10/22/13

1
HALAL SLAUGHTER AND
MEAT QUALITY

Prof. Dr. Javaid Aziz Awan
Halal Resear Council
www.halalrc.org
10/22/13

2
INTRODUCTION
Meat indispensable for sound human
health
Provides several essential nutrients:
Proteins
Essential amino ...
INTRODUCTION
Meat subject to spoilage by:
Chemical reactions
Biochemical reactions
Biological agents, including bacter...
INTRODUCTION
Hence meat be produced so as to:
Minimize chemical and biochemical
changes
Prevent chances of microbial
co...
Slaughtering
the MuSliM way
10/22/13

6
SELECTION OF ANIMALS

“Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat,
blood, the flesh of swine, and that on
which hath been ...
SELECTION OF ANIMALS

Islam permits consumption of few animals
and birds only
Strictly prohibited:
Pork
Blood
Carrion...
SELECTION OF ANIMALS

Permitted animals:
All herbivorous, even-toed ruminants
Animal for Halal slaughter be:
Healthy
...
Pre-reQuiSiteS FOr
Slaughter in iSlaM

10/22/13

10
PRE-REQUISITES FOR SLAUGHTER
Slaughtering of lawful animals and birds
essential to prepare for food purposes
Pre-slaught...
PRINCIPLES OF HALAL SLAUGHTER

Islamic method of slaughtering - based on
two important principles:
Tasmiya - invoking na...
PRINCIPLESD OF HALAL
SLAUGHTER - TASMIYA
Tasmiya means invoking the name of Allah on
the animal or bird being slaughtered...
HALAL SLAUGHTER REQUIREMENTS

Tazkiyah means purification - cleaning
meat of blood
Consumption of blood prohibited in Ho...
HALAL SLAUGHTER REQUIREMENTS

Slaughtering rules apply to animals and
birds in complete physical control of man
Any anim...
SLAUGHTERING
PROCESS IN ISLAm

10/22/13

16
ESSENTIALS OF HALAL
SLAUGHTERING

The Holy Prophet (pbuh) gave
comprehensive guidelines on slaughtering
of animals in fol...
HALAL SLAUGHTERING - Slaughterer

Process of slaughtering in Islam consolidated
Slaughterer:
must be adult Muslim or
o...
SLAUGHTERING INSTRUMENT

The Holy Prophet (pbuh) advised
companions to use very sharp instrument
Further instructed that...
ANIMAL POSITIONING

Lay animal (except camel) on its left
flank, preferably facing Kibla
Recite name of Allah:
Subhan A...
ESSENTIALS OF HALAL
SLAUGHTERING

Give quick incision using very sharp knife
on front of the neck to severe:
Wind pipe
...
REST PRIOR TO SLAUGHTERING
Islam promotes calm and rested animals
prior to slaughtering:
 Not fatigued
 Not excited
 N...
STRESS PRIOR TO SLAUGHTERING

Prohibited - any act that causes neurosis
or excitement or other abnormal
behavioural chang...
SCIENTIFIC
EVIDENCE

10/22/13

24
Stress prior to slaughtering
Generally regarded undesirable that
animal awaiting slaughter view
slaughtering process – ca...
Stress prior to slaughteringScientific evidence
Discharge hormones from adrenal
glands:
adrenaline from adrenal medulla
...
Rest prior to slaughtering –
Scientific evidence
Modern methods require animal prior to
slaughtering not be subjected to:...
Rest prior to slaughtering –
Scientific evidence
Rough handling of animals in preslaughter period adversely affects meat
...
Rest prior to slaughtering –
Scientific evidence
Proper relaxation before slaughtering:
Helps animal to bleed well – bet...
Rest prior to slaughtering –
Scientific evidence
Improves taste due to conditioning/
tenderness
Helps delay or reduce fe...
FEEDING THE ANIMALS

Holy Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) advised
that animals destined for slaughtering be:
well fed
provided ...
FEEDING THE ANIMALS – SCIENTIFIC
EVIDENCE

Two schools of thoughts:
Animal to remain hungry - Fasting
Animal be well fe...
FEEDING THE ANIMALS –
SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

Fasting animals - Advantages claimed:
 Bleed better
 Carcass easier to dress
...
FEEDING THE ANIMALS – SCIENTIFIC
EVIDENCE

