01 - Computer System

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01 - Computer System

  1. 1. Computer Systems 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 1
  2. 2. Computer Systems Software Data Hardware People 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 2
  3. 3. (cont'd.)  Hardware ~ Computer  Physical parts of a computer, including digital electronic circuitry.  Devices for input, processing, and output.  Interestingly, microcomputer is only 0.2% of all computer produced.  Most of them are embedded systems.  Software ~ Program  Introduced by John W. Tukey in 1958.  A program that enables a computer to perform a specific task, as opposed to the hardware.  Consist of a list of instructions that explicitly implement an algorithm. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 3
  4. 4. (cont'd.)  Data, which the system convert into information  Data are everything what is/can be processed.  Consist of propositions that reflect reality.  Such propositions may comprise numbers, words, images etc.  Information describes a physical or abstract domain.  Stored in binary format.  People ~ Users  Computer users 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 4
  5. 5. Hardware Components  Processors  Memory  Storage devices  Input/Output devices 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 5
  6. 6. (cont'd.) 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 6
  7. 7. The Processors  The procedure that transforms raw data into useful information is called processing. To perform this transformation, the computer uses two components: the processor and memory.  The processor, in a personal computer, usually consists of one or more microprocessors, which are the electronic devices. The microprocessor is plugged into a circuit board, motherboard, containing the circuitry that connects the processor to other hardware. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 7
  8. 8. (cont'd.) Expansion Card CPU Memory Motherboard 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 8
  9. 9. Central Processing Unit  The term central processing unit (CPU) refers to a computer’s processing hardware, whether it consists of a single chip or several circuit boards. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 9
  10. 10. (cont'd.)  The CPU is the brain of the computer, where data is manipulated.  In a microcomputer, the entire CPU is contained on a tiny chip called microprocessor.  The chip has at least two basic parts:  The control unit  The arithmetic and logic unit 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 10
  11. 11. (cont'd.) Intel® Pentium® CPU Die Fetch Code Cache Decode Bus Interface Control Data Cache FPU ALU 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 11
  12. 12. The Control Unit  All the computer resources are managed from the control unit.  The CPU’s instructions for carry out commands are built into the control unit.  The instructions, or instruction set, list all the operations that the CPU can perform.  Each instruction in the instruction set is expressed in microcode - a series of basic directions that tell the CPU how to execute more complex operations.  Different CPUs have different instruction sets.  Basic instruction such as moving data from input to memory, moving data from memory to output. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 12
  13. 13. The Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)  Because all computer data is stored as numbers, much of the processing that takes place involves comparing numbers or carrying out mathematical operations.  The computer can perform only two types of operations:  Arithmetic operations  Logical operations  When the control unit encounters an instruction that involves arithmetic or logic, it passes that instruction to the ALU.  The ALU includes a group of registers that are used to hold the data currently being processed.  Register = high-speed memory built directly inside the CPU. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 13
  14. 14. Operations Performed by the ALU  Arithmetic Operations  Logical Operations + add =, ≠ equal, not equal - subtract > greater than × multiply ≥ greater than or equal / divide < less than ^ raise by a power ≤ less than or equal ~ not 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 14
  15. 15. Registers  The size of the registers, called word size, indicates the amount of data which the computer can work at any given time.  The bigger the word size, the more quickly the computer can process a set of data.  When we refer to 32-bit processors, or 64-bit processors, or even 64-bit computers, we usually refer to the size of register inside the processor chip. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 15
  16. 16. CPUs used in Microcomputers  Intel CPU Register Data Bus Max. Memory 8086 16 bits 16 bits 1 MB 8088 16 bits 8 bits 1 MB i386 32 bits 32 bits 4 GB Pentium 32 bits 64 bits 4 GB Pentium 4 32 bits 64 bits 4 GB Core 2 64 bits 64 bits 1 TB Itanium 9000 64 bits 64 bits 1 PB 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 16
  17. 17. (cont'd.)  Advanced Micro Device (AMD)  Head-to-head since Pentium®  Sempron ~ Intel Celeron  Athlon 64 ~ Intel Core  Opteron ~ Intel Xeon  VIA Technologies  Small, cheap, low power consumption  C3  C7 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 17
  18. 18. (cont'd.) MIPS R4400 PowerPC 970 UltraSPARC T1 Cell 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 18
  19. 19. Floating Point Units  The ALU in CPU is designed to manipulate whole numbers that are not too large or too small. If it is forced to work with decimals, it can really get bogged down.  A math coprocessor is a special chip designed to handle complicated mathematical operations.  New CPUs have math coprocessor built in.  The math coprocessor uses floating-point arithmetic techniques that translates numbers into the scientific notation, e.g.,  0.0000586 → 5.86 x 10-5  128610000000 → 1.2861 x 1011 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 19
  20. 20. Parallel Processing  A computer with more than one processor produces faster data processing.  The dual-processor and quad-processor versions of PCs are available today.  Also, multi-core processors.  Microsoft Window, Linux, Mac OS, and various UNIX operating system can make use of additional processors.  In parallel processing, multiple processors are used in a single system, enabling them to share processing tasks. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 20
  21. 21. (cont'd.)  In a massively parallel processor (MPP) system, many processors are used.  Some MPP systems utilize thousands of processors simultaneously. IBM Blue Gene/L 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 21
  22. 22. Memory  Memory is the computer’s electronic scratch pad. Program are loaded into and run from memory. Data used by program is also loaded into memory for fast access -- but only temporarily.  Most common type of memory is called Random Access Memory (RAM).  The most common measurement unit for describing a computer’s memory is the byte.  Kilobytes (kB) = 1,024 bytes  Megabytes (MB) = 1,024 x 1,024 bytes  Gigabytes (GB) = 1,024 x 1,024 x 1,024 bytes 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 22
