Frederick Winslow Taylor – American Mechanical Engineer – Scientific Management – Time & Motion study-1890
Jidoka (Autonomation) – By Toyoda - 1902 Henry Ford – Pioneer of US Automobile Sector - Mass Production (Flow Production) 1908 -1913 JUST-IN-TIME – Toyota Motor Company - 1937 Toyota Production System – Toyota Motor Company 1960
Why go Lean? To improve: Customer service Reduced waiting times Lower costs Improved customer experience Quality and efficiency Staff morale Internal communication and cooperation In the public and private sector
Who is Customer? Whosoever is going to buy your ideas, services or products or affected by your processes is your customer Customer may be internal or external In public sector: citizens are external customers The associates or other departments are internal customers. and Customer is the king
The Five Principles of Lean Management Specify the value desired by the customer Identify the value stream for each product providing that value and challenge all of the wasted steps currently necessary to provide it Make the product flow continuously through the remaining, value-added steps Introduce pull between all steps where continuous flow is possible Pull, is about creating an environment where you get what you need, when you need it. Not through forecasting, but by creating a fast production chain that allows you to order what you need when a specific event triggers that order Manage toward perfection so that the number of steps and the amount of time and information needed to serve the customer continually falls
The Eight Wastes in Services Transport - Unnecessary movement of materials, people, information or paper. Inventory - Excess stock: unnecessary files and copies, and extra supplies. Motion - Unnecessary walking and searching; things not within reach or accessible. Waiting - Idle time that causes the workflow to stop, such as waiting for signatures, machines, phone calls. Over-production - Producing either too much paperwork / information, or producing it before it is required. This consumes resources faster than necessary. Over-processing - Processing things that don’t add value to the customer, e.g. asking for details multiple times, excessive checking or duplication. Defects - Work that needs to be redone due to errors (whether human or technical) or because incorrect or incomplete information was provided. Skills misuse - Not using full potential of staff; wasting the available knowledge, experience and ideas.
Tools to Implement Lean Management Lean has a number of tools that can be used to help you. These tools are designed to be quick and simple to use, and present information in a visual way that is easy to understand.
Arrange to visit, if possible or gather data about what they need from you.
Use feedback forms (printed or electronic) to ask your customer to rate your service.
Encourage feedback – good AND bad. A silent customer isn’t necessarily a happy customer
Collect data on what customers are asking you when they get in touch, in their own words.
Measuring and data-gathering
End-to-end time of dealing with a work unit (this may be an individual file or application, a visitor, an invoice, a transaction, signing of contract, approval of a project proposal, promotion, confirmation, transfer or termination of an employee).
How long work or customers spend waiting for the next step in the process.
Volume of work dealt with, and how this varies over a year, week or month
The stream is the journey from end to end. The ideal process flows smoothly, to deliver output to the downstream customer as quickly and efficiently as possible.
Value stream mapping
Start with where you are now. Map each step of your service journey from the customer’s point of view.
This will be most effective if it is done in a group, by the people who do the work.
It’s important that EVERY step is included, as this is a picture of how things really are rather than how things should be.
The value stream map can be hand drawn, or even done with Post-IT notes.
Once you have a current state map of your customer journey, identify all the steps which add value to the customer.
Everything else is either non-value adding or is waste.
Sort Sustain Straighten Shine Standardise Using 5S to organise your workplace Sortand remove unnecessary items. Straightenup your work area so that you have easy and efficient access to everything you need. Shine means making sure everything is clean and in good working order. Standardise by creating guidelines for keeping the area organised. Sustain by making 5S a habit.
Barriers People Lack of ownership Identity of improvement team members Failure of leadership Compartmentalisation Weak link between improvement programmes and strategy Lack of resources Poor communication.