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Ali's research focus Ali's research focus Presentation Transcript

  • by Ali Alkhalaf Fall 2011
  • The PurposeThe purpose is to identify successful OD characteristics and find the unique skills of successful Organization Development Practitioners (ODP) who are using the Appreciative Inquiry (AI) approach.
  • Background 1. OD definition Organization Development (OD) can be defined as a process of planned change in an organization’s culture (Burke, 1994). OD helps individuals, teams, and organizations to improve their performance (French & Bell, 1995).Reference:Burke, W. (1994). Organization development process of learning and changing. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publication.French, W. L., & Bell, C. H. (1995). Organization development: Behavioral science interventions for organization improvement, (5th ed.).Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Background2. OD history. The idea of Organization Development was created by Kurt Lewin in 1947. Lewin explained the ideas of action research and group dynamics, which are fundamental to Organization Development.3. Because of that, he is known the grandfather of OD.
  •  There are two important approaches in OD:1. Action research2. Appreciative inquiry
  • Action Research  Lewin developed a methodology that improved the system and conceptualized a theory in the process (Bushe, 2000). His concept, known as action research, (Miriam Lewin Papanek, 1973, as cited in Newhard, 2010).  Lewin believed that the motivation to change was strongly related to action. So, if people are active in decisions which affect them, they are more likely to change.Reference:Bushe, G.R. (2000). Advances in appreciative inquiry as an organization developmentintervention. In Cooperrider, D.L., Sorenson, P.F, Jr., Whitney, D., & Yaeger, T. (Eds.), Appreciative inquiry: Rethinking human organization toward a positivetheory of change (pp. 113-121). San Francisco, CA: Wiley/Pfeiffer.Newhard, M. L. (2010). An exploratory study of competencies of appreciative inquiry practitioners: Discovery (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved November25, 2010, from Dissertations & Theses @ CIC Institutions.(Publication No. AAT 3420253)
  • Action Research model Action Research is a cyclical process of change. The cycle begins with a series of planning actions initiated by the client and the change agent. The main elements include a preliminary diagnosis, data gathering, feedback of results, and joint action planning.
  • Action Research model 1. Entry 2. Start-up 3. Assessment and Feedback 4. Action PlanningReference:Rothwell, W. J., Sullivan, R. L. (2010). Change process and models. In Rothwell, W. J., Stavros, J. M., Sullivan, R. L., & Sullivan, A.(Eds.), Practicing organization development: A guide for leading change (3rd ed., pp. 43-70). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.
  • Action Research model 5. Intervention 6. Evaluation 7. Adoption 8. SeparationReference:Rothwell, W. J., Sullivan, R. L. (2010). Change process and models. In Rothwell, W. J., Stavros, J. M., Sullivan, R. L., & Sullivan, A.(Eds.), Practicing organization development: A guide for leading change (3rd ed., pp. 43-70). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.
  • Appreciative Inquiry (AI)  AI is a new change model uses positive energy to help people see new possibilities (Bushe, 2009) and assist organization development.  “Research has shown that building on people’s strengths can produce greater results than spending time correcting their weaknesses” (Rath & Conchie, 2009, qtd. in Newhard, 2010, p.115).References:Bushe, G., & Marshak, R. (2009). Revisioning organization development: Diagnostic and dialogic premises and patterns of practice. TheJournal of Applied Behavioral Science, 45(3), 348-368.Newhard, M. L. (2010). An exploratory study of competencies of appreciative inquiry practitioners: Discovery (Doctoral dissertation).Retrieved November 25, 2010, from Dissertations & Theses @ CIC Institutions.(Publication No. AAT 3420253)Rath, T. & Conchie, B. (2009). Strengths-based leadership. New York, NY: Gallup.
  • Appreciative Inquiry  AI as an OD approach was started by Cooperrider in 1980.  Cooperrider was a Ph.D. student at Case Western Reserve University in Ohio. He “noticed energy increased when employees discussed the positive aspects of the organization and memories of success” (Whitney & Cooperrider, 2000,p.13).References:Whitney, D. & Cooperrider, D.L. (2000). The appreciative inquiry summit: An emerging methodology for whole system positive change.OD Practitioner: Journal of the Organization Development Network, 32(1), 13-26.
