Collective Intelligence, part II

3,609 views

Published on

Collective Intelligence, part ii,
Huan Liu,
Mohammad Ali Abbasi

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,609
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
430
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
80
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • http://jeremyfain.wordpress.com/2008/11/28/collaborative-filtering-is-it-better-to-weigh-user-input-or-expert-input/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collaborative_filteringhttp://www.sigchi.org/chi95/proceedings/papers/ke_bdy.htmhttp://webwhompers.com/collaborative-filtering.html
  • The underlying assumption of CF approach is that those who agreed in the past tend to agree again in the future. For example, a collaborative filtering or recommendation system for television tastes could make predictions about which television show a user should like given a partial list of that user's tastes (likes or dislikes)[1]. Note that these predictions are specific to the user, but use information gleaned from many users. This differs from the simpler approach of giving an average (non-specific) score for each item of interest, for example based on its number of votes. [wiki]
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collaborative_filtering
  • http://rakaposhi.eas.asu.edu/cse494/lsi-for-collab-filtering.pdf
  • http://rakaposhi.eas.asu.edu/cse494/lsi-for-collab-filtering.pdf
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collaborative_filtering
  • Collective Intelligence, part II

    1. 1. DATA MINING AND MACHINE LEARNING IN A NUTSHELL COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE Mohammad-Ali Abbasi http://www.public.asu.edu/~mabbasi2/ SCHOOL OF COMPUTING, INFORMATICS, AND DECISION SYSTEMS ENGINEERING ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY Arizona State University http://dmml.asu.edu/Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 1
    2. 2. Filtering & Making Recommendation • Recommendation Systems • Collaborative filtering • Content Based Filtering Arizona State UniversityData Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 2
    3. 3. Arizona State UniversityData Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 3
    4. 4. Arizona State UniversityData Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 4
    5. 5. Collaborative Filtering- Example Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 5
    6. 6. Arizona State UniversityData Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 6
    7. 7. Arizona State UniversityData Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 7
    8. 8. Collaborative Filtering- Example Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 8
    9. 9. Arizona State UniversityData Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 9
    10. 10. Collaborative Filtering • Collaborative Filtering is a method of making personalized suggestions for other products, based on your previous shopping habits. • The method of making automatic predictions (filtering) about the interests of a user by collecting taste information from many users. • In most cases the goal is to predict user preferences on items by learning their aggregated relationships through the historical records Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 10
    11. 11. What are they and Why are they • RS – problem of information filtering • RS – problem of machine learning • Enhance user experience – Assist users in finding information – Reduce search and navigation time • Increase productivity • Increase credibility • Mutually beneficial proposition Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 11
    12. 12. Personalization • Recommenders are instances of personalization software. • Personalization concerns adapting to the individual needs, interests, and preferences of each user. • Includes: – Recommending – Filtering – Predicting (e.g. form or calendar appt. completion) • From a business perspective, it is viewed as part of Customer Relationship Management (CRM). Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 12
    13. 13. Netfilx Prize • The Netflix Prize sought to substantially improve the accuracy of predictions about how much someone is going to enjoy a movie based on their movie preferences. On September 21, 2009 “BellKor’s Pragmatic Chaos” team, owned $1M Grand Prize. Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 13
    14. 14. Types of Collaborative Filtering • Memory-Based – This mechanism uses user rating data to compute similarity between users or items then uses this similarity to make a recommendation • Similarity methods: Pearson correlation, vector cosine • Model-Based – Models are developed using data mining, machine learning algorithms to find patterns based on training data to make predictions for real data. • Model Based Alg.: Bayesian Networks, clustering models, latent semantic models (SVD) , probabilistic latent semantic analysis, Latent Dirichlet allocation, Markov DP Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 15
    15. 15. Memory Based Algorithms • Customer Based Algorithms • Item Based Algorithms • Cluster Models Arizona State UniversityData Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 16
    16. 16. Recommendation Algorithms- Customer Based Algorithm • Most algorithms start by finding a set of customers whose purchased and rated items overlap the user’s purchased and rated items. • The algorithm aggregates items from these similar customers, eliminates items the user has already purchased or rated, and recommends the remaining items to the user. • Two popular versions of these algorithms: – collaborative filtering – cluster models. Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 17
    17. 17. Collaborative Filtering • A traditional collaborative filtering algorithm represents a customer as an N-dimensional vector of items, where N is the number of distinct catalog items. The components of the vector are positive for purchased or positively rated items and negative for negatively rated items. Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 18
    18. 18. The user-oriented neighborhood method • Joe likes the three movies on the left. • To make a prediction for him, the system finds similar users who also liked those movies, and then determines which other movies they liked. • In this case, all three liked Saving Private Ryan, so that is the first recommendation. • Two of them liked Dune, so that is next, and so on. Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 19
    19. 19. Recommendation Algorithms, Item Based Algorithm • These algorithms focus on finding similar items, not similar customers. • For each of the user’s purchased and rated items, the algorithm attempts to find similar items. It then aggregates the similar items and recommends them. – search-based methods – Amazon’s item-to-item collaborative filtering Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 20
    20. 20. Cluster Models • To find customers who are similar to the user, cluster models divide the customer base into many segments and treat the task as a classification problem. • The algorithm’s goal is to assign the user to the segment containing the most similar customers. • It then uses the purchases and ratings of the customers in the segment to generate recommendations. Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 21
