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    Naturales!! Naturales!! Presentation Transcript

    • Insectigations In sec t Wo r ld t he re40 p lo ha Ex nd o s-o n activiti es t Cindy Blobaum
    • Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataBlobaum, Cindy, 1966– Insectigations! : 40 hands-on activities to explore the insect world / Cindy Blobaum.— 1st ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 1-55652-624-5 1. Insects—Juvenile literature. 2. Insects—Study and teaching (Elementary)—Activity programs. I.Title. QL467.2.B59 2005 595.7—dc22 2004028245Cover design: Sommers DesignInterior illustrations: Gail RattrayInterior design: Rattray DesignAll photographs courtesy of Cindy Blobaum unless otherwise noted.Butterfly Puddles ©2004 by Highlights for Children, Inc., Columbus, Ohio. © 2005 by Cindy Blobaum All rights reserved First editionPublished by Chicago Review Press, Incorporated 814 North Franklin Street Chicago, Illinois 60610 ISBN 1-55652-568-0 Printed in the United States of America 54321
    • For J ac o b , m y b u g - b o y
    • Contents Acknowledgments vii 3 6 8 Introduction ix Me t a m o r p h i c M a g i c 33 Fi n d e r s 69 Insect Gardening 101 Spontaneous Generation 35 Sweep Net 71 Butterfly Puddles 105 1 Raising Mealworms 38 Insect Trap 73 Antifreeze 108Getting Started 1 Searching for Insect Leaf Litter Shaker 74 Plan Your Garden 110 Make a Journal 3 Eggs 40 Insect Rain 76 Insect Calendar 111 Draw an Insect 4 Action Cards 43 You’re on a Roll! 77 Action Cards 113 Looking Jar 6 Bug Bait 78 Insectigations! The Game 115 4 White Light 80 2 Sense-sational 45 Walking on Water 81 Appendix 117Body Basics 9 Point of View 47 Water We Looking For? 83 Ten Common Insect Excellent Exoskeletons 12 Colorblind Challenge 48 Insectigations! Game Orders 117 A Plantastic Feast 14 Training Bees 49 Board 85 Glossary 119 Need a Lift? 17 Concentration 52 Action Cards 87 Nervous Twitch 18 Dinner Detour 54 Resources 121 Mighty Muscles 20 Action Cards 55 7 Te a c h e r ’ s G u i d e 127 Rigged Ratios 22 Ke e p e r s 89 Twist-an-Insect 5 Temporary Terrarium 91 Bibliography 129 (Game Dice) 27 C a n We Ta l k ? 57 You Saw What? 94 Index 131 Action Cards 31 Wing Waves 59 Fly-Tying a Big Bug 98 Here’s to Ears 62 Action Cards 100 Buzzing Bug 63 Insect Amplifier 65 Sound Off Sentry 67 Action Cards 68
    • AcknowledgmentsI unknowingly started research for this book when I became a naturalist and began teaching More recently, Drake University granted me access to its insect collection, Keith Wonder of let me and my children perform final tests of experiments and activities in and around their this effort has meant to me. Cre- ating a book is a team effort, and I feel incredibly fortunate toabout insects to thousands of Hawkeye Fly Fishing Association yards and homes.Thank you to have had the Chicago Reviewenthusiastic children. Many of shared his enthusiasm for and the Blobaum family: Mel, for Press team of Cynthia Sherry,my coworkers at the Greenway knowledge of fly-fishing, and clipping and mailing all the Allison Felus, Gerilee Hundt,and Nature Center of Pueblo, Robin Pruisner, the State of insect articles you read from Brooke Kush, Rattray Design,Colorado; New Canaan Nature Iowa Entomologist, provided magazines and papers; Norman, and Joan Sommers working onCenter in New Canaan, Con- gypsy moth traps. I appreciate for your constant interest; Paul, my behalf. And I would benecticut; and Neale Woods your assistance. for being my reference resource remiss if I did not single out LisaNature Center in Omaha, Eli, McKenzie, and Olivia pinch hitter; Margaret, for the Rosenthal, my insightful andNebraska, inspired or shared ideas were wonderful models, and care you have given my kids encouraging editor, for a specialwith me that are included in this thanks to all the 37th Street and when I needed it most; and mention—thank you to all of them. Carpenter Avenue families that Philip, for understanding what vii
    • IntroductionO n September 9, 1945, Dr. Grace Hopper was putting the Mark II computer at trapped between points at Relay # 70, Panel F. She removed the moth, carefully taped it into the both been bothered by and ben- efited from insects. Every year, millions of dollars in crops are honey, and shellac; as pets; and to sell to gardeners, farmers, wed- ding planners, and educators.Harvard University through logbook, and then made a note: destroyed by insects. Plagues of Insects are the largest group ofsome tests. It had what program- “First actual case of (computer) locusts have filled the sky and animals in the world, with moremers called a “bug” that was bug being found.” eaten every shred of green plants, than one million different kindscausing it to malfunction. Dr. It wasn’t really surprising that causing people to go hungry or identified and named, and perhapsHopper pulled out parts, search- an insect had found its way into migrate to new areas. Fleas were just as many yet to be for the problem. At 3:45 P.M., the computer. As long as humans the carriers of black death, a dis- They were around a long timeshe found it. A moth had gotten have been around, they have ease that almost wiped out the before humans were, and they will population of entire cities in help decompose our bodies when Europe in the Middle Ages. Even we are gone. Since they have been today, some mosquitoes carry so successful, it makes sense to diseases including malaria, which watch them closely and see what kills millions of people each year. we can learn from them. On the other hand, insects In order to observe insects, it pollinate many of our food helps to have some close at hand. plants, including chocolate, In the following pages you will apples, and oranges.They help learn tips and tricks for catching decompose our waste. Ant jaws and keeping insects, and how to U.S. Naval Historical Center have been used as stitches in sur- test the usefulness of an insect gery. Fly and beetle larvae help exoskeleton, compete against investigators solve crimes. Fruit insects in Olympic-style compe- flies are used in genetic research. titions, create a buzzing bug, and People raise insects for food; for train a bee.When you need a liveInsects are often blamed for many of our problems, including computer errors. their products including silk, insect for an activity, remember: ix
    • they are an important part of our Entomology sidebars.You will be As a special feature, you can regular, numbered die.The natural ecosystems.Tread lightly amazed at where you can find test your luck and survival skills as instructions for putting the game through their habitats and collect insects and how they are used. an insect by creating your own together and the basic rules for only the insects you need or can Speaking of finding and using Insectigations! board game.The playing are at the end of the book. take care of, releasing all the oth- insects, the Real Entomologists materials are easy to find, with If you finish trying the ers back where you found them. sidebars tell the true stories of instructions for how to make spe- experiments and activities and It is also wise to be like Dr. Hop- how insects play a part in engi- cial insect dice in chapter 2,“Body want to do even more, look to per and record all your activities neering projects, crime scene Basics,” and details on the game the Resources section at the back in the journal you’ll learn how investigations, and even food board in chapter 6,“Finders.” You of the book.There you will dis- to make in chapter 1. Journal service studies. Bug Business side- use the action cards you create at cover where to get more infor- Notes at the end of most activities bars tell about enterprising the end of chapters 2 through 8 to mation about favorite activities, give suggestions for important entomologists who earn money make the path through insect find connections to entertaining observations or results to record from insects. And you get the habitats on the game board.The insect festivals, and learn how to in your journal. shortcuts to finding fun on the only other things you need are participate in ongoing research If you have a strong stomach, Internet in the Make a Connec- tokens (cicada shells, plastic insects, projects. All you need to do now make sure you read all the Gross tion sidebars. or decorated bottle caps) and a is turn the page and get going!x
    • 1Getting Star tedLadybug, ladybug, fly away home,Your house is on fire and your children are alone. ❃You’re as busy as a bee. ❃Snug as a bug in a rug. ❃You catch more flies with honey than you do with vinegar. ❃The larger the middle band on a wooly bear caterpillar, the colder the winter will be. ❃Good night, sleep tight, don’t let the bedbugs bite. 1
    • From the time you were every young, you have likely heard many say- try to figure out how to increase the number of insects that help ings like these.What do all these sayings have in common? humans. Others try to figure out how insects communicate, how their They show that people have been studying insects for a long time. senses work, or how to use insects to solve human problems. - The formal name for studying insects is entomology (en-ta-MOL-a-je). Although humans spend billions of dollars every year on insects, you Scientists who study insects are called entomologists.What exactly do don’t need a lot of money to be a good entomologist.You can find entomologists do? Some identify and name new insects. Others keep insects wherever you are, and the only equipment you really need is a track of insect pests and try to figure out ways to control them. Some pencil and a journal.2
    • Make a Jour nalE xplorers and scientists have long used journals, also called logs, to record what paper to record your discoveries for each activity or experiment that you do, repeat this processthey find, see, hear, and do. Most until you have at least 20 sheetsof the activities in this book of unlined paper for your jour-include observations or questions nal. Put the unlined paper and atfor you to answer in your jour- least 20 sheets of lined paper onnal.Your notes will become a the rings in your binder. Finally,valuable record of what you see slip any equipment you want inand think, even if you feel your the pockets, and you are readyexperiences are ordinary or nor- to go.mal. Although any type of note- A three-ring binder makes a the first cover for your journal. It’s essential to include in yourbook will work, the following great journal for several reasons. You might want to include your journal entries: the date andjournal is one you can use for It has pockets that can hold pen- name, a clever title, and some place of each activity or insectyears. cils, a magnifying lens, ruler, small sketches of insects or insect habi- find, the name of the activity field guide, and a bandage or tats. Slip the cover paper into the (when appropriate), sketches ofMaterials two. It is easy to wipe dew, dirt, clear plastic sleeve. what you see, and specific thingsThree-ring binder with pockets or mud off the plastic cover. It If your unlined paper doesn’t you notice, like how many differ- and a clear plastic cover lies flat when you open it, mak- already have holes punched in it, ent colored grasshoppers you sleeve ing it easier to write in. It is sim- lay a piece of lined paper with find or the sizes of the ants thatUnlined paper ple to add more paper. It is easy holes on top of three sheets of you catch. Also, copy down theMarkers to make a new cover and plain paper to use as a guide. questions from this book so thatLined paper rearrange the contents for sci- Use the hole punch to make you know what your answersHole punch ence projects or reports. three holes so the paper can be mean. Use one piece of unlined put on the rings. Since you paper and the markers to create should use a separate sheet of 3
    • Draw an Insect E ven if you are a beginning artist, it is important to include in your journal 3 accurate sketches of the insects you see.You can start by copying other drawings or photographs, How to shade drawing 4 but your goal should be to draw from actual insects that you find 1 or catch. Remember, the more you practice, the better your drawings will become. 2 Materials shapes (circle, oval, rectangle, pyra- Journal mid) or to think about the shapes Pencil of common items (egg, crescent Eraser moon, ice cream cone, pencil). Insect (or insect picture) Sometimes it is helpful to draw the middle part of the Take a close and careful look at insect first and then think of it as small, make a line to show its real When you have drawn all the the insect you want to draw. a clock.Where are the legs? At size, then draw it whatever size pieces, erase or adjust any that Instead of trying to draw it all at 4:20, 6:30, and 8:40? Where is you want.What is important is to don’t look like you want them one time, use your imagination to the head? Where is the abdo- show relative sizes. Is the head to. After you have everything in break it down into pieces. Don’t men? You also want to think the same size as the body? Half place, spend some time erasing worry about the little details at about sizes. It is impossible to the size? Twice as big? Figure out extra lines, making lines at joints, first; just look for shapes you rec- make a decent, life-sized drawing how big each piece is compared points, and special features ognize and can draw. It might of some of the very tiny insects. to the others, then lightly sketch darker, and adding shading to help to think about traditional Instead, for every insect, large or the shapes you need together. show different textures.4