Fasted animals - Disadvantages:
Loss in weight of carcass and liver
Lower gl...
FEEDING THE ANIMALS –
SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE
Well-fed animals:
Glycogen level in muscle reaches higher level
Ensures produc...
FEEDING THE ANIMALS –
SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE
Meat spoilage bacteria prefer growth at high
pH levels - around pH 7.0
Meat of...
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE

Conventionally, slaughtering process
consists of two to three different stages
Depends on religi...
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE
Modern method - Stunning

Western countries require animals be
stunned
Stunning widely practiced ...
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE –
Modern method - Stunning

Stunning Methods:
Pole-axe
Free bullet
Captive bolt pistol
Concussi...
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE
Modern method - Stunning

Stunning effective in having calm animal
Stunning may adversely affect ...
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE –
Modern method - Stunning

Method of shooting by free bullet - too
dangerous to use in abattoirs
...
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE –
Modern method - Stunning
Electrical stunning widely used
increases frequency of ‘blood splash” ...
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE –
Modern method - Stunning
Stunning - outcome of industrial revolution
Initially meant to protect...
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE
Animal positioning
Islamic method - lay animal on left flank
preferably facing Kibla
Scientific ev...
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE
Animal positioning - Scientific evidence

During convulsions blood squeezed out of
vessels
Hence ...
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE
Bleeding techniques

Islam permits use of sharp knife or any
sharp object for bleeding
Incision m...
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE
Bleeding techniques

Slaughtering actually done in the name of
Allah
“So eat of (meats) on which ...
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE
Bleeding techniques

Slaughtering not in name of any person
or deity in accordance with following
...
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE
Bleeding techniques - Islamic method
Cut throat transversely without injuring
spinal cord to sever...
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE
3. Bleeding techniques Islamic method
Two requirements in slaughter of animals
for meat:
 animals...
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE
3. Bleeding techniques – Scientific evidence

When both carotid arteries and veins
severed connect...
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE
3. Bleeding techniques – Scientific evidence

Results of a comparison of study on
different methods...
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE
3. Bleeding techniques – Scientific evidence

Islamic method ensures maximum blood
drainage from b...
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE
Bleeding – Scientific evidence
Blood excellent medium for growth of
microorganisms
Meat retaining...
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE
Bleeding techniques – Scientific evidence

To produce good carcass animal be bled
effectively
Hea...
SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE
Bleeding techniques – Scientific evidence

Positioning of animal in Islamic method:
 clearly preve...
EXTRODUCTION
Current scientific data reveals Islamic
recommendations for slaughtering animals
highly rational
Good physi...
10/22/13

58
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One Day Specialized International Workshop on Halal Meat

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Halal Research Council is an organization working globally on Halal certifications in order to cater the needs of food and nutrition agencies and side by side non-food agencies especially in the FMCG sectors.Halal Research organized “One Day Specialized International Workshop on Halal Meat” on 8th October, 2013 at Dubai. The key goal of the International Workshop was to highlight the importance of consuming Halal Meat, Halal Meat export, Halal International Meat Market Potential and development of Halal Meat Concept among the masses.

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One Day Specialized International Workshop on Halal Meat

