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Seminar 97

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Seminar 97 Seminar 97 Presentation Transcript

  • DRIVERS AND PRESSURES IN ATMOSPHERIC CHANGES ALIA 06-ARID-576
  •  
  • ATMOSPHERE View slide
  • POLUTION View slide
  • Drivers Of Climate Change
    • Slow Drifting of the Continents
    • Sun’s Energy Output
    • Position of the Earth Relative to the Sun
  • Drifting of the Continents
    • The Sea level Dropped
    • Volcanoes Erupted
    • Drop in Temperature and Precipitation
  • Variation In Radiant Energy High Energy Output Temp Rise Low energy output Temp Drop
  • Human-Forced Climate Change
    • Fossil Fuels
    • Aerosols
    • Land Use
    • Cement Manufacture
    • Livestock
  • Global trends of climate
  • Changes in Temperatures, Sea Level and Snow Cover
  • Human activities have changed the composition of the atmosphere since the pre- industrial era
  •  
  • • CO2 concentrations will likely be more than 700 ppm by 2100 If nothing is done to slow greenhouse gas emissions. . . • Global average temperatures projected to increase between 2.5-10.4°F
  • Tracking CO2 across the Globe
  • Methane
    • Coal Mining
    • Natural Gas Production
    • Rice Paddies
    • Biomass Burning
    • Volcanic Eruptions
    • Melting of Methane hydrates in Permafrost
    • Cows
  • Nitrogen trifluoride
    • Nitrogen trifluoride is actually 17,000 times more effective at warming the earth's atmosphere than CO 2
    • Nitrogen trifluoride is increasing at a rate of 11% per year
    • Current emissions of the gas only contribute about 0.04%
  • Cloud Cover
    • Less particulate, fewer reflective cloud droplets.
    • The reduced particles lead to bigger water droplets.
  • Ozone Hole In Antarctica
    • Vortex isolates the air in the stratosphere from mixing with warmer air at higher latitudes.
    • In the extreme cold unusual clouds called polar stratospheric clouds form
  • Ozone Hole Conti……
    • Within these clouds, chemically stable forms of chlorine and bromine are converted into less stable gases.
    • Ultraviolet light breaks the less-stable chlorine and bromine gases that catalyze ozone destruction.
  • Greenhouse Gases Altering the Ozone Layer
    • The buildup of greenhouse gases makes troposphere warmer but cools the upper stratosphere
    • Allows natural ozone production in that region to outpace destruction by CFCs.
    • Gases also changes the circulation of stratospheric air masses from the tropics to the poles
  • A Startling Discovery!
    • Large amounts of lower atmospheric ozone are being destroyed in the lower atmosphere over the tropical Atlantic Ocean.
    • CAUSES: Bromine and iodine oxide over the ocean in the tropical Atlantic region attack the ozone, breaking it down. As the ozone is destroyed, a chemical is produced that attacks and destroys methane.
  • Location is Key for Trees to Fight Global Warming
    • Tropical forests have a net cooling effect because they take up carbon and increase cloudiness, which helps cool the planet.
    • At mid-to-high latitudes the warming effect of their dark color outweighs the cooling effect of the CO 2 they store.
  • Location is Key for Trees to Fight Global Warming
    • Forests in tropical regions serve as carbon sinks, forests in the mid-latitudes are nearly carbon-neutral, and boreal forests, actually contribute to global warming
  • Should We Farm the Forests ?
    • Canadian forests actually gave up more carbon from decomposed wood than they locked down during new growth.
    • Tree takes in 1,500 pounds of carbon dioxide during the first 55 years of life, then gradually takes in less.
    • The tree slowly rots or burns and all that carbon dioxide gets released.
  • Should We Farm Conti…..
    • Canada's forests, which account for about 7% of the world's total forest lands
    • Insect infestations and persistent fires since 1999, have crossed an ominous line and are now pumping out more climate-changing carbon dioxide
    • Higher temperatures have accelerated the spread of Pine Beetle
  • Global Sea Level Changes over the Past 15 Years
  • Oceans seen soaking up less CO2
    • The uptake of CO2 by the North Atlantic Ocean halved between the mid 1990's and 2002-2005, which could accelerate global warming.
    • Natural oscillation or a response to recent rapid global warming.
    • Don't Count on Plankton
  • Latest Update on the Glaciers of the World
    • According to WGMS (World Glacier Monitoring Service) , more than 80 glaciers across the globe are still melting at high rates.
    • In 2007 overall loss of average ice thickness of world glaciers is roughly 0.67 meter water equivalent (m.w.e .)
  • Vernagtferner Glacier in Austria
  • Evidence that Arctic Warming is Accelerating
  • Could the use of Biofuels actually Increase Greenhouse Gas Emissions?
    • Paul Crutzen that growing and burning biofuels may actually raise rather than lower greenhouse gas emissions
    • Pre-industrial nitrous oxide emissions are not the same as natural nitrous oxide
  • Worm-opogenic Global Warming
    • Worms produce greenhouse gases that are 290 times more potent than carbon dioxide.
    • "Everybody thinks they can do no harm but they contribute to global warming. People are looking into alternative waste treatments but we have to make sure that we are not jumping from the frying pan into the fire"
  • Male Turtle Populations Crashing in the Heat
    • " The gender of marine turtle offspring is determined by the temperature at which the eggs are incubated: high temperatures lead to a higher proportion of females."
  • Deaf Fish?
    • Global warming is posing a threat to the hearing of tropical fish.
    • “ Hone in on high frequency noises made by invertebrates like shrimp and sea urchins, and avoid the low-frequency noises made by crashing waves and adult fish.“
  • Deaf Fish?
    • Increasingly acid nature of the water, that affects the development of the ear bones of the fish.
  • Biodiversity
    • Estimated 10-15% of the world’s species could become extinct over the next 30 years
    • Climate change will exacerbate the loss of biodiversity
  • Bangladesh is projected to lose about 17% of its land area with a sea level rise of one meter - very difficult to adapt due to lack of adaptive capacity
  • Food production needs to double to meet the needs of an additional 3 billion people in the next 30 years Climate change is projected to decrease agricultural productivity in the tropics and sub-tropics for almost any amount of warming
  • Wood fuel is the only source of fuel for one third of the world’s population Wood demand will double in the next 50 years Forest management will become more difficult due to an increase in pests and fires
  • Climate change is projected to decrease water availability in many arid- and semi-arid regions Population facing water scarcity will more than double over the next 30 years One third of the world’s population is now subject to water scarcity
  • The Secret of Health for both Mind and Body is Not to Mourn for the Past, Worry about the Future or Anticipate Troubles …. But to Live in the Present Moment Wisely and Earnestly
  • Thank You