    • her home into her laboratory, andAn Ordinary Observation started raising monarchs. Each day,Becomes an Extraordinary she gave the same caterpillars milk-Opportunity weed plants that had a layer of roadLike many kids who live in the coun- dust on them, and gave other caterpil-try, high school student Rachael lars clean milkweed plants. SheCollier knew the easiest place to find weighed the caterpillars at each stagemonarch caterpillars was on the milk- of their development and kept track ofweed plants growing along the gravel how many lived and how many died.roads near her home in Iowa. She By the end, her records showed thatnoticed that the milkweed plants were monarch caterpillars exposed to lime-often dusty, and she began to wonder stone road dust were not as large andif the road dust had any effect on the were more likely to die than caterpil-monarch larvae’s health. Instead of lars that ate clean milkweed. She pre-waiting for someone else to answer sented her findings at science fairher question, she turned a bathtub in competitions, where she was awarded several thousand dollars in scholar- ship money, plus a summer researchMake the Connection job in another country. Although a journal and pen-If you really enjoy drawing cil are your most essentialinsects, enter one of your and valuable equipment, aartworks in the University few other things will makeof Illinois annual insect art your study of insects easiercontest. More information is and more fun. A magnifyingavailable at lens is helpful for looking at very Rachael Collier’s bathtub laboratory. Courtesy of Rachael small insects, a ruler is importantegsa/ifff.html. for noting the size of insects, and away while you are trying to to catch insects, and chapter 6 a jar where you can keep an sketch it is also handy. (Activities has more information on making insect from flying or crawling in chapter 5 will teach you how temporary insect homes.) 5
    • Looking Jar I nsect cages come in all sorts of shapes and sizes and are made from a wide variety of materi- However, many of the plastics used today are brittle and will split if you try to punch holes in als.While netting is good for air- them.With the help of an adult, flow, it makes it hard to see the you can either drill very small small details on insects. If you holes in the lid and near the bot- want to observe an insect for a tom edge of the jar or heat the short time, a clear, plastic con- tip of the barbecue fork over a tainer is your best bet. flame and melt small holes in the lid and near the bottom edge of Materials the jar. A large, clear, plastic jar with a The larger the mouth of the lid (large peanut butter con- jar, the easier it will be to put tainers work well) insects in. After you have Drill with very small bit (or a watched your insects and made barbecue fork) notes and sketches in your jour- nal, turn the jar on its side and Insects need air to breathe, just open the lid. Don’t shake the jar like every other animal.To make to get the insects out, just wait a your looking jar ready for tem- few minutes and they will be porary insect visitors, you need gone. to make plenty of air holes.6
    • Field Research Tips will help protect you from as big as the end of a pencil (tick side in) to create yourMany activities in this book scratches, scrapes, poison ivy, eraser. Most ticks need blood own piece of ticker tape. If ashould be done outdoors and and insect attacks. from a warm-blooded animal tick has its head stuck underwith live insects. Since insects • It is a good idea to bring a in order to continue their your skin, have an adult usehave a wide range of defense simple first-aid kit with you. development or lay eggs.To tweezers to remove it.strategies, including biting, Tweezers, alcohol swabs, first- discourage these bloodsuckingpinching, stinging, spraying, and aid ointment, and bandages ticks from feeding on you, Do you have your journal andspitting, here are a few tips and can be a big help. tuck your pant legs into your pencil ready? Are you dressed fortricks to help you feel the most • If you get stung by a bee, pull socks.When you go inside, adventure? Get ready to explorecomfortable out in the field. the stinger out immediately.To check all over your skin and in how insects are similar to and help ease the pain, put ice, your hair to see if any ticks different from you as you attract,• If you are going to be collect- baking soda, meat tenderizer, managed to sneak by.To catch, study, mimic, and release ing insects in tall grass or or barbecue sauce directly on remove a tick that is crawling insects in your area. brushy areas, wear long, light- top of the sting. on your clothes or skin, place colored pants, a long-sleeved, • Ticks are tiny creatures with the sticky side of a piece of light-colored shirt, closed-toe eight legs.They can be as tape on the tick. Lift up and shoes, and a hat.These clothes small as the size of a period to fold the piece of tape in half 7
    • 2 Body BasicsP ut a butterfly and a cricket side by side, and what do you notice? Even though the size, shape, color, and sometimes the function of each part can be different, the basic bodyplan for both insects, and every other adult insect, is the same.(Immature insects can look very different than adult ones. Seechapter 3,“Metamorphic Magic,” for details.) They may seem sim-ilar to each other, but how do insects compare to you? Can theysee better with those huge eyes? Are they really able to lift more,jump farther, and run faster than humans? Get ready to find out. 9
    • Insects are cold-blooded inver- muscles to attach. However, a An insect’s thorax has three The abdomen is the softest - tebrates (in-VUR-ta-br ats). solid, hard shell would be too segments. Each segment has a and most flexible part of an Invertebrates are all animals that hard to bend and move, so insect pair of jointed legs, so an insect insect’s body. It usually has do not have a backbone, includ- bodies are divided into three normally has six legs. Most between eight and eleven seg- ing worms, clams, slugs, and parts, and each part has smaller insects also have one pair of ments with tiny holes called spir- insects. Instead of having bones segments. wings attached to the middle acles on the side of each to hold their bodies up, insects The three body parts are the segment, and another pair of segment.These holes are how an have exoskeletons. Exoskeletons head, thorax, and abdomen. wings attached to the back seg- insect breathes.The abdomen are like miniature suits of armor. On its head, an insect usually ment. But some insects have only also holds an insect’s stomach These hard shells protect insects’ has two sets of jaws, two kinds of one pair of wings, and a few have and other organs. bodies and give a place for their eyes, and one pair of antennae. none at all. Antenna Head Thorax Abdomen Head Thorax Abdomen10
    • Head Thorax Abdomen Compound eye Ocellus AntennaMandible Spiracle Ovipositor 11
    • Excellent Exoskeletons A lmost 300,000 kinds of beetles have been identified so far, making them the 1 wet paper towel stuff a dry paper towel inside a third tube. Add food coloring to the water in the spray bottle. Lay cardboard and stained the paper towel. Place an egg inside the fourth tube. Roll it across the largest group of animals on the the tube down and spray it until ground until the egg breaks. earth.Their hard exoskeletons are color has seeped through the one reason they have been so 2 successful. How do exoskeletons help beetles and other insects Journal Notes survive? This activity will give you some ideas. Start time: _________ Stop time (towel inside dry): down water loss due to Materials _________ evaporation. They also Spray bottle with water Stop time (towel outside dry): keep unwanted chemicals Paper towels 3 _____________________________ (such as bug spray) from being taken 4 toilet paper tubes How long does it take for each wet in. Exoskeletons protect insects from dry paper towel Watch or clock paper towel to dry out? cuts, scrapes, and bruises when they Red food coloring How much spray does it take to run into things. Egg colored water get the towel inside the tube to turn There are two main disadvantages red? to exoskeletons. Every time an insect Wet one paper towel and stuff What finally causes the egg to grows, it has to shed its skin. While it it inside a toilet paper tube.Wet break? is shedding its exoskeleton, an another paper towel and wrap it 4 Our skin acts as a two-way trans- insect’s body is soft, making it easier around the outside of a different portation system. It lets water out for other animals to attack and eat it. tube. Record the time on your (sweating), takes chemicals in (such And the exoskeleton limits how big watch in your journal, then stand as with skin lotion or medicine patch- an insect can get. You will never see a both tubes on end and set in a es), and is easily bruised, scratched, beetle the size of a small dog—the safe place.While these are drying, egg and cut. Insect exoskeletons slow exoskeleton would be too heavy.12
    • Since worker honeybees do not mate and they often clamber into flowers to get nectar, honey- bees have short, simple antennae. Moth antennae are often large and featherlike so they can detect small amounts of airborne chemicals to find a mate, but they don’t get in the way since moths have long, tube-like mouthparts to obtain flower nectar. Can you determine other rea- sons for the different types of antennae? can be used to taste, touch, smell, things.They are called com- and hear.There are at least 14 pound eyes because each eye is –During the summer, the shed exoskeletons of cicadas (si-KA-das) can be found clinging to types of antennae.Antennae are made of between two andtrees, fences, and even houses. While one type of cicada, known as dog day cicadas, appears different lengths and shapes, and 23,000 lenses. Even with all theseeach year, periodical cicadas live underground as nymphs for either 13 or 17 years. have a different number of jointed lenses, most insects are near- segments. Entomologists often use sighted—they can only see thingsHeads Up! whole body. On the other hand, the shape and the size of antennae that are pretty close to them.There are three main parts to an a fly has tiny antennae but its to help them identify insects. However, they can focus oninsect’s head: the antennae, the compound eyes take up two- Insects have two kinds of eyes, things that we would need aeyes, and the mouth. How these thirds of its head. If a fly had a simple and compound. In larvae, microscope to see!three parts look and are used head the size of yours, its eyes - the simple eyes, called ocelli (o- People use fingers, forks,depends on what senses an insect would be about the size of can- - can detect spoons, straws, and cups to help SEL- i),needs to be successful where it taloupes.This lets a fly see almost some colors and get food into their mouths.lives. A cave cricket spends most all the way around its body with- shapes, while the While insects don’t eat exactlyof its time in caves, hollow trees, out ever having to turn its head. ocelli in adult the same way we do, they haveor under rocks. Being able to see People use antennae on televi- insects are sensitive mouthparts adapted to do manywell is not as important as being sions, radios, and other electronic to light and movement of the same jobs.These mouth-sensitive to smells and touches. devices to get better signals. but cannot see images. parts determine the type of foodSo its eyes are very small, but its Insects use their antennae to get It is the compound eyes on an insect can eat.antennae are longer than its better signals, too. Insect antennae nymphs and adults that really see 13
    • A Plantastic Feast A single plant can provide food for many different insects, with each kind feeding on a separate part of the plant.The coiled tube mouthpart of a butterfly is great for sipping nectar but is useless in trying to bite a green leaf.The chewing Because their mouthparts limit the types of food they can eat, most insects must be able to travel to find enough food. mouthparts of a grasshopper make a quick dinner of a leaf but Materials Remove the straw from the a straw and take a butterfly sip of can’t pierce the stem to drink the Juice bag juice bag.Wrap the sheet of the nectar in the cup. Next, pick sap.The piercing-sucking mouth Pointed-end straw (from the green construction paper around up the pliers and use them as a of the spittlebug can do two jobs, juice bag) the juice bag, tape it in place, and grasshopper would, ripping a leaf first making a hole in the stem, 1 sheet of green construction set it on the plate to create the off the stem and taking it to then sucking out the plant juice, paper stem of your plant.Tape the let- your mouth. Use the pointed- but can’t soak up the juices that Tape tuce or spinach leaves to the side end straw as your spittlebug dribble down the side or spill on Sturdy plate (not paper) of your stem. Draw some flower mouth to jab a hole in the stem the ground. However, nothing Lettuce or spinach leaves petals on the red paper, cut them of your plant, then gently goes to waste, as those juices are 1 sheet of red construction paper out, and tape them around the squeeze the stem as you sip some great for the sponging mouth of Pencil top rim of the small paper cup. plant sap.To slurp up the juice the fly. Scissors Tape the cup to the back edge at that landed on the plate, put the Small paper cup the top of the stem and pour a sponge on the bottom of the Juice bit of juice inside. straw. Move it around, then take 2 Straws Now it is time for your plant your drink as a fly. Pliers to become dinner. Start out with 1 inch (2.5 cm) piece of clean sponge14