  23. 23. (cont'd.)  The CPU has no capability to store large sets of data or entire programs permanently. The CPU has only small space of register.  The CPU needs million of bytes of space where it can hold programs and the data being manipulated while they are being used. This area is called memory.  Memory is an electronic chip. The memory may be soldered on a mainboard or on a small circuit board attached to a mainboard.  There are two types of built-in memory: Volatile and Non-Volatile. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 23
  24. 24. ROM  ROM is non-volatile memory chips. Putting data into this kinds of memory is called “burning-in the data”, and need special tools.  The data in these chips can only be read and used -- it cannot be changed -- so the memory is called Read-Only Memory (ROM). 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 24
  25. 25. RAM  Memory which is its data can be changed is called random access memory(RAM).  When talking about computer memory, we usually mean the volatile RAM.  Physically, RAM consists of some chips on a small circuit board. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 25
  26. 26. (cont'd.) RAM 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 26
  27. 27. Current RAM Technologies  Synchronous Dynamic RAM (SDRAM)  Synchronize memory bus clock with front side bus (FSB) clock.  Double Data-Rate Synchronous DRAM (DDR SDRAM or just DDR)  Operate both rising and falling edge of the clock.  DDR2 doubles FSB clock.  DDR3 quadruples FSB clock. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 27
  28. 28. (cont'd.)  Memory chips usually grouped together on small circuit boards called  Single In-Line Memory Modules (SIMMs)  Dual In-Line Memory Modules (DIMMs)  Small Outline DIMMs (SO-DIMMs) 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 28
  29. 29. The Bus  The term bus refers to the electrical paths between the components of a computer. Actually, the bus is a group of parallel wires.  The motherboard includes an address bus and a data bus.  The address bus leads from the CPU to memory (RAM and ROM).  The data bus connects the CPU to memory as well as all the storage, input/output, and communication devices. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 29
  30. 30. (cont'd.) 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 30
  31. 31. Accessing Data in the Memory  The CPU stored and retrieves each piece of data using a memory address.  Memory address is a number indicates a location of data on the memory chips.  Memory addresses start at zero and go up to one less than the number of bytes of memory in the computer. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 31
  32. 32. (cont'd.)  Requests for data are sent from the CPU to RAM along the address bus. The request consists of a memory address. The data comes back to the CPU via the data bus. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 32
  33. 33. Cache Memory  Cache memory is similar to RAM, except that it is extremely fast compared to normal memory.  The cache speeds up processing by storing frequently used data or instruction in its high- speed memory. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 33
  34. 34. Extending the Processor's Power to Other Devices  Ports  Printer (parallel) ports  Communication (serial) ports  USB ports  Expansion Slots and Boards  Display cards  Sound cards  Network interface cards 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 34
  35. 35. Ports  External devices - such as those used for input and output - are connected to the system by ports on the back of the computer.  PCs feature a number of built-in ports, which are ready to accept devices such as a printer, mouse, keyboard, phone line, microphone, speakers, and others.  Most computers come with a serial port and a parallel port. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 35
  36. 36. (cont'd.) RJ45 socket Parallel port PS/2 mouse PS/2 keyboard Serial port USB port Audio jack 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 36
  37. 37. (cont'd.) VGA D-SUB DVI HDMI Firewire port eSATA 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 37
  38. 38. Serial Ports  Transmits one bit of data at a time 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 38
  39. 39. Parallel Ports  Transmit one byte of data at a time 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 39
  40. 40. Universal Serial Bus (USB) USB port Parallel port  USB is a serial bus standard to interface Serial port devices.  Designed to allow many peripherals to be connected using a single port. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 40
  41. 41. (cont'd.)  Allowing devices to be connected and disconnected without rebooting the computer.  Provide power supply for low-consumption devices.  Allowing many devices to be used without specific device drivers to be installed.  Data rate  Low speed: 1.5 Mbps (USB 1.1 & 2.0)  Full speed: 12 Mbps (USB 1.1 & 2.0)  Hi-speed: 480 Mbps (USB 2.0)  Super-speed: 4.8 Gbps (USB 3.0) 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 41
  42. 42. (cont'd.) 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 42
  43. 43. Expansion Slots and Cards  If the PC does not have a port for an external device, you can install an expansion card into one of the empty expansion slots.  A card provides the correct port for the new device, and connects the device to the CPU by way of the computer's expansion buses.  Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus  Standard 32/64-bit I/O bus.  Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) bus.  A faster bus for 3D video card. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 43
  44. 44. (cont'd.)  Modern PCs are now using PCI Express (PCI-E or PCIe). PCIe x16 slot PCI slot PCIe x1 slot 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 44
  45. 45. (cont'd.)  Most common expansion cards Sound card Network Interface Card Video card 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 45
  46. 46. Input and Output Devices  Input devices accept data and instructions from user 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 46
  47. 47. (cont'd.)  Output devices return processed data back to the user 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 47
  48. 48. (cont'd.)  Some types of hardware can act as both input and output devices, e.g., touchscreen.  The most common types of devices that can perform both input and output, however, are communication devices, which connect one computer to another -- a process known as networking. Modem Network Interface Card 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 48
  49. 49. Storage Devices  Storage is a device to hold the data files and the program files.  The three distinctions between storage and memory:  More room in storage than in memory.  Contents are retained in storage when the computer is turned off, whereas the contents in memory disappear.  Storage is much cheaper than memory.  The most common storage medium is the magnetic disk.  Floppy disk ~ obsoleted by flash drive  Hard disk 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 49
  50. 50. (cont'd.) 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.2 – Computer Systems 50

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