  • Appreciative Inquiry  Furthermore, employees became enthusiastic and came up with new ideas during such discussions (Whitney & Cooperrider, 2000).  Cooperrider discussed his observations with his advisor, Suresh Srivastva, who directed him to focus on his observations of positive situations instead of studying problems (Watkins & Stavros, 2009).References:Whitney, D. & Cooperrider, D.L. (2000). The appreciative inquiry summit: An emerging methodology for whole system positive change.OD Practitioner: Journal of the Organization Development Network, 32(1), 13-26.Watkins, J.M. & Stavros, J.M. (2009). Our work for the times in which we live. InW.J. Rothwell, J.M. Stavros, R. Sullivan, & A. Sullivan (Eds.), Practicing organization development: A guide to leading change (ThirdEdition) (pp. 646-655). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Appreciative Inquiry 4D model Discovery •Discovery: The task is to “What gives life?”(the best of what is) inquire, learn about, and Appreciating appreciate the best of “what is”. Destiny Dream “What will be?” •Dream: Participants should (how to empower, learn, an Affirmative Topic “What might be?” (imagine what he world is amplify the positive core of d adjust/improvise) Choice calling for) Envisioning Sustaining the subject system by imagining possibilities for the Design future. “How can it be ?” (determining the ideal) Co- constructingAI 4-D ModelSource: Adapted from Stavros, J. M., Watkins, J. M. (2010). Appreciative inquiry. In Rothwell, W. J., Stavros, J. M., Sullivan, R. L., &Sullivan, A. (Eds.), Practicing organization development: A guide for leading change (3rd ed., pp. 158-181). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.
  • Appreciative Inquiry 4D model Discovery •Design: Designing the “What gives life?”(the best of what is) desired change, focusing on Appreciating the best of the past and moving toward future to Destiny Dream “What will be?” achieve the desired state. (how to empower, learn, an Affirmative Topic “What might be?” (imagine what he world is •Destiny: Participants have a d adjust/improvise) Choice calling for) Envisioning Sustaining conversation about how to deliver the dream and design Design based on the discovery and “How can it be ?” (determining the dialogue. ideal) Co- constructingAI 4-D ModelSource: Adapted from Stavros, J. M., Watkins, J. M. (2010). Appreciative inquiry. In Rothwell, W. J., Stavros, J. M., Sullivan, R. L., &Sullivan, A. (Eds.), Practicing organization development: A guide for leading change (3rd ed., pp. 158-181). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.
  • AI Competencies  Newhard (2010) stated that “no research exists on the skill set and talent required to be a qualified appreciative inquiry (AI) practitioner” (p. 14).  Michele Newhard focused in her dissertation on OD competencies and came up with a list for OD AI competencies.References:Newhard, M. L. (2010). An exploratory study of competencies of appreciative inquiry practitioners: Discovery (Doctoral dissertation).Retrieved November 25, 2010, from Dissertations & Theses @ CIC Institutions.(Publication No. AAT 3420253)
  • AI Competencies After she analyzed the collected data, Newhard came up with AI competencies and categorized them into four groups. Those groups deal with personal skills, interpersonal skills, business acumen, and knowledge of the subject matter of AI.
  • The Problem There were several attempts to draft a list of OD skills and competencies. These previous attempts have not paid significant attention to a growing sub discipline in the field, Appreciative Inquiry (AI). Thus this study will identify the unique skills that successful practitioners of that approach must possess.
  • Significance of the Research In my opinion both organizations and OD practitioners will benefit from such a list of the most important OD AI competencies since a list would focus practitioners attention on the skills that are most needed to successfully implement improvements.
  • Significance of the Research A list would ease entry into the OD profession by providing young OD students and professionals with a set of guidelines for their development. Moreover, this list would help career-development departments to design training programs for those employees who intend to become internal OD practitioners.
  • Significance of the Research AI list would also help organizations in their recruitment procedures, when they seek to hire an OD professional. OD consultants will also benefit from a list of unique competencies for AI practitioners, because consultants who specialize in AI would be able to market themselves well. ------------------------------------------------------------ The End