    • 1 2 3 6 54 15
    • Thorax Up Close Attached to the top of the thorax is the most noticeable part of many insects—the wings. Insects are the only types of inverte- brates that have wings.Wings can be used to fly, to make sounds, and as protection.Wings also help entomologists identify the insects they catch. Entomologists look to see: • How many wings does the insect have? (Flies only have two wings. Almost all other flying insects have four, although some have none at all.) • How big are the wings? • What shape are they? • What do they look like? Are they like cellophane, leather, scaly, or a hard shell? • How does the insect hold its wings when it is not flying? Are they out to the side? Above its body like a tent? Tucked away? • What do the wing veins look like?16
    • Need a Lif t ?M any butterflies that travel long distances conserve their energy by gliding up include the dashed line. Cut it out around the solid line edge. Fold the paper along the dashed watch what happens.Trace the pattern on tissue paper and on an index card.What happens whenand down, using invisible warm air line to make a crease, then open you try to balance them? Whatbubbles, called thermals. When the it back up. Grab the pencil about happens if you make the patternsun shines on a dark parking lot halfway down in one hand. Use larger? Smaller? Stand on a chairsurrounded by trees, the air over your other hand to balance the and drop the wing pattern, not-the parking lot gets much warmer paper on the pencil tip. Hold ing what happens as it falls.than the air around the trees.Warm steady for at least one minute andair is lighter than cooler air, so thewarm air over the parking lot risesas a thermal. If a broad-winged Journal Notesbutterfly flies by, it can stretch itswings and let the thermal carry ithigh into the sky, then glide down I held the wing on the pencil What made the wing move? Youra long distance with just an occa- point for one minute and this body makes heat. The heat from yoursional flap of its wings. is what happened: hand created a mini-thermal that _____________________________ went up, hit the paper, and made itMaterials When I did this with a thicker spin. When you dropped the paper, itSheet of thin writing paper wing, this happened: likely twirled around as it fell, lookingPencil with sharp point ________________________________ more like a maple seed or mini-heli-Scissors When I did this with a thinner copter than a gliding butterfly. OneTissue paper wing, this happened: reason is because butterflies haveIndex card ________________________________ four wings, not just two. The wings When I dropped a wing from up act together to control upward and Trace the broad wing pattern high, this happened: downward motion, just like the flapsonto the paper, making sure you ________________________________ on a glider’s wings. 17
    • Ner vous Twitch W hile some butterflies and moths flap slowly and gracefully as they float through the air, flies, bumblebees, and hummingbird moths flap faster than the eye can see. For years there has been a popular myth that bumblebees shouldn’t be able to fly because they have a short, fat body shape and their nervous system can’t send mes- sages fast enough to make their wings flap the necessary 200 times a second.The truth behind lar manner.The muscles are the myth is that a bumblebee’s ready to move, similar to you shape and wings are more like a winding up the wings.Ten to helicopter than a glider, and the twenty times a second, the muscles work a bit like a rubber nerves send the message to the band. Place the sheet of thin paper notches. Put the wing piece in wing muscles to flap, or in your over the bee and wing pattern the middle of the rubber band. case, to release the wings. It only Materials and trace them. Cut them out, Wind the wing piece around 20 takes one message from the 1 sheet of thin paper place them on the foam tray, and times in one direction. Release nerves to get the wing muscles Pencil with dull tip trace around them. Cut them out the wings, and watch and listen started, then they keep vibrating, Scissors of the foam and decorate them to them as they spin. like the rubber band keeps Foam tray or plate with crayons. Place the rubber The nerves and thorax mus- unwinding, moving the wings 10 Crayons band over the bee pattern with cles that control a bumblebee’s to 20 times until the nerves send Thin rubber band the sides hooked into the wings work in a somewhat simi- the next message to flap.18
    • All About Legs Human Leg hot liquid out of their abdomens.Legs are attached to the lower side Fireflies have abdomens theyof the thorax. Insect legs have the light up to help them find theirsame basic parts that yours do, but mates. Female crickets andmany insects also have extra adap- grasshoppers have a long, skinnytations for survival. A praying spear at the end of their Femurmantis’s front legs have sharp abdomens.This is called anspines along the edges to hold its ovipositor and is used to lay eggs.prey. Flies have sticky pads at the The ovipositor on female beesend of their legs to help them and wasps has changed over timewalk on things, even the ceiling. to become a stinger. TibiaGrasshoppers and crickets havelarge bent hind legs, just right forjumping.Water boatmen andbackswimmers have legs like oars Robber Flyfor paddling through the water. TarsusGround beetles have long, stronglegs for running. And crane flieshave very long legs, helping them Insect Legstand above the grass on theground.About AbdomensAbdomens can be long and thin,short and round, or shapes inbetween. Some are striped, someare one color, and some have littlehooks at the end called cerci (SIR- -se). Bombardier beetles protect Assassin Bug Cricketthemselves by squirting boiling 19
    • Mighty Muscles H ave you heard of the amaz- ing feats that insects can do? Ants can lift 50 times Olympic events, how well would you do? Since you are much larger fair, you need to relate how far and high you jump, how fast you run, and how much you can lift where you landed. Measure how far you jumped. Divide this number by your height to deter- their own body weight. than insects, of course you can to your own body size. mine how many body lengths Grasshoppers can jump 30 times lift more actual weight than an you jumped. their body length. If you were to ant, and jump higher and farther Materials Tie a rope between two trees compete against insects in than a flea.To make the contests Tape measure or solid posts, about eight inches Pencil (20 cm) above and parallel to the Bathroom scale ground.Try to jump over the Bug Business Chalk rope without taking a running Rope start. If you make it over, raise Watch with a second hand the rope two inches (5 cm). Keep Fireflies, which are a family of bee- flies, then sells them to Friends raising the height until you miss tles, can be found on every continent researchers. The except Antarctica, but not every fire- researchers remove the Record your fly flashes. In the United States, the chemical that glows (luciferin) and use height in inches (or fireflies that live east of the Rocky it in their studies. Some researchers centimeters) and Mountains and away from the desert mix the luciferin with small samples of your weight in Southwest flash their abdominal ground beef or other foods. If the bac- pounds (or kilo- lights on warm summer nights. teria e. coli is in the food, the luciferin grams) in your jour- While most people catch fireflies attaches to the bacteria, making it nal, then get ready for fun, some people do it for money. easy for researchers to see it. to do your best! Since 1952, a company in Tennessee How much do firefly catchers Draw a line on has sponsored a summer firefly drive. earn? The price can change, but a the ground with the It pays people to catch and freeze fire- good estimate is about one penny chalk. From a still This female rhinoceros beetle moved nearly 100 times its own per perfect insect. position, jump as far mass during an experiment measuring how much energy it used flies. The company collects these fire- while carrying extra weight. as you can. Mark Photograph courtesy of Rodger Kram, Ph.D., University of Colorado20
    • Record Holdersit three times in a row. Record Event Long jump High jump Running Liftingthe highest level you jumped in Human About 29.5 feet (almost Over 8 feet (2.4 m) (with About 20 miles (32 km) 17 x body weight in a 9 meters) = about a running start) = per hour = between trestle liftyour journal. Divide this number 4.5 body lengths about 1.25 x height 5 and 6 body lengthsby your height to determine how per secondmany body lengths high you Insect A 2-inch (5 cm) 0.1 inch (.25 cm) cat flea Cockroaches run about Rhinoceros beetle can grasshopper can has jumped 13 inches 3.7 miles (6 km) per support 850 times itsjumped. jump 30 inches (76 (33 cm) = 130 x its own weight on its hour = 50 body Begin from a still position at a cm) = 15 body height lengths per second backstarting line. Run as fast as you lengthscan for five seconds (have afriend use a watch to time yourrun). Measure how far you ran in Gather some friends who Journal Notes Headsinches (cm) and record this num- weigh about the same amountber in your journal. Divide this as you. Put your hands and 3. I ran _________(D) Write these sentences into your jour-number by 5 to determine how knees on the ground, keeping inches/cm in 5 seconds. nal and fill in the blanks with yourfar you ran per second. Divide your back in the air. Ask your D ÷ 5 = _________(E) far you ran per second by friends to straddle your back, distance per second.your height to figure out how adding one more friend at a E ÷ A = _________ is the number of I am _______(A) inches/cm tall and Imany body lengths that is. time until you cannot hold body lengths per second I jumped. weigh ___________ pounds/kg. any more without collapsing. 1. I jumped a distance of 4. I can hold __________ friends on _________(B) inches/cm. my back at the same time. B ÷ A = __________ is the number of Who wins every contest? Don’t feel body lengths long that I jumped. bad that the insects always win. For one thing, many insects have more 2. I jumped _________(C) inches/cm muscles than we do. Humans have high. about 800 muscles. Grasshoppers C ÷ A = _____________ is the number have about 900 and caterpillars have of body lengths high that I jumped. as many as 4,000! 21
    • Rigged Ratios N ot only do insects have more muscles, but those muscles have to do less along the short edge to form a shorter tube, and again, and tape the sides. Place one of the tubes Place the other tube on the other piece of cardboard. Pour the cereal from the first tube into the work.When muscles work, they on a piece of stiff cardboard and second one. have to move whatever is being fill it to the top with dry cereal. lifted or pushed and the body Journal Notes parts as well. Since humans have more inside (volume) compared The __________ tube held the to their skin (surface area) than greater amount (volume) of dry insects do, our muscles have a cereal. bigger job to do from the start. You started with the same size paper, so each tube has the same Materials surface area. But because of the way Pencil you rolled the paper, one tube holds 2 pieces of paper (81⁄2 × 11 inches) a greater volume than the other. This Tape is true when you compare insect and 2 pieces of stiff cardboard human bodies as well. Because of the Dry cereal way they are made, insects have less volume compared to their surface Sketch a strong insect (an ant area than humans do. or beetle is a good choice) on Even though you have a greater vol- one piece of paper, and a human ume compared to your surface area on the other. Roll the insect than an insect does, and an insect has paper along the long edge to more muscles than you do, if you form a tall tube, and tape the found an insect the same size as you, sides. Roll the human paper you would likely have about equal strength.22