  1. 1. 10/22/13 1
  2. 2. HALAL SLAUGHTER AND MEAT QUALITY Prof. Dr. Javaid Aziz Awan Halal Resear Council www.halalrc.org 10/22/13 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Meat indispensable for sound human health Provides several essential nutrients: Proteins Essential amino acids Mineral elements Vitamins 10/22/13 3
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION Meat subject to spoilage by: Chemical reactions Biochemical reactions Biological agents, including bacteria and moulds Responsible for food-borne diseases 10/22/13 4
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION Hence meat be produced so as to: Minimize chemical and biochemical changes Prevent chances of microbial contamination and growth Preserve quality 10/22/13 5
  6. 6. Slaughtering the MuSliM way 10/22/13 6
  7. 7. SELECTION OF ANIMALS “Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which hath been invoked the name of other than God; that which hath been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a head long fall, or by being gored to death; that which hath been partly eaten by a wild animal, unless ye are able to slaughter it (in due form) ………………. (Al Maida - V:4) 10/22/13 7
  8. 8. SELECTION OF ANIMALS Islam permits consumption of few animals and birds only Strictly prohibited: Pork Blood Carrion Dead animals All carnivorous animals All birds of prey 10/22/13 8
  9. 9. SELECTION OF ANIMALS Permitted animals: All herbivorous, even-toed ruminants Animal for Halal slaughter be: Healthy Free from any apparent or hidden disease Must be legally owned 10/22/13 9
  10. 10. Pre-reQuiSiteS FOr Slaughter in iSlaM 10/22/13 10
  11. 11. PRE-REQUISITES FOR SLAUGHTER Slaughtering of lawful animals and birds essential to prepare for food purposes Pre-slaughter management and bleeding methods regulated by: religious practices and legislations Ahadith by the Holy Prophet (pbuh) guide us on handling, care and slaughter of animals These guidelines over 14 centuries old Modern science just testified implications 10/22/13 11
  12. 12. PRINCIPLES OF HALAL SLAUGHTER Islamic method of slaughtering - based on two important principles: Tasmiya - invoking name of Allah slaughter being done with His permission Tazkiyah - means purification This in accordance with several commands given in the Holy Quran and Ahadith 10/22/13 12
  13. 13. PRINCIPLESD OF HALAL SLAUGHTER - TASMIYA Tasmiya means invoking the name of Allah on the animal or bird being slaughtered Allah’s name may be invoked as: Subhan Allah, or La illaha illila ho, or Allah-o-Akbar or Bismillah Allah-o-Akbar 10/22/13 13
  14. 14. HALAL SLAUGHTER REQUIREMENTS Tazkiyah means purification - cleaning meat of blood Consumption of blood prohibited in Holy Scriptures: Holy Bible - Leviticus 3:17 and 7:26 Holy Quran – Al Anaam - VI:146 All lawful animals and birds contain blood Blood must be drained as per these commands 10/22/13 14
  15. 15. HALAL SLAUGHTER REQUIREMENTS Slaughtering rules apply to animals and birds in complete physical control of man Any animal or bird gone wild and cannot be reached or caught, falls under category of ‘game animal’ - different rituals apply Camel slaughtered by ‘nahr’ - Involves piercing throat with sharp, spear-like instrument while standing 10/22/13 15
  16. 16. SLAUGHTERING PROCESS IN ISLAm 10/22/13 16
  17. 17. ESSENTIALS OF HALAL SLAUGHTERING The Holy Prophet (pbuh) gave comprehensive guidelines on slaughtering of animals in following Hadith: “Verily Allah, has prescribed proficiency in all things. Thus, if you kill, kill well; and if you slaughter, slaughter well. Let each one of you sharpen his blade and let him spare suffering to the animal he slaughters.” 10/22/13 17
  18. 18. HALAL SLAUGHTERING - Slaughterer Process of slaughtering in Islam consolidated Slaughterer: must be adult Muslim or one who believes in Holy Scriptures should be in possession of his mental faculties 10/22/13 18
  19. 19. SLAUGHTERING INSTRUMENT The Holy Prophet (pbuh) advised companions to use very sharp instrument Further instructed that sharpening of knife not be performed in front of slaying animal – avoid excitement and nervousness 10/22/13 19
  20. 20. ANIMAL POSITIONING Lay animal (except camel) on its left flank, preferably facing Kibla Recite name of Allah: Subhan Allah, or La illaha illila ho, or Allah-o-Akbar or Bismillah Allah-o-Akbar 10/22/13 20
  21. 21. ESSENTIALS OF HALAL SLAUGHTERING Give quick incision using very sharp knife on front of the neck to severe: Wind pipe Oesophagus Carotid arteries Jugular veins Prohibited - practice of cutting off part of an animal or removing its skin while still alive 10/22/13 21
  22. 22. REST PRIOR TO SLAUGHTERING Islam promotes calm and rested animals prior to slaughtering:  Not fatigued  Not excited  Not nervous 10/22/13 22
  23. 23. STRESS PRIOR TO SLAUGHTERING Prohibited - any act that causes neurosis or excitement or other abnormal behavioural changes in animal Prohibited in Islam - Practice of collective slaughtering - other animals do not view their companion being killed Research reveals practices inhumane 10/22/13 23
  24. 24. SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE 10/22/13 24
