. Cisco routers by default have CDP enabled both globally and per interface.However, on some WAN links, such as ATM, CDP must be explicitly enabled.The CDP updates are sent as multicasts. On WAN links that require mappings, such as dialer links and Frame Relay, it isimportant to use the broadcast keyword in the mapping statements; allowing broadcasts also allows multicasts across the link.CDP uses Subnetwork Access Protocol (SNAP) frames, so it runs on all media that support SNAP.CDP updates are sent every 60 seconds by default. This setting might be too infrequent in rapidly changing networks or too oftenin stable ones. You can adjust the timers with the cdp timer global configuration command. You can verify CDP settings by usingthe show cdp interface command.As soon as ODR is configured and running, routes from the stub routers are identified in the hub routers routing table with an ocharacter, as shown in Example 2-3. Notice in the example that the metric is 1, and the administrative distance for ODR is 160.(Administrative distance is described in the "Administrative Distance" section later in this chapter.) Also, do not confuse the ocharacter of ODR routes with the O character of OSPF routes.Example 2-3. Routing Table with ODR Routes
  33. 33. 7 of 7RouterB#show ip route<output omitted> is subnetted, 4 subnetso [160/1] via, 00:00:23, Serial0/0/1o [160/1] via, 00:00:03, Serial0/0/2o [160/1] via, 00:00:16, Serial0/0/3<output omitted>The routing table for each spoke router contains only its connected networks and a static default route injected by ODR from thehub router.
  34. 34. 1 of 6Characteristics of Routing ProtocolsRouting protocols can be classified into different categories such as distance vector, link-state, or a hybrid of these two. IP routingprotocols can also be classified as either classful or classless. These characteristics are explored in this section.Distance Vector, Link-State, and Hybrid Routing ProtocolsWhen a network is using a distance vector routing protocol, all the routers send their routing tables (or a portion of their tables) toonly their neighboring routers. The routers then use the received information to determine whether any changes need to be madeto their own routing table (for example, if a better way to a specific network is now available). This process repeats periodically.In contrast, when a network is using a link-state routing protocol, each of the routers sends the state of its own interfaces (its links)to all other routers (or to all routers in a part of the network, known as an area) only when there is a change. Each router uses thereceived information to recalculate the best path to each network and then saves this information in its routing table.As its name suggests, a hybrid protocol has characteristics of both distance vector and link-state protocols. Hybrid protocols sendonly changed information (similar to link-state protocols) but only to neighboring routers (similar to distance vector protocols).Classful Routing Protocol ConceptsIP routing protocols can be categorized as classful or classless.Key Point: Classless and Classful Routing ProtocolsRouting updates sent by a classful routing protocol do not include the subnet mask. RIP Version 1 (RIPv1) is a classfulrouting protocol.Routing updates sent by a classless routing protocol include the subnet mask. RIP Version 2 (RIPv2), EIGRP, OSPF,IS-IS, and BGP are classless routing protocols.Classful Routing Protocol BehaviorWhen classful protocols were originally developed, networks were very different from those used now. The best modem speedwas 300 bps, the largest WAN line was 56 kbps, router memory was less than 640 KB, and processors were running in the kHzrange. Routing updates had to be small enough not to monopolize the WAN link bandwidth. In addition, routers did not have theresources to maintain current information about every subnet.A classful routing protocol does not include subnet mask information in its routing updates. Because no subnet mask information isknown, when a classful router sends or receives routing updates, the router makes assumptions about the subnet mask beingused by the networks listed in the update, based on IP address class.Routers send update packets from their interfaces to other connected routers. A router sends the entire subnet address when anupdate packet involves a subnet of the same classful network as the IP address of the transmitting interface. The receiving routerthen assumes that the subnet in the update and the interface use the same subnet mask.If that route is using a different subnet mask, the receiving router will have incorrect information in its routing table. Thus, whenusing a classful routing protocol, it is important to use the same subnet mask on all subnets belonging to the same classfulnetwork.When a router using a classful routing protocol needs to send an update about a subnet of a network across an interfacebelonging to a different network, the router assumes that the remote router will use the default subnet mask for that class of IPaddress. Therefore, when the router sends the update, it does not include the subnet information. The update packet contains onlythe classful network information. This process is called autosummarization across the network boundary; the router sends asummary of all the subnets in that network by sending only the major network information. Classful routing protocols automaticallycreate a classful summary route at major network boundaries. Classful routing protocols do not allow summarization at otherpoints within the major network address space.