    • What’s Bugging You? end of the book in the table Des Moines, 1234 Main Street. are put in the insect class, whileEntomologists use everything titled “Ten Common Insect The first level of information the other arthropods are put intofrom an insect’s antennae to its Orders” (see page 117). in the name address for a living different classes like the arachnidtoes to help identify each kind. organism is called the Kingdom. (spider) class or the crustaceaInsects that look and act a lot Classification There is a Plant Kingdom, an (lobster, crabs) class.alike are put in big groups called Around 1735, Carolus Linnaeus Algae Kingdom, a Fungi King- Scientists keep sorting eachorders. All the butterflies and introduced a new system of clas- dom, and, of course, an Animal level into smaller and smallermoths are grouped together in sification—a way to identify, Kingdom. All animals are part of groups. All the animals in eachone order, beetles are another name, and group living things in the Animal Kingdom, so it is a class are put into orders. Bugs,order, and cockroaches are a third an organized way. Although his very big group. beetles, and flies are all in differ-order.There are about 30 major first system concentrated on As scientists look at all the dif- ent orders. Each order is sortedorders of insects.You will most plants, he later worked to organ- ferent kinds of animals, they sort into smaller groups called fami-likely be able to find insects from ize animals into a formal system them into smaller, more exclusive lies. Stinkbugs, assassin bugs, andaround ten of these orders.These as well.There are seven major groups called Phyla. Furry, bedbugs are all in different fami-ten common orders and their levels of information used to warm-blooded animals with lies. Each family is sorted into acharacteristics are listed at the classify all living things. backbones who give birth to live small group called a genus (JîN- The system works like making babies and feed them milk are us). Stinkbugs could belong to a seven-level name and address put in the Mammals phylum, the rough stinkbug genus, the for each living thing. Each level while those animals with green stinkbug genus, or one ofReal Entomologists of information gets more spe- exoskeletons, at least two body several others, with each group cific. Imagine you were space- segments, and pairs of jointed having only a few members. Not all entomologists traveling in a distant galaxy and legs are in the Arthropod (ARE- Finally, at the very end, each ani- agree how insects should met another creature who asked - thro-pod) phylum. mal gets its very own name; that be grouped. Some ento- where you were from. If the Insects are members of the is, its species.The species name mologists recognize 30 creature wanted your exact Arthropod phylum, as are spiders, for the spined soldier stinkbug is orders, while other entomolo- address, you might answer some- centipedes, and lobsters. So scien- Podisus maculiventris. If you putgists recognize more or fewer. thing like: Milky Way Galaxy, tists take all the animals in the together all the classification Planet Earth, North American Arthropod phylum and sort them information about the spined continent, United States of into even smaller groups, called soldier stinkbug, this is what it America, State of Iowa, City of classes. All six-legged arthropods would look like: 23
    • Classification Level Animals Included For example, a key to put an Kingdom Animalia All animals insect in the right order might Phylum Arthropoda Only those animals with jointed legs, two or more body segments, exoskeleton Class Insecta Only those arthropods with six legs, two antennae start out like this: Order Hemiptera Only those insects with front wings longer than hind wings, and a piercing-sucking mouth that forms a beak 1. Does the adult have well- Family Pentatomidae Only those bugs with a shield-shaped back and strong, defensive odor developed wings? Genus Podisus Only those stinkbugs considered soldier stinkbugs Species maculiventris The spined soldier stinkbug Yes (go to 2) No (go to 28) 2. Are the wings clear? What tools can you use to fig- First Field Guides Yes (go to 3) No (go to 24) ure out which order an insect belongs to? There are two basic 3. Are there two sets of clear types of books to help you: field Field guides come in many differ- Insects: A Concise Field Guide to wings? guides and keys. Field guides ent shapes and sizes. Some use 200 Common Insects of North photographs of insects; some use America. Peterson’s First Guides by Yes (go to 4) No (go to 20) include pictures of the insects, common names, and a short detailed black and white drawings; Christopher Leahy (Houghton After going through a list and description.You can find a field others use colored illustrations. Mifflin, 1987). picking the best descriptions, guide that includes all different Look at several different types of Insects: A Guide to Familiar your final choice tells you to kinds of the most common field guides to find the one that is American Insects. A Golden Guide which order your insect belongs. insects, or one for just one type right for you. The field guides list- by Herbert S. Zim, Ph.D. and If you want to find out which of insect, such as butterflies.To ed here are first guides. To keep Clarence Cottam, Ph.D. (Golden family, genus, and species your identify an insect, you look them light and easy-to-use, they Press, 1987). insect belongs to, you use through the field guide to find only include the insects you are Insects and Spiders: National another key that is made for each the picture that looks the most most likely to find. Audubon Society’s Pocket Guide order. Keys are usually found in like what you have found. Bugs and Slugs: An (Chanticleer Press Inc., 1988). entomology textbooks and other A key is a list that gives you Introduction to Familiar Insects: Spiders and Other scientific resources. two choices. After picking the Invertebrates. Pocket Naturalist by Terrestrial Arthropods. Dorling While most amateur entomol- choice that best describes your James Kavanagh (Waterford Press, Kindersley Handbooks by George ogists start by using field guides, insect, you follow the instruc- Inc., 2002). C. McGavin (Dorling Kindersley it doesn’t matter which type of tions to the next set of choices. Inc., 2000). book you use. After some prac-24
    • tice, you will be able to automat- exactly which insect you have. It pod phylum, a very large groupically put most insects into the Make a Connection works a lot like your name when of animals. Many arthropods liveright order. it is listed in a phone book.Your close to each other, sometimes Don’t get discouraged if you Go to last name (surname) groups you under the same rock or in thehave trouble identifying some Extension/ or look in the phone with the other members of your same rotting log. Its no wonderinsects you find. Sometimes it book for your area Cooperative family.Your first name shows people often get confused by thetakes professional entomolo- State Research, Education exactly which family member different types of small, many-gists days or weeks to iden- and Extension Service (look you are. legged creatures and just calltify an insect all the way to for Extension Service in the If you use a key to identify the them all “bugs.” Turn the pageits species name. After com- county government sec- insects you catch, you will see the to find some clues to help youparing an unknown insect to tion). Many of them have official names.The official names separate real insects from theirsimilar ones in their collections, active entomology departments are usually in Latin, and some are close cousins, the insectentomologists use a microscope that will identify insects found in hard to pronounce, like Drosophila look at its antennae, mouth- your state. melangaster (fruit fly). Of course,parts, how the wings are veined, some entomologists have fun,and other very specific details. even with Latin names. G.W. Common NamesEven then, they are sometimes What’s in a Name? Kirkaldy named one bug Ochismefooled. Everyone agreed that a People often call the same insect (o-kiss-me), another one Poly- Many insects have a common namecertain insect in Borneo looked by different names. For example, chisme (Polly-kiss-me), and a third in addition to their scientific name.and acted like a tiger beetle. It do you call it a lightning bug or one Marichisme (Mary-kiss-me). A The common name is like a nick-was only when one entomolo- a firefly? To make sure they are fly was named Pieza kake (piece name and often describes thegist started to raise the insect all talking about the same insect, of cake), and one entomologist insect. Honeybee, walking stick,from an egg to adult that he entomologists use the official named a moth Dyaria (which grasshopper, fire ant, stinkbug, andbecame suspicious. Beetles two-part name for each insect. sounds the same as diarrhea). swallowtail butterfly are examplesundergo complete metamorpho- The first part of the name is the of common names. How many othersis, but this insect did not. He genus, which puts each insect Insect Imposters ones can you think of?finally determined that the insect into a small group of very similar Insects, spiders, centipedes, milli-was actually a grasshopper, acting insects.The second part is the pedes, ticks, scorpions, mites, andlike a beetle.Very tricky! species name, which tells you lobsters all belong to the Arthro- 25
    • Centipede Sowbug Mite Centipedes: long, flat bodies with 15 to 181 segments.The one pair of legs on each body segment Scorpion stretches out to the side. Millipede Isopods (pill bugs or roly-polies): two body parts, hard shell, one Spiders pair of antennae, and usually five or more pairs of legs. Arachnids: spiders, mites, ticks, Millipedes: cylinder-like body and scorpions. Eight legs, two with 9 to 100+ segments. Each body segments, and no antennae. segment has two pairs of legs, Tick which are directly under the body.26
    • Twist-an-Insect (Game Dice)T he classification orders put insects with parts that go together in predictable ways Glue stick Thin dowel rod (1⁄4 inch [ 6⁄10 cm] diameter), 7 inches (17.75 the insect pictures on pages 29 and 30. Cut along the dotted lines. Glue all the head pieces, one inside, to form a cube. It is easiest to do the long side last. Place the cubes on the dowel rod with thein the same group. Flies have two cm) long picture per square, on one cube head box on top, the thorax boxwings and sponging mouthparts. Pencil topper erasers (optional) pattern; all the thorax pieces, one in the middle and the abdomenGrasshoppers have large hind legs picture per square, on a second box on the bottom. Put pencilfor jumping and chewing Carefully cut along the thick cube pattern; and all the abdomen top erasers over the ends of themouthparts. Beetles have a line black outer lines on the cube pat- pieces, one picture per square, on rod to keep the boxes in place.that goes straight down their tern. Fold and crease along all the a third cube pattern.When the Twist the boxes around to create aback, and many have a set of thinner inner lines, then flatten glue has dried, use your pencil crazy creature or to help identifypinching jaws called mandibles. the pattern again. Use your pencil point or punch to poke through insects that you catch.When you By making and using a twist- point or a hole punch to poke the circles again. Put glue on the want to play the Insectigations!an-insect, you will start to recog- through the circles. Do this for all trapezoid tab pieces and fold the game, take the boxes off the sticksnize characteristics that go three copies of the cube. Color pieces up, sticking the tabs on the to use them as dice.together.This will make it easierto classify anything you catch to Animal Head: Feeding parts, eyes, and antennae Thorax: Legs, wings Abdomen: Shape and other featuresthe right order. Bee Coiled tube mouthparts, medium Four clear wings, small legs with Striped, squat, hairy, stinger compound eyes, short antennae pollen basketsMaterials Cricket Chewing mouthparts, long antennae, Large hind legs bent higher than the Long, thick, females have ovipositor,3 photocopies or tracings of small compound eyes body; four wings held to sides when males have claspers (cerci) at end resting cube pattern on page 28 House Fly Sponging mouth, very large Two clear wings, hairy body, walking legs Short, round, soft, hairy1 photocopy or tracing of compound eyes, short antennae insects on page 29 and Stag Beetle Small eyes, mouth with pincers, Running legs, two pairs of wings, hard wing Abdomen hidden by shell page 30 long antennae shell makes middle line down back.Scissors Moth Feathery antennae, coiled tube Four colored wings with scales Fat, fuzzy, long abdomenPencil or hole punch mouthparts, small compound eyesMarkers/colored pencils Spider Eight simple eyes, no antennae Eight legs on combined head and thorax Soft, hairy abdomen with six spinnerets 27
    • Cube pattern28
    • Bee Cricket House Fly Stag Beetle 29
    • Moth Spider30
    • Insectigations! Game Action CardsB (6.3-by-7.6-cm) cards.Write the eing an insect has its advan- following actions based on insect tages and drawbacks.While anatomy onto the cards, one per food is usually easy to find, card. Place all four cards (includ-predators are almost always lurk- ing the blank one) into the enve-ing nearby.You will get to test lope for safekeeping until you areyour luck at surviving as an ready to create your Insectigations!insect in the Insectigations! game game.included on page 115, but firstyou need to create action cards. • You stumbled across a picnic!Action cards will be used to Roll the head die. If you havebuild the path, with instructions mandibles to carry away thefor moving your game token for- crumbs, roll again.ward and backward as you try to • A hungry bird is looking forbe the first player to make it an easy meal. If a roll of thefrom egg to adult. abdomen die shows you have an unprotected abdomen, goMaterials back to start.2 3-by-5-inch (7.6-by-12.7-cm) • Here comes a fly swatter! If a index cards roll of the head die doesn’tScissors show big compound eyes, losePen one turn. Although adult insects come look very different from eachEnvelope in many shapes, sizes, and colors, other, and even from their par- at least they all have the same ents. Get ready to explore and Cut the index cards in half so basic body plan. On the other understand metamorphosis, onethat you have 4 21⁄2-by-3-inch hand, immature insects often of nature’s greatest magic shows. 31
    • 3Metamor phic MagicM ost animals are born with all the body parts they will ever have and in the habitat where they will spend their whole lives. As animals grow bigger, they might growfur or feathers, and move to a new place within a habitat, but most animals look and act pretty much the same their whole life. 33