  25. 25. Stress prior to slaughtering Generally regarded undesirable that animal awaiting slaughter view slaughtering process – causes stress Animals under stress - lead to: Undue emotional instability Fatigue Anorexia, etc. 10/22/13 25
  26. 26. Stress prior to slaughteringScientific evidence Discharge hormones from adrenal glands: adrenaline from adrenal medulla 17 hydroxy- and 11-deoxycorticosterones from adrenal cortex Hormones deplete muscle glycogen and potassium Deleterious effects on meat quality To prevent these adverse effects, tranquilizers recommended to calm 10/22/13 26
  27. 27. Rest prior to slaughtering – Scientific evidence Modern methods require animal prior to slaughtering not be subjected to: Stress Fatigue Neurotic Otherwise excited 10/22/13 27
  28. 28. Rest prior to slaughtering – Scientific evidence Rough handling of animals in preslaughter period adversely affects meat quality Result - dark, firm and dry meat (dark cutting meat) Fatigued or starved animals  Organisms from gut may invade blood stream and eventually muscles 10/22/13 28
  29. 29. Rest prior to slaughtering – Scientific evidence Proper relaxation before slaughtering: Helps animal to bleed well – better eating and keeping quality of meat Builds up muscle glycogen essential to lower pH of meat Increases storage life by reducing chances of microbial growth 10/22/13 29
  30. 30. Rest prior to slaughtering – Scientific evidence Improves taste due to conditioning/ tenderness Helps delay or reduce fermentation in stomach  may otherwise give meat characteristic smell known as ‘bone taint’ 10/22/13 30
  31. 31. FEEDING THE ANIMALS Holy Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) advised that animals destined for slaughtering be: well fed provided with drinking water  Preferable that animals have free access to feed and water prior to slaughtering 10/22/13 31
  32. 32. FEEDING THE ANIMALS – SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE Two schools of thoughts: Animal to remain hungry - Fasting Animal be well fed Fasting animals - Fasting animals before slaughter recommended in modern abattoirs 10/22/13 32
  33. 33. FEEDING THE ANIMALS – SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE Fasting animals - Advantages claimed:  Bleed better  Carcass easier to dress  Carcass has brighter appearance  Reduced bulk of animal’s stomach  Reduced chances of bacterial contamination from gut 10/22/13 33
  34. 34. FEEDING THE ANIMALS – SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE Fasted animals - Disadvantages: Loss in weight of carcass and liver Lower glycogen reserves in muscles Reduced gustative quality of meat 10/22/13 34
  35. 35. FEEDING THE ANIMALS – SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE Well-fed animals: Glycogen level in muscle reaches higher level Ensures production of adequate lactic acid Lowers pH of meat Such meat has good: Appearance Taste Tenderness Longer shelf-life 10/22/13 35
  36. 36. FEEDING THE ANIMALS – SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE Meat spoilage bacteria prefer growth at high pH levels - around pH 7.0 Meat of soothed and well-fed animals: pH attains 5.5 or even lower level Meat of fatigued or neurotic animals: pH varies from 6.5 to 7.0 Feeding animals prior to slaughtering often recommended to produce good quality meat In some cases sugar solution fed to quickly restore glycogen level in tissues 10/22/13 36
  37. 37. SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Conventionally, slaughtering process consists of two to three different stages Depends on religious practices and legislations Posture of animal and bleeding method governed by religious and national legislations 10/22/13 37
  38. 38. SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Modern method - Stunning Western countries require animals be stunned Stunning widely practiced in Western abattoirs: To make animal unconscious for gentle and painless death No standard method for all animals under all conditions Muslims & Jews not in favour of stunning 10/22/13 38
  39. 39. SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE – Modern method - Stunning Stunning Methods: Pole-axe Free bullet Captive bolt pistol Concussion stunner Electrical stunning Carbon dioxide anesthesia 10/22/13 39
  40. 40. SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Modern method - Stunning Stunning effective in having calm animal Stunning may adversely affect quality of carcass cause injury to medulla oblongata in brain - controls blood circulation and respiration Desirable these systems continue to function - help pump blood out of carcass when blood vessels cut 10/22/13 40
  41. 41. SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE – Modern method - Stunning Method of shooting by free bullet - too dangerous to use in abattoirs Captive bolt - discarded Carbon dioxide anesthesia - exact dose of gas important for specific length of time does not seem possible with all animals under all conditions 10/22/13 41
  42. 42. SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE – Modern method - Stunning Electrical stunning widely used increases frequency of ‘blood splash” appearance of small dark red areas in meat also lowers glycogen reserves of muscle approximately in 5 % electrically stunned animals heart failure - animal dead before incision made consumers eat carrion and not meat Objectionable in West, also prohibited by Holy Scriptures 10/22/13 42