  35. 35. 2 of 6The router that receives the update behaves in a similar fashion. When an update contains information about a different classfulnetwork than the one in use on its interface, the router applies the default classful mask to that update. The router must assumewhat the subnet mask is because the update does not contain subnet mask information.In Figure 2-5, router A advertises the subnet to router B because the interface connecting them belongs to the samemajor classful network. When router B receives the update packet, it assumes that the subnet uses the same16-bit mask as the one used on its subnet.Figure 2-5. Network Summarization in Classful Routing[View full size image]Router C advertises the subnet to router B because the interface connecting them belongs to the same major classful172.16.0.0 network. Therefore, router Bs routing table has information about all the subnets that are in use in the network.However, router B summarizes the and subnets to before sending them to router A. Therefore,router As routing table contains summary information about only the network.Similarly, router B summarizes the and subnets to before sending the routing information to router C.This summarization occurs because the update crosses a major network boundary. The update goes from a subnet of network10.0.0.0, subnet, to a subnet of another major network, network Router Cs routing table contains summaryinformation about only the network.Summarizing Routes in a Discontiguous NetworkDiscontiguous subnets are subnets of the same major network that are separated by a different major network.Classful protocols summarize automatically at network boundaries, which means thatSubnets are not advertised to a different major network.Discontiguous subnets are not visible to each other.In the example shown in Figure 2-6, routers A and B do not advertise the and, because RIPv1 cannot advertise subnets across a different major network; both router A and router B advertise172.16.0.0. This leads to confusion when routing across network Router C, for example, receives routes about172.16.0.0 from two different directions; it therefore might make an incorrect routing decision.Figure 2-6. Classful Routing Protocols Do Not Support Discontiguous Subnets[View full size image]You can resolve this situation by using RIPv2, OSPF, IS-IS, or EIGRP and not using summarization, because the subnet routes willbe advertised with their actual subnet masks.The ip classless CommandThe behavior of a classful routing protocol changes when the ip classless global configuration command is used.
  36. 36. 3 of 6NoteThe ip classless command is enabled by default in Release 12.0 and later of the Cisco IOS Software; in earlier releasesit is disabled by default.When running a classful protocol (RIPv1), ip classless must be enabled if you want the router to select a default route when itmust route to an unknown subnet of a network for which it knows some subnets. For example, consider a routers routing table thathas entries for subnets and and a default route of If a packet arrives for a destination on the10.7.0.0/16 subnet and ip classless is not enabled, the packet is dropped. Classful protocols assume that if they know some ofthe subnets of network, they must know all that networks existing subnets. Enabling ip classless tells the router that itshould follow the best supernet route or the default route for unknown subnets of known networks, and for unknown networks.The Routing Table Acts ClassfullyIt is actually the routing table itself that acts classfully by default without the ip classless command, and will do soeven if no routing protocols are running. For example, if you have only static routes and no routing protocols, youstill would not be able to reach a subnet of a known major network using a default route unless the ip classlesscommand is enabled.A CCIE technical reviewer of an earlier edition of this book performed the following test using two Cisco 2520routers running Cisco IOS c2500-i-l.122-8.T5.bin. The two routers, R1 and R2, were connected via interface E0,and no routing protocols were enabled on either router.Router R1 configuration:!interface Loopback 0ip address Loopback 1ip address Ethernet 0ip address!ip route!no ip classlessRouter R2 configuration:!interface Loopback 0ip address Ethernet 0ip address!Test 1:R1 has a default route pointing to R2 and has the no ip classless command configured. A ping from R1 to R2sloopback0 fails. When the ip classless command is entered on R1, the ping from R1 to R2s loopback0, via thedefault route, succeeds. This test proves that even though no routing protocols are used, the routing table actsclassfully.Test 2:The second step is to test the classful nature of the routing table using a classless routing protocol, OSPF. OSPFis turned on for all interfaces on R1 but is activated only on R2s Ethernet link.R2s OSPF is configured to inject a default route into R1 using the default-information originate alwayscommand (which is covered in detail in Chapter 5, "Advanced Open Shortest Path First Protocol Configuration").R1 therefore has a default route pointing to R2 that is introduced via OSPF. The pings from R1 to R2s loopback0succeed regardless of the ip classless command. Therefore, turning on OSPF, a classless protocol, overrides therouting tables classful nature.