    • Insects are different. Insects green leaves become winged but- change. This process of change is terflies, flying through the air and called metamorphosis (met-a- feeding on flower nectar.Algae- - MOR-fa-sis). Soft, white, worm- eating mayfly nymphs that breathe like grubs that hatch from their underwater through gills surface eggs will later emerge from stiff from the bottom of a pond or pupal cases as beautifully colored stream, split their skins, stretch hard-shelled beetles. Striped cater- their iridescent wings and fly pillars that creep along munching away, never to eat again.34
    • Spontaneous GenerationH undreds of years ago, people didn’t know where living things came from. Francesco Redi wasn’t sure whether he believed in spontaneous generation or not. tight lid, and place a piece of gauze over the top of the third container, using the rubber band Place all three containers out- side in an area where insects can get to them, but animals likeThey believed that frogs came So in 1668, he did an to hold it in place. dogs, cats, or raccoons can’t.from mud along the rivers, mice experiment to see if fly maggotsgrew from spoiled grain, and really came from meat.flies grew out of rotting meathanging in a butcher’s shop. The Materials Journal Notesidea that living creatures came 3 pieces of raw meat the sizefrom non-living items was called of a meatball No flies visited the meat in the bottle Do the pieces of meat look orspontaneous generation. 3 clear containers, 1 with with the lid. Several days later, the smell any different after one a tight lid meat left in the open was covered hour? One day? One week? Large piece of gauze with maggots. The piece covered with Write descriptions of each Rubber band gauze had just a few maggots. The piece of meat every day, and include when you first notice any piece in the closed bottle had noth- Put one piece of meat in each ing on it. After many more days, the insects on each piece of meat. container. Leave one container maggots changed into flies. Do any changes affect all three open, close another one with the Francesco had found his answer. pieces of meat? What caused the changes? He spread the word that flies didn’t What did Francesco see? He start from the meat itself, but came noticed flies landed on the meat in from other flies that visited the meat the open bottle, and flies landed on and laid eggs. Did your results match the gauze covering the second bottle. Francesco’s? 35
    • Complete Metamorphosis Most insects, including butter- It starts when a female lays an flies, bees, beetles, ants, fleas, flies, egg. Most eggs are laid on or and wasps, go through the near the type of food the young Butterfly and moth larvae = caterpillars process of complete metamor- eat.When the insect hatches, it Legless fly larvae = maggots phosis.These insects change so usually looks like a soft worm much between the egg and adult and is called a first instar larva. Beetle and bee larvae = grubs stages that it is hard to believe they are really the same animals. Egg Larval Instars Pupa Adult36
    • Almost immediately, the larva adult insect finally emerges, itstarts eating and growing. Make a Connection will not grow or change anyAlthough the skin is soft, it more. In fact, some adult insectscan only stretch so far. To view a computer-animated don’t even have mouths thatOnce the larva has version of the complete meta- work, so they can’t eat.The maingrown too large for its morphosis of a butterfly, go job for adult insects is to findskin, it molts, shedding its to: mates so that new eggs can beskin. Now it is a second entomology/metamorphosis.htm. laid and the cycle can start allinstar larva. It eats and grows over again.some more. Depending on theinsect, there are usually between going topsy-turvy.The body tissuesfive and seven instars. dissolve and reorganize: growing After the final instar, the larva legs, forming wings, developingmoves to a protected area and compound eggs, adding hard shells, -pupates (PYOO-pates). Some changing mouthparts.When theinsects, like butterflies and moths,spin a silken cocoon around Metamorphic Recordsthemselves as protection duringtheir pupation. Flies keep theirnext-to-the-last-shed skin on Here are some amazing metamorphic for three or more years, waiting for years as a caterpillar before spin-their bodies. As it dries, it forms a examples. soaking rains to restart their meta- ning a cocoon.hard case. Beetles, ants, and bees morphosis. • Woodboring beetles have emergedpupate looking a bit like mum- • To take advantage of temporary • One species of periodical cicada as adults 10 to 26 years after themified adults.The pupal stage can pools of water, mosquitoes can go spends 17 years as a nymph wood they were living in was usedlast a few weeks, a few months, from egg to adult in as little as underground. for walls, floors, doors, and stair-or even years! During pupation, eight days. • Living in the Arctic means that way handrails.the insect doesn’t move around • When droughts dry up the soils in caterpillars are active for only a • One hundred eighty yucca mothson the outside, but its insides are Africa, the midge larvae dry up as few weeks each summer. This emerged from their cocoons 16 to well. They can survive dehydration causes some moths to live 14 17 years after they first spun them. 37
    • Raising Mealworms M ealworms are one of the easiest animals to raise from egg to adult to egg might have one orange dot and one blue dot. Record your color code in your journal to help you again. Mealworms earned their keep track of the development of name because they are often each egg and larva. found in containers of cornmeal and cereal. In nature, they can be found under rocks or the bark of Journal Notes Heads rotting logs. If you don’t want to oatmeal go on a mealworm hunt through potato black paper Here is my color code: apple your house or backyard, you can ___________________ pick some up at a pet store two of oatmeal or bran cereal on months or more for How long did each stage where they sell them as food for the bottom to provide food for mealworms to complete a last? reptiles and amphibians. both the larvae and adults. Since life cycle. In your box, it will How long (in inches or centime- these insects get their water from probably take only between 76 ters) is each instar larva? Materials the food they eat, add a slice of and 136 days. Mealworms How many instars does a meal- A clear shoe box or food keeper potato, carrot, or apple. Be sure hatch from their eggs after worm go through? with a lid to replace these every few days so about six to 14 days, grow and What color is the adult when it Oatmeal or bran cereal you don’t grow mold instead of molt as larvae for 60 to 120 first emerges from the pupa? What Potato, carrot or apple slices mealworms! Add the mealworms days, pupate for about 10 days, color is it after one hour? One day? Mealworms to the box. and finally emerge as adult Fine-tip permanent markers of The larvae will be more active darkling beetles. Use fine tip per- various colors if you keep them in a warm manent markers to make a small When you have finished Ruler (between 70° to 80°F [52° to dot or two on mealworm eggs studying the mealworms, you can 62°C]), dark place, but light and and larvae. For example, eggs laid feed the eggs, larvae, and adults Poke a lot of small holes in the cooler temperatures will not hurt on July 7 might have one orange to the fish, frogs, and turtles at a lid of the box. Spread an inch or them. In nature, it can take nine dot while eggs laid on July 9 local pond.38
    • Simple Metamorphosis Nymphs (Instars) Adult EggSeveral familiar insects, including First Second Third Fourthgrasshoppers, crickets, dragon-flies, cicadas, and box elder bugsundergo simple (sometimescalled incomplete) metamorpho-sis. Some of these insects changeonly a little; others change a lot.What they have in common isthat they never have a restingperiod of pupation; instead theychange as they grow.There areseveral different types of simplemetamorphosis. A young grasshopper hatchesout of an egg and is called anymph. It looks a lot like amature grasshopper, except it issmaller and has short wing stubs.It eats and eats and eats.When itgets too big for its skin, it molts,leaving the old skin behind.Thewings develop a bit more with A dragonfly hatches underwa- inside. Before its final molt, it wings have stretched, dried, andeach molt. After about six molts, ter as short, squat, gill-breathing climbs out of the water and onto hardened, the adult dragonflyit is an adult. It cannot grow or naiad with simple eyes. For the a plant stem. As it sheds its last flies off in search of a mos-shed its skin anymore, but it con- next two or three years, as it eats skin, it emerges with a long slen- quito—or another flying insect—tinues to eat the same plant food small aquatic animals, grows, and der body, limp, wet wings, and for dinner, and leaves behind itsand lives in the same habitat. molts, its body is changing huge compound eyes. After its watery home. 39
    • Searching for Insect Eggs F inding and raising insects from their eggs is a great way to learn more about metamorphosis.You can look for eggs almost any time of the year. Look on the underside of leaves, under rocks and rotting logs, floating on top of still water, or attached to underwater plants. Materials Clear containers Damp paper towel or sponge Jar lid Do not pick up any insect egg by itself. Gently scoop it up with some of the surrounding soil, plant, or water, and place it in a clear container. Place a damp paper towel or sponge on a jar lid inside the container with any eggs that are not already in water. It is best to keep the eggs in a40
    • Real Entomologists safe place outside.You don’t want be exposed to cold tempera- to accidentally release a swarm of tures in order to develop. hungry, biting larvae in your Check on the eggs every day Forensic entomologists use insect pest insects. Many house! And insect eggs found in and note what happens. metamorphosis to help solve crimes. caterpillars eat plants. the fall or winter might need to When forensic entomologists exam- Too many caterpillars in a garden or ine a dead body, they look for signs farm can reduce the amount of food of insects. It is very hard to identify that plants can produce. One way to different types of fly and beetle control the caterpillars is to release Journal Notes eggs, larvae, shed skins and wasps which lay their eggs inside the pupae, or tell how old they are, caterpillars. When the eggs hatch, so forensic entomologists take the larvae eat the insides of the Where did you find the eggs? How long did it take for samples back to their laboratories. caterpillar, then burrow outside to Were there any adult insects the eggs to hatch? They tend the eggs, feed the larvae, pupate. around? Can you identify the larvae? or watch the pupae until the adult Veterinarians need to know about insects emerge. After identifying metamorphosis to help sick animals. them, they use their knowledge of Horse bot flies lay eggs on horses’ metamorphosis to figure out when legs and shoulders. When horses lick the eggs were first laid. By looking at their fur, they swallow the eggs. The how long each stage lasted, then eggs hatch inside the horse where counting backward, forensic entomol- the larvae feed and grow until they ogists get valuable clues on how long are ready to pupate. Then they let go the body had been dead. and get passed out with the poop. Crop specialists use their knowl- Too many larvae inside a horse can edge of metamorphosis to control make it very sick.Praying mantises enclose their eggs in a case of froth, then leave them to last through the winter. 41
    • Gross Entomology: What’s for Dinner, Mom? In one species of gall gnats, the mother gnat might not lay eggs. Instead, she produces female larvae inside her body. These daughters eat the insides of their own mother, then crawl out of her empty body. After these larvae molt (and are now second instar larvae), they all produce even more female lar- vae inside their own bodies, get eaten alive by their daughters, and then die when the daughters crawl out. This can happen several more times before one generation of the larvae don’t pro- duce any more daughters inside their bodies, but finally pupate and become true adults. This tobacco hornworm is covered with pupal cases of braconid wasps. Robert L. Anderson, USDA Forest Service. Image 1748031. www.ipmimages.org42
    • Action CardsMaterials Place all four cards (including the • You finished your final molt. After searching for insect eggs2 3-by-5-inch (7.6-by-12.7-cm) blank one) into the envelope for Roll the thorax die. If you are or attracting their parents, and index cards safekeeping until you are ready a grasshopper, jump ahead 3 watching the young grow andScissors to create your Insectigations! spaces. change, you now know whatPen game. • A car just hit a squirrel. If a roll insects look like when they areEnvelope of any insect die shows you immature and mature. But how • A wasp is looking to lay its are a fly or beetle, take an did those flies find the meat in Cut the index cards in half so eggs on a larva. Roll any insect extra turn. the spontaneous generation jar?that you have 4 2 1⁄2-by-3-inch die. If you roll an insect with a Find out through the following(6.3-by-7.6-cm) cards.Write the land-based larva, go back to sense-sational experiments andfollowing actions based on insect start. activities.metamorphosis, one to a card. 43
