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Structure And Function Of Macromolecules1
 

Structure And Function Of Macromolecules1

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Structure and Function of Macromolecules

Structure and Function of Macromolecules
Lecture Presentation
01/04/2010
Mr. Hunter

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    Structure And Function Of Macromolecules1 Structure And Function Of Macromolecules1 Presentation Transcript

    • Structure and Function of Macromolecules
      • Macromolecules are polymers built from monomers
      • A polymer is a long chained molecule composed of repeating subunits (monomers)
      • Starch is a polymer composed of glucose molecules
      • Proteins are polymers composed of amino acids
      • E. Larger polymers are formed by the combining of monomers via a process called dehydration or condensation reactions.
      • Within this process two monomers are joined by the removal of water.
      • The formation of starch results from the following: C6 H12 O6 + C6 H12O6----- C12H22O11 + H20
      • Hydrolysis occurs when water is added top split large molecules. Which is the reverse of the above reaction.
    • Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material
      • Carbohydrates include both simple sugars such as glucose, fructose and galactose , etc.
      • They also include polymers such as starch made from these and other subunits.
      • All carbohydrates exist in a 1 carbon:2 hydrogen: 1 oxygen ratio or CH2O 1:2:1
      • Monosaccharides are the monomers of carbohydrates. Examples include glucose, and ribose (C5 H10 O5)
      • Polysaccharides are the polymers of monosaccharides. Examples are starch, cellulose and glycogen
    • Functions of Carbohydrates
      • The two functions of polysaccharides and energy storage and structural support .
      • Energy Storage Polysaccharides are starch and glycogen. Starch : storage polysaccharide found in plants (ex. Potatoes). Glycogen: storage polysaccharide found in animals, vertebrate muscle, and liver cells.
      • Structural support Polysaccharides are Cellulose and Chitin. Cellulose is a major component of plant cell walls. Chitin is found in the exoskeleton of anthropods, such s lobsters and insects and the cell wall of fungi. It gives bugs their distinct “crunch”
    • Lipids are a Diverse Group of Hydrophobic Molecules
      • Lipids are hydrophobic-meaning that they do not dissolve in water (nonpolar).
      • They are not polymers. They are assembled from a variety of components. Examples of lipids include waxes, oils, fats, and steroids.
      • Fats (also called triglycerides) are made up of a glycerol molecule and three fatty acid molecules.
      • Fatty acids include hydrocarbon chains of variable lengths. These chains are nonpolar and therefore hydrophobic.
      • Saturated fatty acids:
      • Have no double bonds between carbon atoms
      • Tend to pack solidly at room temperature
      • Are linked to cardiovascular disease
      • Are commonly produced in animals
      • Ex- butter and lard
    • Lipids a Diverse Group of Hydrophobic Molecules
      • Unsaturated fatty acids:
      • Have some double bonding between carbon atoms
      • Tend to be liquid at room temperature
      • Are commonly produced by plants
      • Examples are corn and olive oil.
      • Functions: Energy storage. Fats can store twice as many calories/gram as carbohydrates.
      • Fats provide a protective coating of vital organs and insulation. Fat is stored in adipose cells
      • Phospholipids make up the cell membrane:
      • Have a glycerol backbone (head), which is hydrophilic
      • Have two fatty acid tails, which are nonpolar
      • Are arranged in a bilayer in forming the cell membrane, with the polar heads pointing toward the watery cytosol and the nonpolar tails sandwiched in between
    • Sterioids
      • Steroids are made of four rings that are fused together.
      • Cholesterol is a steroid. It is a common component of cell membranes
      • Estrogen and testosterone are steroid hormones.
      • Proteins are polymers made of amino acid monomers.
      • Amino acids contain a central carbon bonded to a carboxyl group , an amino group , a hydrogen atom and an R group (variable group or side chain)
      • Peptide bonds link amino acids together. These bonds are formed via. dehydration synthesis
      • The function of a protein depend on the order and number of amino acids.
      • There are four levels of protein structure
    • Protein Structure
      • Primary structure is the sequence in which amino acids are joined
      • Secondary structure refers to one of two three-dimensional shapes that are the result of hydrogen bonding
      • Alpha helix is a coiled shape
      • Beta pleated sheet is an accordion shape
      • Tertiary structure results in a complex globular shape, due to the interaction between R-groups, such as hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonds and disulfide bridges.
      • Globular proteins such as enzymes are held in position by these R-group interactions
      • Quaternary structure refers to the association of two or more polypeptide chains into one large protein. Hemoglobin is a globular protein with a quaternary structure, as it is composed of four chains.
    • Protein Shape and Function
      • Protein shape is crucial to its function.
      • When a protein does not fold properly its function changes.
      • Chaperonins are protein molecules that assist in the proper folding of proteins within cells. They provide an isolating environment in which a polypeptide chain may attain full conformation.
      • Denaturation occurs when a protein loses its shape and its ability to function due to heat, a change in pH or other disturbance. What common example of a denatured protein can be a part of your breakfast?
      • DNA is a macromolecule composed of nucleotides
    • Nucleotide
      • Three Parts:
      • Phosphate Group
      • Five Carbon Sugar Molecule
      • Nitrogen Containing Base
    • Nucleotides Continued
      • The 5 carbon sugar in the nucleotide molecule of DNA is called deoxyribose
      • Sugar molecules and phosphate groups are the same for nucleotide molecules in DNA
      • The nitrogen bases may be of 4 different kinds
      • 2 Double Ring Purine bases:
      • 2 Single Ring Pyrimidine bases
    • Macromolecules
      • By what process are macromolecules formed?
      • By what process are they broken down into monomer subunits?
      • What molecule is removed in a condensation reaction?
      • What is the ratio found in carbohydrate molecules?
      • What are the monomers of large polysaccharide molecules?
      • Which storage polysaccharide is found in plants? And which one is found in animals?
      • What are four examples of lipids?
      • What are the differences between saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids?
      • What are the subunits of proteins?
      • What are the bonds that link amino acids together?