  37. 37. 4 of 6Classless Routing Protocol ConceptsClassless routing protocols can be considered second-generation protocols because they are designed to address some of thelimitations of the earlier classful routing protocols. One of the most serious limitations in a classful network environment is that thesubnet mask is not exchanged during the routing update process, and therefore, the same subnet mask must be used on allsubnetworks within the same major network.With classless routing protocols, different subnets within the same major network can have different subnet masks; in other words,they support VLSM. If more than one entry in the routing table matches a particular destination, the longest prefix match in therouting table is used. For example, if a routing table has different paths to and to, packets addressedto are routed through the path, because that address has the longest match with the destinationnetwork.Another limitation of the classful approach is the need to automatically summarize to the classful network boundary at majornetwork boundaries. In a classless environment, the route summarization process can be controlled manually and can usually beinvoked at any bit position within the address. Because subnet routes might be propagated throughout the routing domain, manualroute summarization might be required to keep the size of the routing tables manageable.RIPv2 and EIGRP Automatic Network-Boundary SummarizationBy default, RIPv2 and EIGRP perform automatic network summarization at classful boundaries, just like a classful protocol does.Automatic summarization lets RIPv2 and EIGRP be backward compatible with their predecessors, RIPv1 and Interior GatewayRouting Protocol (IGRP).NoteIGRP is no longer supported, as of Cisco IOS Release 12.3.The difference between these protocols and their predecessors is that you can manually turn off automatic summarization, usingthe no auto-summary router configuration command. You do not need this command when you are using OSPF or IS-IS,because neither protocol performs automatic network summarization by default.The autosummarization behavior can cause problems in a network that has discontiguous subnets or if some of the summarizedsubnets cannot be reached via the advertising router. If a summarized route indicates that certain subnets can be reached via arouter, when in fact those subnets are discontiguous or unreachable via that router, the network might have problems similar tothose caused by a classful protocol. For example, in Figure 2-7, both router A and router B are advertising a summarized route to172.16.0.0/16. Router C therefore receives two routes to and cannot identify which subnets are attached to whichrouter.Figure 2-7. Automatic Network-Boundary Summarization[View full size image]You can resolve this problem by disabling automatic summarization when running RIPv2 or EIGRP. Classless routers use thelongest prefix match when selecting a route from the routing table; therefore, if one of the routers advertises without summarizing,the other routers see subnet routes and the summary route. The other routers can then select the longest prefix match and followthe correct path. For example, in Figure 2-7, if router A continues to summarize to and router B is configured not tosummarize, router C receives explicit routes for and, along with the summarized route to172.16.0.0/16. All traffic for router B subnets is sent to router B, and all other traffic for the network is sent to router A.Another example is shown in Figures 2-8 and 2-9. In the RIPv2 network illustrated in Figure 2-8, notice how router C, which isattached to router B via the network, handles routing information about network Router B automaticallysummarizes the and subnets to before sending the route to router C, because it is sentover an interface in a different network. Instead of using the subnet mask known to router B (/24), router C uses this defaultclassful mask for a Class B address (/16) when it stores the information in its routing table.Figure 2-8. RIPv2 Summarizes By Default; OSPF Does Not
  38. 38. 5 of 6[View full size image]Figure 2-9. Effect of the no auto-summary Command for RIPv2[View full size image]In the OSPF network shown in Figure 2-9, router B passes the subnet and subnet mask information to router C, and router C putsthe subnet details in its routing table. Router C does not need to use default classful masks for the received routing informationbecause the subnet mask is included in the routing update, and OSPF does not automatically summarize networks.You can disable automatic summarization for RIPv2 and EIGRP with the no auto-summary router configuration command. Whenautomatic summarization is disabled, RIPv2 and EIGRP forward subnet information, even over interfaces belonging to differentmajor networks. In Figure 2-9, automatic summarization has been disabled. Notice that now the routing table is the same for boththe RIPv2 and the OSPF routers.
  39. 39. 6 of 6NoteThe BGP auto-summary router configuration command determines how BGP handles redistributed routes; Chapter 8describes this command in detail.