    • 4 Sense-sationalT he fly buzzing around the kitchen has landed near your sandwich. As it walks toward your plate, you slowly creep toward it, flyswatter raised overhead. Just as you swing theswatter down, it darts away.Then it comes back to buzz aroundyour head before flying off.You wonder, how did the fly findyour food, and how did it know you were about ready to swatit? Get ready to find out as you test how well you smell and ifyou see like a bee. 45
    • Vision While some fleas are blind and must use their senses of smell and heat detection to find their food, some dragonflies have 23,000 lenses in each eye and can spot a mos- quito flying near a pond. Just like with people, being able to see isn’t Brian G. Burton, Boston University everything, but it sure helps when you want to find food, escape ene- mies, and find each other! Insects have two kinds of eyes, simple and compound.The simple Rob Harris eyes are called ocelli. Some larvae have up to six ocelli, while many adult insects have between one and Wrong What a fly sees. three.You can usually find ocelli on - - an adult on the top of the head in- photoreceptors (FO-to-re-SEP- are around five million pho- Real Entomologists between the antennae.These eyes ters).These photoreceptors send toreceptors in just the middle are sensitive to light but cannot see the information to the brain, part of a human’s eye. images. Ocelli help insects keep where all the images get put No problem—most Although insects may see their balance and fly up, down, and together to create a picture. insects don’t need to see fuzzy pictures, they are very around corners without going But most insects are near- small details.What they good at avoiding things (like upside down or on their sides. sighted—their eyes only focus on really need to see is motion. your flyswatter). Engineers are It is the compound eyes that things that are close by. Even then, Your two eyes can only look in using insect eyes as models for cre- see things.They are called com- the picture is fuzzy.With all those one direction at a time. But ating computer eyes that can be put pound eyes because each eye is lenses, why does an insect’s brain insects with big eyes and a lot in robotic planes. They want the made of between two and 23,000 create a fuzzy picture? Although it of lenses can see almost all the planes to be able to fly without run- lenses. Each lens sees a slightly dif- has more lenses than we do, there way around their bodies, which ning into things. ferent image and sends that infor- are only 24,000 photoreceptors in is why it is so hard to sneak up mation to eight special cells called the housefly’s whole eye.There on them.46
    • Point of ViewW ith two working eyes, you have two lenses.These two lenses are about 2.5 to how close or distant an object is, and how fast it is moving. To see how this works, make target still visible? Now open that eye and close the other eye. Is the target still visible?inches (6.25 cm) apart at the your hand into the shape of an The eye that saw the targetpupils.This small distance means “o.” Stretch your arm out, and through your o is your dominantthat each eye sees things just a with both eyes open, look eye. Cover this eye and try tolittle bit differently.The differ- through the o at something in play catch with a soft ball.Whatence is enough to give you depth the distance.Without moving happens?perception, that is, visual clues as your hand, close one eye. Is the Journal Notes My _______ eye is dominant. Playing catch using my non- dominant eye was _______________ ________________________________ ________________________________ 47
    • Color blind Challenge N ot only do insects see fuzzy pictures, many are what we call colorblind. This doesn’t Cut one 3-inch (7.5 cm) square of each color out of con- struction paper and put aside. Shuffle the construction paper cards, then hold the colored viewer in front of your eyes and Use the pen to write down the color you see on the card. After you have looked at all the cards, mean they see everything in Keeping the file folder folded, look at the cards one at a time. lower the viewer. black and white. Colorblind cut it in half.Then cut a 3-by-5- tape means that some colors look the inch (7.6-by-12.7-cm) rectangle 3 tape 4 green cellophane same as each other. In one form through both layers of one half. of colorblindness, violet, lav- Open the folder, cover one of ender, pink, and blue all appear the rectangles with the green cel- as blue to the viewer. How the lophane and tape it in place. colors appear can also change Close the folder and tape the depending on whether the edges together to make a viewer. viewer is in bright sunlight or in Journal Notes foggy conditions. 1 Materials When I looked through the Repeat the experiment outside on File Folder Scissors green viewer, this is what I a bright sunny or foggy day, and with Red, blue, green, yellow, pink, saw: a viewer using red cellophane instead purple, and brown construc- of green. Also look at the grass, tion paper Actual Color What I Saw leaves, and especially flowers! A manila file folder or other Red Butterflies can see red, but hon- lightweight cardboard Blue eybees can’t, and they both can see 1 4-by-6-inch (10-by-15.25-cm) Green yellow, blue, and even ultraviolet, 2 piece of green cellophane Yellow which we can’t see. Without color to Tape Pink confuse them, insects pay more Pen Purple attention to other clues, like shapes Brown and movements.48
    • Training BeesY ou can test the vision abili- ties of bees, butterflies, and other nectar eaters by pro- the order of cards and dishes, keep- ing the sugar water with the same pattern and watch what happens.viding food for them in this sim- Then keep the sugar water in theple experiment. same place, but change the pattern that is near it. Finally, try the exper-Materials iment again using plain colored5 plain index cards cards instead of cards with symbols.Black marker5 clear zippered plastic bags5 shallow dishes Journal Notes HeadsMake a Connection 3 ⁄4 cup (177 ml) hot water pered bag so that dew or How long did it take for bees 1 ⁄4 cup (59 ml) sugar a water spill won’t hurt it. or other insects to find the Spoon Place a shallow dish near sugar water?To see if you are color- Plain colored index cards each symbol. Pour plain Were they confused when youblind, visit www.toledo- water into four of the dishes. changed the order of the dishes Pour the sugar into 3⁄4 cup Draw the following shapes, cards?Ishihara.html. This page has one on each card: triangle, cross, (177ml) very hot water (be sure Were they confused when youseven large circles. Each circle is stripes, star, and circle. Make sure to ask for an adult’s help with changed the pattern that was nearfilled with bubbles of different col- you color the shapes in so they this) and stir until it dissolves. the sugar water?ors. One set of colored bubbles in are solid, not just an outline. Find Pour the sugar solution into the What happened when you used col-each circle makes the shape of a a large flat space like a picnic table fifth dish.Watch the dishes for ored cards instead of patternednumber. Place your colored viewer or driveway in a sunny, calm area several days, until you are confi- cards?over the circles. Does it affect your that won’t be disturbed for several dent the insects know which Did all insects (butterflies, flies, bees,ability to see the numbers? days. Put each card in a clear, zip- bowl has sugar water. Change beetles) react the same? 49
    • Make a Connection To see what some patterns look like to a honeybee, visit beye/beyehome.html. If you can imagine what it would look like if you pasted a large flower onto a basketball, then let some of the air out, you have a good idea of how a honeybee sees! Lightning bugs (also known as fireflies) are familiar beetles that light up the summer nights with their flickering flashes. It is the males who fly around flashing. They are looking for a female who is perched on a plant to flash back.The way lightning beetles tell each other apart is by the code they flash. Some do Some beekeepers rent out hives to farmers for crop pollination. If a bee tries to enter the wrong hive, guard bees will chase it out or even kill it. three short flashes in a row, oth- To help the bees find their own hives when they are in a new area, beekeepers can attach a simple shape, a colored patch, or a combination of ers might do one short flash fol- the two near the entrance door. lowed by a long flash as they fly up, making a “J.” Success to a copy the codes of others. But if The next time you are out (resting on a plant) of the same firefly means finding the same the male lands near a female catching lightning beetles, chal- species. How good are you at kind of beetle.This is easier than who is not the same kind as he lenge yourself to see if you can deciphering their code? it sounds. Some types of fireflies is, she may eat him! find a male (flying) and female50
    • Smell smells with their antennae, but wondered how the male moths own smells (later calledHave you ever noticed how some, like flies and butterflies, knew where the female moth pheromones) to use in communi-quickly flies find food? It doesn’t use their feet! was.To find out, he shaved a cation. People might not be ablematter if it is your picnic lunch in Jean Henri Fabre was an ento- patch of fur off their abdomens to smell the pheromones (FER-a park or an animal hit by a car, mologist interested in insect so he could recognize returning - a-mon), but male moths withflies are often the first insect on behavior. One summer, after moths. He clipped the antennae their large, feathery antennaethe scene. How do they do it? watching a female peacock moth off some of the male moths. He needed only a few parts per mil- Because of their exoskeletons, emerge from its cocoon, he put turned off the lanterns. He also lion to find the female.insects have “noses” on the sur- the large insect in a wire cage. put the female in a new placeface of their bodies.This helps That night, dozens of male pea- each day for the next eight days.make them more sensitive to cock moths came flying in He put her in a closet. He putsmells. Most insects can detect through open windows. He her in a drawer. He put her in a hatbox. The only times noGross Entomology: Maggots as Medicine male moths came near her was when she was someplaceFlies are very sensitive to the smell of the soldiers who did not. where the airmeat. Many female flies like to lay They studied what was hap- couldn’t get out.their eggs on meat to provide food for pening and discovered that the mag- Although the firsttheir babies. During past wars when gots only ate the dead flesh, helping female mothmany people were wounded, it could to clean the wounds. Not only that, died beforetake several days for all the injured but the maggots produced a chemical he found ansoldiers to be found and taken to a called allantoin, which helped the answer, hedoctor. Since the soldiers were lying wounds heal faster. Look at the ingre- didn’t stop experi-outside, sometimes the doctors dients lists of hand and suntan menting. After manyfound maggots inside the wounds. lotions, antiperspirants and deodor- more experiments, heAfter some time, the doctors noticed ants, toothpastes, and soaps. Do you concluded that somethat the soldiers who had maggots in have any allantoin in your house? insects create theirtheir wounds recovered faster than 51
    • Concentration W hen female insects release pheromones (a chemical smell) to attract a mate, the antennae on the males often have more branches to help them pick up the scent.The male emperor moth has the most acute sense of smell in the animal kingdom. It can detect one mol- ecule of pheromone from 6.8 miles away. How good are your senses of smell and taste? 1 2 3 4 5 Materials 10 clear cups Pen or marker Red juice Spoon Water 6 7 8 9 10 Number the clear cups 1 through 10. Put ten spoonfuls of juice in cup #1. Put nine spoon- fuls of water in cups #2 through #10.Take one spoonful of juice from cup #1 and put it in cup52
    • #2. Mix it well.Take one spoon- Real Entomologists ful of liquid from cup #2 and put it in cup #3. After mix- If forest trees start to look ing it well, take one spoon- bare in the middle of sum- ful of liquid from cup #3 mer, scientists try to figure and put it in cup #4. out why. To see if the problem Repeat this pattern until you is caused by too many gypsy moth have taken one spoonful of liquid caterpillars eating the green leaves, from #9 and added it to #10. scientists use pheromones to lure Cup #1 has all juice. In cup male gypsy moths into traps. Biolo- #2, you have 1 part of juice in gists count how many male moths 10 parts of liquid. As you mix they catch, then use that number to the juice with water, you are estimate how many moths are in diluting it, having less and less in the area. If they decide there are each next cup. By the time you too many moths, they might con- get to cup #6, you have only sider using an insect spray to try to one part of juice in one million kill them. parts of water. In cup #10, you have one part juice in one The inside of this trap is coated with sticky billion parts of water. papers and gypsy moth pheromone.Journal Notes The last cup I can see juice in If you were an insect sensitive to is cup #___. juice, you might be able to still taste The last cup I can smell or smell it in cups #8 (100 parts per the juice in is cup # ___. billion) and #9 (10 parts per billion). The last cup I can taste the juicein is cup # ___. 53
