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Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
Exploration PowerPoint
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Exploration PowerPoint

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  • 1. Exploration
  • 2. Exploration
      • What’s so great about Asia?
        • Marco Polo - brought back stories of difficult journey to China and back
        • Trade routes were over land
      • Sea travel
        • Not master ship builders
        • Cartography not at height
        • What’s out there?
  • 3. Why Explore?
    • Rise of Ottoman controlled lands
      • more difficult and dangerous to travel
      • Need for safer, more profitable trade routes
    • Spices & precious metals
    • Convert natives to Christianity
    • Spirit of adventure
  • 4. God, Glory, Gold
    • God
          • Belief in far away Christian land
          • Converting uncivilized people - lead to souls added to the Kingdom of God
    • Glory
      • Land, titles, and power would await any explorer who could bring glory to his financiers
    • Gold
      • No guarantee on what was to be found on these expeditions
      • If sea route to Asia mapped- no more Muslims!
      • Unexplored lands = lots of unclaimed treasures
  • 5. Early Exploring nations
    • Portugal
      • Royal fam. supported exploration
        • Famous explorers:
          • Prince Henry the Navigator - slave/gold trade
          • Bartholomew Diaz - Cape of Good Hope (Africa)
          • Vasco de Gama - 1st water route to East. Returned with 6000% of investment
      • Experience - Mediterranean trade
      • Shipbuilding advantage - had to build ships to withstand rough Atlantic Ocean
      • Took control of the Muslim spice trade
        • By force & treaties
        • Why so successful? – Guns & experience at sea.
  • 6. Europeans take to the seas
      • T echnology
        • Advances in shipbuilding
            • Lateen sails, magnetic compass, three-masted caravel
          • Gunpowder
            • Sailors now equiped w/ muskets, pistols, small artillery
          • Explorers could use against less technologically advanced nations
  • 7. Spain
      • Christopher Columbus knew the world was round
        • Italian (brought his idea of reaching Asia by sailing west to Portugal 1st)
      • Ferdinand and Isabella - Spanish royalty - finance trip
        • 1492 - sailed into the Bahamas, Cuba, and Hispaniola
      • thought he landed in Indies (islands near Japan). Mistaken his entire life that he found Indies
  • 8.  
  • 9. Economic/Political goals
      • Competitive about trade routes
      • Newly wealthy
      • Luxury goods
      • Direct route
      • Increasingly organized under under strong leaders
    • New Ideology
    • Renaissance thinking
      • external not internal
      • man could affect destiny
    • Ideals
      • curiosity & adventure
  • 10. Columbus’ fate
      • Left 40 men on Hispaniola
      • Greeted as hero in Spain
      • Granted title and gov. position
      • Returned 3 times over next 10 years
      • Ferdinand & Isabella
        • believed valuables were waiting to be discovered
        • No treasure found by men he left
        • Men Columbus left found none, fought with natives.
        • All Columbus was given was taken away due to his lack of power and treasure .
  • 11. Who’s land it is?
      • Pope issued statement in 1481 granting Portugal all land south of the Canary Islands and West of Africa
      • Spain appealed after Columbus’ discovery
      • Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) drew vertical line of demarcation through Americas
        • Spain - everything west of line ( the Americas )
        • Portugal - everything east of line ( route around Africa )
  • 12. Race to America
      • Aha! It wasn’t the Indies!
        • Government sponsored explorers
          • John Cabot
            • From Venice
            • Explored New England Coastline for England
          • Amerigo Vespucci
            • From Florence
            • Wrote letters describing the New World
            • Gave his name to the new world as America
  • 13. The Conquistadors
    • Spanish for conqueror
    • Used force to take more land - ran out of room in Cuba/Hispaniola
    • Knowledge of Aztec gold
    • Hernan Cortez
      • Welcomed by Aztec leader Montezuma - thought he was a god
      • in 3 years destroyed Aztec civilization
      • 500 men, 2 dozen horses, little artillery, native allies, & smallpox
    • Francisco Pizarro
      • Incan Empire - copied Corte’s strategies.