  40. 40. 1 of 3RIPThis section describes the two versions of RIP, RIPv1 and RIPv2, and how to configure them; later chapters in this book detail theother routing protocols.Characteristics of RIPv1RIPv1 is described in RFC 1058, Routing Information Protocol. Its key characteristics include the following:Hop count is used as the metric for path selection.The maximum allowable hop count is 15.Routing updates are broadcast every 30 seconds by default. Because it is a distance vector routing protocol, updates aresent even if no change has occurred.RIP can load balance over as many as 16 equal-cost paths (4 paths by default).It has no authentication support.NoteRFCs are available at is a classful distance vector routing protocol that does not send the subnet mask in its updates. Therefore, RIPv1 does notsupport VLSM.Characteristics of RIPv2RIPv2 is a classless distance vector routing protocol defined in RFC 1721, RIP Version 2 Protocol Analysis; RFC 1722, RIPVersion 2 Protocol Applicability Statement; and RFC 2453, RIP Version 2. The most significant addition to RIPv2 is the inclusion ofthe mask in the RIPv2 routing update packet, allowing RIPv2 to support VLSM. RIPv2 automatically summarizes routes on classfulnetwork boundaries; but as described earlier, you can disable this behavior.In addition, RIPv2 uses multicast addressing for more-efficient periodic updating on each interface. RIPv2 uses the address to advertise to other RIPv2 routers. This approach is more efficient than RIPv1s approach. RIPv1 uses a255.255.255.255 broadcast address, so all devices, including PCs and servers, must process the update packet. They performthe checksum on the Layer 2 packet and pass it up their IP stack. IP sends the packet to the User Datagram Protocol (UDP)process, and UDP checks to see whether RIP port 520 is available. Most PCs and servers do not have any process running onthis port and discard the packet. RIP can fit up to 25 networks and subnets in each update, and updates are dispatched every 30seconds. For example, if the routing table has 1000 subnets, 40 packets are dispatched every 30 seconds (80 packets a minute).With each packet being a broadcast, all devices must look at it; most of the devices discard the packet.The IP multicast address for RIPv2 has its own multicast MAC address. Devices that can distinguish between a multicast and abroadcast at the MAC layer read the start of the Layer 2 frame and determine that the destination MAC address is not for them.They can then discard all these packets at the interface level and not use CPU resources or buffer memory for these unwantedpackets. Even on devices that cannot distinguish between broadcast and multicast at Layer 2, the worst that will happen is that theRIP updates will be discarded at the IP layer instead of being passed to UDP, because those devices are not using the address.RIPv2 also supports security between RIP routers using message-digest or clear-text authentication. (RIPv2 security features arenot covered in this book.)RIP Configuration CommandsTo activate the RIP process (Version 1 by default), use the following command:
  41. 41. 2 of 3Router(config)#router ripBy default, the Cisco IOS software receives both RIPv1 and RIPv2 packets; however, it sends only Version 1 packets. Toconfigure the software to send and receive packets from only one version, use the version {1 | 2} router configuration command.To select participating attached networks, use the following command, specifying the major classful network number:Router(config-router)#network network-numberRegardless of the RIP version, a network command using the classful network number is required under the RIP routing process.Although the RIP version command controls RIPs overall default behavior, you might need to control the version of RIP on aper-interface basis. To control the version of RIP on each interface, use the ip rip send version and ip rip receive versioninterface configuration commands. Version control per interface might be required when you are connecting legacy RIP networksto newer networks. The command syntax is as follows:Router(config-if)#ip rip {send | receive} version {1 |2 | 1 2}By default, automatic summarization across network boundaries is activated for all networks in both versions of RIP. Manuallysummarizing routes in RIPv2 improves scalability and efficiency in large networks because the more-specific routes are notadvertised. Only the summary routes are advertised, thus reducing the size of the IP routing table and allowing the router to handlemore routes.Manual summarization is done at the interface. One limitation of RIPv2 is that routes can be summarized only up to the classfulnetwork boundary; RIPv2 does not support classless interdomain routing (CIDR)-type summarization to the left of the classfulboundary.NoteCIDR is described in Appendix C.To summarize RIP routes on nonclassful boundaries, do the following:Turn off autosummarization using the no auto-summary command under the RIP process.Use the ip summary-address rip network-number mask interface configuration command to define a network numberand mask that meet the particular requirement.Figure 2-10 illustrates how RIPv1 and RIPv2 may coexist in the same network. Router A is running RIPv2, and router C is runningRIPv1. Router B runs both versions of RIP. Notice that the ip rip send version 1 and ip rip receive version 1 commands arerequired only on interface Serial 0/0/3 of router B, because RIPv2 is configured as the primary version for all interfaces. The Serial0/0/3 interface has to be manually configured to support RIPv1 so that it can connect correctly with router C.Figure 2-10. RIPv2 Configuration Example[View full size image]
  42. 42. 3 of 3An ip summary-address rip command is configured on router A along with the no auto-summary command. The combination ofthese two commands allows router A to send the subnet detail to router B. Because router B is in a different network(, the default behavior for router A is to send only the classful summarization ( to router B.NoteIn Figure 2-10, the ip summary-address rip command is actually unnecessary because theno auto-summary command is also applied. The moment that the no auto-summary command is used, the subnet172.16.1.0 is advertised as such because it uses a 24-bit mask.