    • Dinner Detour Materials of smell to find their way? Set a ferent part of it is over the trail. Piece of cake, cookie, or sugary piece of cake, cookie, or sugary Remove leaves or turn them Journal Notes doughnut doughnut on the ground about upside down. From the Leaves five feet away from an active changes you make, can you Sticks anthill. Place several obstacles like tell if the ants are using Start time: Thin strips of paper leaves, sticks, and thin strips of smell or vision as clues on It took ____ minutes for the Watch or clock paper between the food and the their trails? Record what first ant to find the food. anthill. Record the time in your happens in your journal. It took ____ minutes for more ants Do ants living near you use journal, then find a comfortable Army ants are blind and must to bring back others. their sense of sight or their sense place where you can watch what use their sense of smell to get I think the ants are using ______ happens. around, while carpenter ants use to find their way. Once it looks like all the ants both sight and smell.There are Journal Notes are following the same trail, more than 550 species of ants in move some of the obstacles North America, so if you look its size and color. Repeat your around. If their trail takes around, you will probably find experiment on as many different After I moved them over a piece of paper, more than one type of ant living types of ants as you can find. ____________________, turn the paper so it faces a dif- near you. Make a sketch of each the ants had/had no trouble ferent way. Move a stick so a dif- ant type in your journal, noting finding their food.54
    • Action CardsMaterialsScissors • Mmmm. If a roll of the head2 3-by-5-inch (7.6-by-12.7-cm) die shows you have the feath- index cards ery antennae you need toPen smell the rotting fruit near theEnvelope tree, take an extra turn. • A human has moved your Cut the index cards in half so home. If a roll of the head diethat you have 4 21⁄2-by-3-inch shows you have bee eyes, go(6.3-by-7.6-cm) cards. Copy the ahead 4 spaces.following actions based on insect • Scientists are testing a newsenses, one to a card. Place all pheromone trap. Roll the headfour cards (including the blank die. If you have short anten-one) into the envelope for safe- nae, you can’t sense the smellkeeping until you are ready to and fly free. All others lose acreate your Insectigations! game. turn. So insects can communicate through their sense of smell. Is there any other way for them to talk? Of course there is! Get ready for a buzzy, buggy time! 55
    • 5 Can We Talk?A lthough they don’t speak with words we recognize, insects communicate in some pretty amazing ways. From their antennae to their toes, insects use the various parts oftheir bodies to keep in touch.A female toci-toci beetle can useher antennae to listen to the tapping made by a male more thanthree miles away. Grasshoppers rub their legs together to makechirping sounds. Male and female mosquitoes flap their wings atdifferent speeds, giving them an easy way to tell each other apart. 57
    • When male cicadas start their 100 The measurement of the wave- High abdominal chorus, they can 80 amplitude length is called the frequency. Waves drown out sounds of a nearby 60 Medium that are short from front to back amplitude highway.You might say that 40 (fast) are said to have a high fre- 20 Low insects have a way without amplitude quency and a high pitch sound. 0 words! Find out how as you The wavelength of A above middle -20 watch sound waves at work, lis- -40 C is about 2.6 feet (.8 m), while ten in on insect sounds, and cre- -60 the wavelength of A below middle ate your own buzzing bug. -80 C is about 5.1 feet (1.5 m). -100 0M 10M Sounds of Summer You are sitting outside on a Sounds Abound warm day with a glass of lemon- mosquito? A fly or a wasp? A were sending and receiving sig- ade in your hand, and then you cicada or a katydid? How can nals through water, wood, and hear it. An insect is coming to you tell without even looking? even the earth itself. So the defi- Infrasonic sounds are those that are check you out. Is it a bee or a By listening! These insects may nition of sound was expanded to too low for humans to hear. Ele- not be intentionally notifying include any vibration of air, liq- phants use their nasal passages to you of their arrival, but their uids, or solids. create low, rumbling, infrasonic sounds are like fingerprints for No matter who makes the sounds that can travel nearly sevenMake a Connection the ear. vibration or what it is traveling miles. Ultrasonic sounds are those What is sound? For a long through, sound moves in waves. that are too high for humans to hear. time, scientists considered These waves can be measured in They are often used in medicine forNot sure if you have ever sound to be only those vibra- several ways.The height of these functions ranging from taking pic-heard a cicada or cricket? tions that traveled through the waves is called the amplitude.The tures of internal organs (ultrasounds)Go to www.naturesongs. air and activated our sense of amplitude gives information to smashing kidney stones. Super-com and listen in. Cicadas hearing. But as they studied about the volume of a sound. A sonic sounds are those that deal withmake a clicking, buzzing sound that other animals such as dolphins, large or high wave produces a solid bodies that exceed the speed ofpulses like an emergency siren. Crick- whales, and elephants, scientists louder sound than a small or sound, such as when a supersonic jetets create a cheery chirp that is a bit became convinced that animals short wave. breaks the sound barrier and youlike the low-battery signal in a smoke hear a loud BOOM!detector.58
    • Wing WavesI t’s late at night and both an Asian vampire moth and a female mosquito are in Journal Notesyour room, looking for a As the hanging edge getsmeal of blood.Which longer, does the sound getone are you going to higher or lower?hear and have a Does the hanging piece movechance to swat before faster or slower?you become dinner? Does the sound get louder or softer?Materials The 2-inch (5-cm) piece of stickA wooden yardstick (meter stick) doesn’t have much length to move,A table making its wavelength short, giving it a high frequency and a high- Place the stick on the table edge. Increase the part of the pitched sound. The 34-inch (95 cm)with 2 inches (5 cm) hanging stick that hangs over the edge piece has a greater length to travel,over the edge. Hold the to 4 inches (10 cm) and repeat producing a longer, slower soundremaining length of stick the experiment. Continue the wave with a lower pitch. What thisfirmly on the table with activity increasing the part means is that a mosquito with aone hand.Watch and that hangs over the edge by wingspan of around one-half inchlisten to what hap- 2 inches (5 cm) each (1.3 cm) produces a high-pitchedpens as you push time until you have only whine, while you never hear thethe thumb on your 2 inches (5 cm) remain- vampire moths that havefree hand down and ing on the table. wingspans several inches (or cen-off the hanging timeters) wide. 59
    • Notable Insects stag beetle larvae, and termites all Measuring Sounds Depending upon the size of an stake out a dinner claim as they insect, the size of its wings, how gnaw through the decaying warm it is, and what it is trying wood. After the sounds of their Two common words used when sci- softest sound that humans can hear. to do, it will flap its wings at dif- chewing alert a woodpecker to entists are talking about sounds are Sounds louder than 85 decibels can ferent speeds. If you were to lis- their location, they may beat hertz and decibels. Hertz (abbrevi- cause hearing damage if you are ten to insects while playing the their heads against the walls of ated Hz) is the measurement of the exposed to them for too long. piano, you could match their their tunnels and nests to warn frequency, or how many sound As an example of the difference sounds with these piano notes. others of the approaching attack. waves pass a given point in one sec- between the two terms, think of a Crickets, katydids, and cicadas Listen carefully as you gently ond. One kilohertz (kHz) is 1,000 cicada. Male cicadas produce a song are definitely the stars of an scratch the top of a wooden cycles per second; 1 megahertz that creates a sound wave measur- insect orchestra, but that may be table. Lay one ear on the table (MHz) is 1 million cycles per second. ing 390 Hz, which is about the same because of where they live— and scratch again. Notice any Humans can hear sound frequencies pitch you hear for the word “star” above ground and out in the difference? Can you hear any- from about 20 Hz to about 20 kHz. when you sing Twinkle, Twinkle, Lit- open. Most of your hearing hap- thing if you put your ear against You don’t hear your own heartbeat tle Star (G above middle C on the pens when vibrations in the air a dead tree? because it beats too slowly, and you piano). Their song is one of the reach your eardrums. Insects liv- When you make a sound can’t hear a high-pitched dog whis- loudest noises made by an animal, ing inside wood or underwater through air vibrations, the air tle because it produces a sound at registering up to 112 decibels, which could be singing a symphony, scatters the sound in all direc- 30 kHz or more. is about the same loudness as a and you would never know it. tions.When you direct your Decibels are the measurement of rock concert or leaf blower. sound efforts through a solid, sound energy and intensity, which is Do You Hear What I Hear? such as wood, the vibrations are related to loudness. Zero (0) is the Just under the bark of a dead or more contained, and therefore dying tree, adult click beetles, are stronger (or louder). So an Common Insects Butterfly Dragonfly Bumblebee Tired Bee Housefly Active Bee Mosquito No-see-um midge Measured Sound Wave Rates (c/s = cycles per second) 8—20 c/s 40 c/s 117 c/s 326 c/s 345 c/s 435 c/s 587 c/s 1050 c/s Closest Piano Note Equivalents too low to hear the third E below the second A E above middle C F above middle C A above middle C D one octave C two octaves middle C below middle C above middle C above middle C60
    • animal communicating through Night Lifewood has to use less effort thanone that is communicatingthrough air. During the quiet hours of late night, it is much easier to hearWater Words sounds that are usually missedWhen you are near water, frogs during the day. Night is also aand ducks might make so much time of hidden insect activity. These scanning electron micrographs produce highly magnified views of a katydid’s leg, show-noise that you can’t hear any- Years ago, as people would sit ing its ear. Anna Price, Department of Biology, Wake Forest Universitything else. But if you watch and up at night with a sick relativelisten carefully, you might witness or friend, they would some- insects’ ears look like, and where its head.You would need to use aaquatic insects using their own times hear a tap-tap-tap sound are they located? Most insects’ powerful magnifier and look on awater words.To attract a mate, coming from within the walls ears are simply a thin membrane green lacewing’s wings, on thethe male backswimmer makes a of the house. Since medicine called a tymbal, stretched over a inside of a katydid’s or cricket’svery loud noise by rubbing his and doctors were hard to come very small hole, so they look like knees, or on the side of a short-front legs together or against his by, many times the sick person the top of a drum. But you won’t horned grasshopper’s body at thebeak.You can hear him 130 feet died. People started to believe see an insect’s ears on the side of base of its abdomen!(40 m) away under water. that when they heard tappingWhirligig beetles are like bats. noises at night, someone wasThey use echolocation to find about to die. When they dis-their food.The beetles feed on covered that the sound wasinsects that fall into the water, made by a wood-eating beetledetecting them by the ripples living in the timbers of theirthey make. house, banging its head on its tunnels to attract a mate, theyInsect Ears named the insect “the death-You may know that some insects watch beetle.”use their antennae to sensesound, but have you ever lookedfor an insect’s ears? What do 61
    • Here’s to Ears W hen a tiger moth hears the high-pitched clicks of a bat headed its way, it 2 3 responds by dropping like a stone while making clicks of its own, trying to jam the bat’s radar. 1 Materials Scissors 1 large balloon Short stiff tube, such as a plastic soda bottle with both ends cut off Rubber bands Rice or cereal, several grains Journal Notes Heads Cut the balloon in half around the circumference, then stretch a When I tap the lower balloon piece over each end of the tube membrane, this is what and secure the pieces with rub- happens: ber bands. Hold the tube upright ___________________________ and place a few grains of rice or When you tap the balloon, you are cereal on top. Gently tap the making it vibrate. The vibrations are lower balloon membrane and transferred to the air inside the tube, watch what happens. and then to the balloon on top, mak- ing it vibrate and the grains jump.62
    • Buzzing BugC hildren in Africa sometimes catch the giant Goliath bee- tle, tie one end of string toone of its legs, and the other end 1 4to a stick.Then, as the beetle fliesoverhead in a circle, it makes aloud buzzing noise.You canmake a vibration sensation bycreating your own buzzing bug. 2Materials1 18-inch (45-cm) piece of stringPopsicle/craft stickScissorsStiff paper 5MarkersGlueStapler 31 1-inch (2.5-cm) diameter foam ballWide rubber band 63