    • Ferdinand Magellan
      • Circumnavigated the globe
    • Juan Ponce de Leon
      • Florida - Fountain of Youth
  • 14. Effects on the Natives
      • Queen Isabella – Natives aka “Indians” at this time her subjects
      • Suppose to protect natives, basically enslaved on sugar plantations, gold & silver mines
      • Population effects:
        • 250k at Columbus’ arrival - Hispaniola
        • 1538- 500 left
      • Converted to Catholicism
      • Native American’s society replaced by European’s religion, language, culture, & gov.
  • 15. Economic Impact
      • Establish plantations
        • Sugar
        • Cotton
        • Vanilla
        • livestock
      • New to Europe:
        • Potato
        • Cocoa
        • Corn
        • Tobacco
        • Tomato
      • New to Americas:
        • Horse
        • Disease
        • religion
      • Port gains connections w/Asian trading post
      • Challenged IT as entry point for eastern trade
  • 16. Columbian Exchange
  • 17. Rivals
      • Spanish – est. on Philippine Islands
      • England – est. relations w/ India
      • Dutch –
        • form East India Co. to compete w/ Eng. & Port.
        • form West India Co. to compete w/ SP & Port in America
        • American colony: New Netherland
      • Fr & Eng rivalry brought down New Netherland
      • Renamed : New York
      • French colonies: Canada & Louisana
      • England – first Virginia & Mass., then entire eastern seaboard
  • 18. Trade & Colonies
      • Colony- settlement of people living in a new territory linked to a parent country by trade & direct gov. control
      • Commercial Revolution
        • Age of increased international trade
  • 19. Northern wave of exploration
      • Spanish/Portuguese- guarded geo knowledge/navigation tech.
      • At Stake
        • Military Power, Immense wealth, Religious Rivalry
      • England - 1600s Establish colonies after gaining nav/geo knowledge from naval wars with Spain
        • Roanoke - most famous failed ENG colony
        • Plymouth Rock (escaping Puritans)
        • Jamestown, Virginia
      • British East India Company - manage military/economic relations
      • France - Colonized Canada - fur trade
      • Netherlands (aka- Dutch) -Dutch East India Company
        • Indonesia - maintained colonial presence for hundreds of years
          • Ran pepper and spice Plantations
  • 20. Effects of EU colonization
    • Positive legacy for Europe - became rich/powerful
    • Moral & ethical price - war, greed, prejudice, religious intolerance, slavery
      • The world would never be the same
      • Emergence of truly global economic system
      • Patterns of world trade
        • EU est. ports - E. Asia, SE Asia, India, west coast of Africa
      • International trade positively affected economies
  • 21. Commercial Revolution
    • New Financing
      • Joint Stock Company
          • Pool resources of many merchants
          • Reduce cost/risk of colonization
          • investors buy/share stocks
    • Middle Class of merchants
      • attracted more investors - beginning of modern stock mkt.
    • Changing views
      • Church revised ban on standard business practices
      • Monarchies granted trade monopolies to routes
      • Dutch East India Co. - Spice Islands, British East India Co - India
  • 22. Merchantilism
      • Goal - get as much silver/goal as possible
      • Key - export more than you import
      • Balance of trade - positive (dif. between imports/exports)
      • England -tiny island, not many nat. resources
        • Need for colonies to get nat. resources to make goods to export
        • Colonies job- provide nat. resources. Buy goods from mother country - customer base
    • Zero-sum gain – There was a fixed sum of wealth or
    • $$$ in the world & for every winner there is a loser…
    • (Countries needed to grab what they could before it was gone)
      • Social diversification - Bourgeoisie (middle class)
  • 23. Balance of Trade
    • Difference in value btw nations imports and exports
    • Balance = favorable – exports are of greater value than those imported.
    • Gov. encouraged exports by
      • granting subsidies
      • High tariffs (taxes) on foreign goods
      • Colonies = source of raw materials & finished goods
  • 24. Triangular Trade
  • 25. Inside the slave ship
  • 26. Inside the slave ship

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