  43. 43. 1 of 4IP Routing Protocol ComparisonsThis section compares and contrasts the various IP routing protocols. It also discusses some IP routing protocol characteristics,such as administrative distance, and describes floating static routes.Administrative DistanceMost routing protocols have metric structures and algorithms that are incompatible with other protocols. It is critical that a networkusing multiple routing protocols be able to seamlessly exchange route information and be able to select the best path acrossmultiple protocols. Cisco routers use a value called administrative distance to select the best path when they learn of two or moreroutes to the same destination from different routing protocols.Administrative distance rates a routing protocols believability. Cisco has assigned a default administrative distance value to eachrouting protocol supported on its routers. Each routing protocol is prioritized in the order of most to least believable.Key Point: Administrative DistanceThe administrative distance is a value between 0 and 255. The lower the administrative distance value, the higher theprotocols believability.Table 2-2 lists the default administrative distance of the protocols supported by Cisco routers.Table 2-2. Administrative Distance of Routing ProtocolsRoute Source Default DistanceConnected interface 0Static route out an interface 0Static route to a next-hop address 1EIGRP summary route 5External BGP 20Internal EIGRP 90IGRP[1] 100OSPF 110IS-IS 115RIPv1, RIPv2 120Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) 140ODR 160External EIGRP 170Internal BGP 200Unknown 255[1] IGRP is no longer supported, as of Cisco IOS Release 12.3. It is included in this table for completeness.
  44. 44. 2 of 4NoteStatic routes are configured with the ip route prefix mask {address | interface} [distance] [permanent] [tag tag] globalconfiguration command, described in the "Principles of Static Routing" section earlier in this chapter. If the addressparameter is used in this command, specifying the address of the next-hop router to use to reach the destination network,the default administrative distance is 1. If the interface parameter is used instead, specifying the local router outboundinterface to use to reach the destination network, the router considers this a directly connected route, and the defaultadministrative distance is 0.For example, in Figure 2-11, if router A receives a route to network from RIP and also receives a route to the samenetwork from OSPF, the router compares RIPs administrative distance, 120, with OSPFs administrative distance, 110, anddetermines that OSPF is more believable. The router therefore adds the OSPF version of the route to the routing table.Figure 2-11. Route Selection and Administrative DistanceFloating Static RoutesBased on default administrative distances, routers believe static routes over any dynamically learned route. There might be timeswhen this default behavior is not the desired behavior. For example, when you configure a static route as a backup to adynamically learned route, you do not want the static route to be used as long as the dynamic route is available. In this case, youcan manipulate the optional distance parameter in the ip route command to make the static route appear less desirable thananother static or dynamic route.Key Point: Floating Static RouteA static route that appears in the routing table only when the primary route goes away is called a floating static route.The administrative distance of the static route is configured to be higher than the administrative distance of the primaryroute and it "floats" above the primary route, until the primary route is no longer available.In Figure 2-12, routers A and B have two connections: a point-to-point serial connection that is the primary link, and an ISDN link tobe used if the other line goes down. Both routers use EIGRP, but do not use a routing protocol on the ISDN networklink.Figure 2-12. Floating Static Routes[View full size image]