    21. 21. Clustering Example • Clustering based on Gender and Genre Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 22
    22. 22. Amazon Item Based- Collaborative Filtering • Rather than matching the user to similar customers, item-to-item method, matches each of the user’s purchased and rated items to similar items, then combines those similar items into a recommendation list Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 23
    23. 23. Inside of the algorithms, Customer Based Algorithms • vi,j= vote of user i on item j • Ii = items for which user i has voted • Mean vote for i is • Predicted vote for “active user” a is weighted sum normalizer weights of n similar users Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 24
    24. 24. Customer Based Algorithms, Computing the weights • K-nearest neighbor 1 if i neighbors(a) w(a, i) 0 else • Pearson correlation coefficient (Resnick ’94, Grouplens): • Cosine distance (from IR) Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 25
    25. 25. Customer Based Algorithms, Computing the weights • Cosine with “inverse user frequency” fi = log(n/nj), where n is number of users, nj is number of users voting for item j Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 26
    26. 26. Customer Based Algorithms, Evaluation • Split users into train/test sets • For each user a in the test set: – split a’s votes into observed (I) and to-predict (P) – measure average absolute deviation between predicted and actual votes in P – predict votes in P, and form a ranked list – assume (a) utility of k-th item in list is max(va,j- d,0), where d is a “default vote” (b) probability of reaching rank k drops exponentially in k. Score a list by its expected utility Ra • Average Ra over all test users Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 29
    27. 27. Collaborative Filtering Systems- Review • Look for users who share the same rating patterns with the active user (the user whom the prediction is for). • Use the ratings from those like-minded users found in step 1 to calculate a prediction for the active user • Build an item-item matrix determining relationships between pairs of items • Using the matrix, and the data on the current user, infer his taste Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 30
    28. 28. Collaborative Filtering highlights • Use other users recommendations (ratings) to judge item’s utility • Key is to find users/user groups whose interests match with the current user • Vector Space model widely used (directions of vectors are user specified ratings) • More users, more ratings: better results • Can account for items dissimilar to the ones seen in the past too • Example: Movielens.org Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 31
    29. 29. Collaborative Filtering Limitations • Different users might use different scales. Possible solution: weighted ratings, i.e. deviations from average rating • Finding similar users/user groups isn’t very easy • New user: No preferences available • New item: No ratings available • Demographic filtering is required • Multi-criteria ratings is required Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 32
    30. 30. Challenges in Recommendation algorithms • A large retailer might have huge amounts of data, tens of millions of customers and millions of distinct catalog items. • Many applications require the results set to be returned in realtime, in no more than half a second, while still producing high-quality recommendations. • New customers typically have extremely limited information, based on only a few purchases or product ratings. • Older customers can have a glut of information, based on thousands of purchases and ratings. • Customer data is volatile: Each interaction provides valuable customer data, and the algorithm must respond immediately to new information. Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 33
    31. 31. Model Based Algorithms Arizona State UniversityData Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 34
    32. 32. Model Based Methods • Model or content-based methods treat the recommendations problem as a search for related items. • Given the user’s purchased and rated items, the algorithm constructs a search query to find other popular items by the same author, artist, or director, or with similar keywords or subjects. – If a customer buys the Godfather DVD Collection, for example, the system might recommend other crime drama titles, other titles starring Marlon Brando, or other movies directed by Francis Ford Coppola. Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 35
    33. 33. Content based RS highlights • Recommend items similar to those users preferred in the past • User profiling is the key • Items/content usually denoted by keywords • Matching “user preferences” with “item characteristics” … works for textual information • Vector Space Model widely used Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 36
    34. 34. Content based RS - Limitations • Not all content is well represented by keywords, e.g. images • Items represented by same set of features are indistinguishable • Overspecialization: unrated items not shown • Users with thousands of purchases is a problem • New user: No history available • Shouldn’t show items that are too different, or too similar Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 37
    35. 35. Other issues, not addressed much • Combining and weighting different types of information sources – How much is a web page link worth vs a link in a newsgroup? • Spamming—how to prevent vendors from biasing results? • Efficiency issues—how to handle a large community? • What do we measure when we evaluate CF? – Predicting actual rating may be useless! – Example: music recommendations: • Beatles, Eric Clapton, Stones, Elton John, Led Zep, the Who, ... – What’s useful and new? for this need model of user’s prior knowledge, not just his tastes. • Subjectively better recs result from “poor” distance metrics Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 38
    36. 36. References • http://www.cs.duke.edu/csed/socialnet/workshop/2006/assign/cf- 4up.pdf • http://www.deitel.com/ResourceCenters/Web20/RecommenderSystems/ RecommenderSystemsandCollaborativeFiltering/tabid/1318/Default.aspx • http://public.research.att.com/~volinsky/netflix/RecSys08tutorial.pdf • http://www.grouplens.org/papers/pdf/www10_sarwar.pdf • http://web4.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/jun.wang/blog/topics/research- resources/collaborative-filtering/ • http://webwhompers.com/collaborative-filtering.html Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 39
    37. 37. Mohammad-Ali Abbasi (Ali), Ali, is a Ph.D student at Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab, Arizona State University. His research interests include Data Mining, Machine Learning, Social Computing, and Social Media Behavior Analysis. http://www.public.asu.edu/~mabbasi2/ Arizona State UniversityData Mining and Machine Learning Lab Data Mining and Machine Learning- in a nutshell Collective Intelligence 40

    ×