  43. 43. SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE – Modern method - Stunning Stunning - outcome of industrial revolution Initially meant to protect the slaughterer and other employees Reality - no relation with mercy on animals More animals be slaughtered in least time Industrial revolution - provided mankind with innumerable benefits Also inflicted damaging blows on some aspects of human nutrition Example - refinement of wheat flour 10/22/13 43
  44. 44. SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Animal positioning Islamic method - lay animal on left flank preferably facing Kibla Scientific evidence When laid on left flank, likelihood of more blood to drain due to body pressure on heart Laying animal enables it to convulse  results from contraction of muscles due to lack of oxygen in brain cells when incision made in neck 10/22/13 44
  45. 45. SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Animal positioning - Scientific evidence During convulsions blood squeezed out of vessels Hence more blood drains out a pre-requisite for meat of superior eating and keeping quality Evidence suggests more blood lost from sheep in horizontal position than those hung vertically 10/22/13 45
  46. 46. SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Bleeding techniques Islam permits use of sharp knife or any sharp object for bleeding Incision made in neck with simultaneous recitation of the name of Allah - Takbir Takbir has religious significance to believer makes submission to Allah life taken out of animal with His permission 10/22/13 46
  47. 47. SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Bleeding techniques Slaughtering actually done in the name of Allah “So eat of (meats) on which God’s name has been pronounced if ye have faith in His Signs” (Al Anaam - Vl:118). 10/22/13 47
  48. 48. SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Bleeding techniques Slaughtering not in name of any person or deity in accordance with following commands:  “Eat not of meats on which God’s name has not been pronounced: that would be impiety. But the evil ones ever inspire their friends to commit end with you if ye were to obey them, ye would indeed be Pagans” (Vl:121). 10/22/13 48
  49. 49. SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Bleeding techniques - Islamic method Cut throat transversely without injuring spinal cord to severe: carotid arteries jugular veins oesophagus and trachea 10/22/13 49
  50. 50. SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques Islamic method Two requirements in slaughter of animals for meat:  animals be dispatched without unnecessary suffering bleeding be as complete as possible 10/22/13 50
  51. 51. SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques – Scientific evidence When both carotid arteries and veins severed connection between brain and body retained via spinal cord Brain sends messages to heart and lungs Heart pumps blood to parts of body  drained out from severed blood vessels in neck 10/22/13 51
  52. 52. SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques – Scientific evidence Results of a comparison of study on different methods of slaughtering: Maximum blood lost in Kosher method Jewish method similar to Islamic as regards physical details Minimum when chicken simply beheaded 10/22/13 52
  53. 53. SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques – Scientific evidence Islamic method ensures maximum blood drainage from body before completion of death process Unconsciousness induced between 3 to 6 seconds 10/22/13 53
  54. 54. SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Bleeding – Scientific evidence Blood excellent medium for growth of microorganisms Meat retaining more blood than critical level liable to bacterial spoilage Blood retention in tissues can cause unpleasant appearance and discolouration in meat Keeping and eating qualities of meat depend, in part, on removal of maximum blood from carcass 10/22/13 54
  55. 55. SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Bleeding techniques – Scientific evidence To produce good carcass animal be bled effectively Heart and respiratory system must function continuously as long as possible after severance of blood vessels This attained most thoroughly when heart and respiratory functions retained by maintaining medulla oblongata/spinal cord 10/22/13 55
  56. 56. SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Bleeding techniques – Scientific evidence Positioning of animal in Islamic method:  clearly prevents retraction of carotids  ensures rapid onset of unconsciousness and painless death In Islamic method of slaughtering maximum blood drained - outranks other slaughtering techniques HENCE BETTER QUALITY OF MEAT 10/22/13 56
  57. 57. EXTRODUCTION Current scientific data reveals Islamic recommendations for slaughtering animals highly rational Good physique and health considered basic requirement for selection of food animals Pre-slaughter management of animals requires they should not be fatigued, excited or neurotic Proper rest, absence of hunger and thirst and use of sharp knife alleviate pains of death 10/22/13 57
  58. 58. 10/22/13 58
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