    • Tie one end of the string side. Place one half on each end teeth of a comb. Press the button around one end of the craft stick. of the stick. Stretch the rubber on a baby food jar lid in and out Cut the piece of paper so that band around the stick and craft to copy a cicada one edge is straight and slightly ball ends. After the glue dries, go clicking its smaller than the Popsicle stick. outside and swing the buzzer abdomen.To sound Journal Notes Heads Draw a flying insect on both over your head. like the vibrating sides of the paper. Glue the Some insects use body parts spiracles of the straight edge of the paper to the other than wings to make Madagascar What is making the sound? middle of the stick, covering the sounds.To mimic the chirp of hissing cock- How can I change the sound? string. Staple the paper and the crickets, grasshoppers, and katy- roach, stretch The foam ball pieces hold string to the stick. Cut the foam dids rubbing their legs or wings the neck of an the rubber band away from the ball in half. Dab glue on each flat together, rub a stick across the inflated balloon apart craft stick, giving it room to vibrate as as you slowly let the it moves through the air. Your swing- air escape. ing speed plus the width and length Bees Buzz Around the World of the rubber band affect how quickly it can vibrate, which determines the While many English-speaking people are said to zumbar, in Germany they sound it makes. say that bees buzz, other languages summen, in Israel they zimzum, and have other words for it. In Spain, bees they brzecza in Poland.64
    • Insect AmplifierS ome insects are very hard to hear. An amplifier is some- thing that makes a sound the cup, then use the rubber band to keep it in place. Put the cup up to your ear and listen.Tolouder. Use this simple amplifier slow down an insect and changeto help you hear the sound an its sound, put the cup, with theinsect makes. insect in it, into a refrigerator for up to 10 minutes. But don’t for-Materials get to take it out! Set the timerSound-producing insect for 10 minutes to help you1 paper cup remember. After you’re finishedPiece of waxed paper large listening, be sure to set your enough to cover top of cup singer free.Rubber band Sometimes, it is better not toTimer be heard.When male crickets are chirping trying to attract a mate, Catch an insect that makes an their calls can also attract tachinidaudible sound. (Don’t select a flies.These flies are parasites.stinging insect for this experi- They lay their eggs inside thement.) Carefully transfer the cricket.When the larvae hatchinsect to a paper cup. Place the out of the eggs inside of the You might be surprised by how loud an insect can sound.waxed paper over the mouth of cricket, the cricket dies. 65
    • Dig This Journal Notes Heads Another simple amplifier is a cone burrow in the shape of a double This is the kind of insect I put shape (such as a megaphone). megaphone. Then he sits behind it in the cup: _______________ Cones amplify by directing sound and “sings” his song. The double _________________________ waves toward their targets, rather megaphone is so effective that a per- The insect sounded like this: than letting them scatter in all direc- son can hear his song from almost a ________________________________ tions. The male mole cricket digs his quarter mile away. After I chilled the insect in the cup, this is what it sounded like: ________________________________ ________________________________ This works on the same principle as the model ear, only this time the insect makes the air in the enclosed chamber vibrate, which in turn makes the waxed paper vibrate. By contain- ing these vibrations to a small space, the effect of the vibrations is increased, or amplified. You can use the cup without the waxed paper to amplify the insect sounds coming from a dead tree. Place the open end of the cup against the tree and your ear on the bottom of the cup.66
    • Sound Off SentryP eople have learned to use insect sounds to their advantage. In Japan, people Materials Egg cartons Paper towels crickets a place to hide. Either catch some crickets or buy them at a pet store. Put a Journal Notes Headskeep crickets in special cages. As Aquarium or hamster cage with piece of damp sponge on What time are the cricketslong as everything is still and a tight-fitting screen lid a small jar lid for water. noisiest?quiet, the cricket chirps in its Crickets Every day, place some How long are the cricketscage. But if a human or large ani- Damp sponge lettuce leaves, apple slices quiet after I enter the room?mal comes near, the cricket stops Small jar lid or other fruit and vegetable Do the crickets change their chirp-chirping.This sudden quiet Fruit and vegetable pieces (let- pieces in the aquarium cage and ing speed as the weather changes?warns the cricket’s owner that tuce, apples, etc.) rewet the sponge. Remove the You can use crickets as watchdogs,somebody is nearby. So, think of uneaten pieces of food every day and you can also use them as a sim-a cricket as a reverse watchdog! Place the egg cartons and so that you don’t start a fly farm ple thermometer. crumpled paper towels in the as well. Listen to the crickets at Although snowy tree crickets usu- bottom of the aquarium to give different times of the day and ally produce the most accurate night. results, you can try this experiment with any cricket you hear. Simply count the number of chirps you hear in 15 seconds and add 37. The result is approximately the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. For degrees Cel- sius, count the number of chirps in 15 seconds, divide by 2 and add 6. 67
    • Action Cards Materials four cards (including the blank • A bat is looking for dinner. If a Whether or not you have 2 3-by-5-inch (7.6-by-12.7-cm) one) into the envelope for safe- roll of the thorax die shows learned to speak fluent cricket, or index cards keeping until you are ready to you are a flying insect, go back your bug buzzer creates the same Scissors create your Insectigations! game. to start. pitch as a bee, the tips and tricks Pen • You are looking for a mate. If a in chapter 6 will help you find Envelope • You are trying to sneak across roll of the thorax die shows insects wherever and whenever the basement. If a roll of the you are a noisemaker, take an you want to look. Cut the index cards in half so thorax die shows you are a extra turn. that you have 4 21⁄2-by-3-inch noisemaker, lose one turn. (6.3-by-7.6-cm) cards. Copy the following actions based on insect sounds, one to a card. Place all68
    • 6 FindersF ossils show us that insects were living on Earth even before the dinosaurs. In the millions of years insects have been around, our world has changed a lot.There havebeen floods, ice ages, volcanic eruptions, and meteor crashes.Although these events killed most of the insects and other ani-mals that existed at these times, enough insects survived to con-tinue reproducing. As the world changed, so did the insects.Their bodies and habits adapted to the different environments, 69
    • so that now, insects can be found ties, insects have become active right? Maybe. Maybe not! Field Notes almost everywhere.Tiny non-bit- at various times: day, night, Treehoppers can look like ing, mosquito-looking midges winter, spring, summer, or fall. thorns.Walking sticks— Explorers and scientists have long can be found in Antarctica. On Although it is easiest to find as their name suggests— used field notes to help them ocean coasts, the seashore spring- the greatest variety of insects look like sticks.The understand the world. Field notes tail hides in air-filled pockets outside at dusk on a summer South American hawk help you focus on what is in front of under rocks at high tide, then evening, you can look for fuzzy caterpillar looks like a snake, you, instead of just looking at it quickly looks like a speck of dirt as it white mealybugs attached to and Salvodora species of cater- then putting it back. Charles Darwin used springs along the shore looking the underside of the leaves of pillars look like bird poop! his notes and collections from an around- for plant litter to eat when the your houseplants anytime. If insects are so well camou- the-world trip to write a famous book water has receded. Fleas find your Snow fleas can be found at the flaged, then how can you called The Origin of Species. pets irresistible, moths like your base of trees on a winter day, watch, catch, or collect them? Whether you find an insect using clothes, and cockroaches hide in while cicadas sing on hot sum- The activities in this chapter one of the ways listed here, or an your basement. mer evenings. give you tips and tricks to insect finds you, record your actions In order to reduce competi- With so many out there, finding a large variety and and observations in your journal. Do tion for food and other necessi- insects should be easy to find— number of insects. this for each insect you find. Date: ___________ Time:__________ A.M. or P.M. These are the weather conditions: _____________________________ This is where I found the insect: _____________________________ This is how I captured the insect: _____________________________ Additional notes: _____________________________ I think this insect is a: _____________________________ This is a drawing of the insect: _____________________________70
    • Sweep Net 1 3 2Y ou can look for insects one at a time, but they are mas- ters at hiding and escaping. insects is to use a sweep net. Materials Wire cutter Scissors Old pillowcase (with no holes)An easier way to catch a wide Pliers Old broomstick (or thick dowelvariety and high number of Wire coat hanger rod) 71
    • Duct tape hanger, then tighten its screw Metal hose clamp, optional (sold using a screwdriver. in hardware or automotive To use a sweep net, go to an stores) area with grass. One of the best Screwdriver places to find insects is at the top Looking jar of the tallest hill in an area. Many male butterflies, moths, Ask an adult to help you use and other insects head up high the pliers to untwist the coat to make it easier for females to hanger and form an open loop. find them, but any weedy field Use the wire cutters to snip off or even your backyard is fine. the hook, saving it for the activi- Hold the net end a few inches ty Fly-Tying a Big Bug (on page above the ground.Walk forward 98). Cut a small slit in the hem and swivel the net opening from at the mouth of the pillowcase. side to side as you sweep Thread the coat hanger through through the grass, knocking the hem. Place one end of the insects off the plants and into coat hanger now threaded your net. After about 20 steps, through the pillowcase on each lift the net up and let any sting- side of the broomstick.Wrap the ing insects fly free. Grab the net wire and broomstick with duct around the middle so that no tape. For extra holding power, other insects can escape, then slip a circular, metal hose clamp gently shake your catch as you over the duct tape and coat move your hand down the bag. When your hand is only about 3 inches (7 to 8 cm) from the bottom, move the net close to the mouth of your looking jar. Carefully open your net-filled Hold the sweep net a few inches off the hand while you use your free ground as you walk through a grassy area. hand to gently turn the pillow-72
    • Insect Trap If you follow the sameStop Right There! instructions using sheer curtains 1 instead of a pillowcase, you willWhat do a monarch butterfly, box make an aerial net. Aerial nets 2elder bug, ladybird beetle, hunting are more delicate, so you should-safety vest, construction cone, and n’t sweep the grass with them.stop sign have in common? They You can use an aerial net toall use bright red or orange colors catch an insect such as a butter-to send a warning message. What fly, moth, or dragonfly as it is fly-are they saying? Usually it is “Hey! ing, or wait until an insect hasBe careful around me!” Most landed, then gently drop the netinsects that have noticeable red or over it and surround markings also taste prettybad and can make predators gag.So an animal might try to eat a red 3one once, then leave all other redones alone! Sweep nets work well for insects that are crawling on plant leaves and stems. But ants, roach-case inside out as you transfer the es, and many beetles spend muchinsects into the looking jar. of their time on the ground. AShake any clinging insects off the pit trap is a better way to catchnet and then remove the net these insects.with one hand while you put thelid on the jar with the other Materialshand. Scissors 73
    • Leaf Litter Shaker 1 2-liter bottle Bait (raw meat the size of a meat- ball) Small garden trowel Four small, flat rocks Board that is about 5 inches (13 cm) square Cut off the top third of the bot- tle, making a funnel shape. Place the bait in the bottom piece of the bottle. Nest the funnel piece top upside down inside the bottle bot- tom. Use the trowel to dig a hole deep enough so that the top of the bottle will be even with the ground. (Check with an adult before digging.) The slick sides and funnel will keep many of the crea- tures that fall into the trap stuck inside. Place the rocks around the edge of the bottle, and place the board on top of the rocks.This will leave enough room for insects to investigate the smell, but keep rain and heavy dew out of the trap. Check on the trap every morning and again every evening.74
    • Berlese’s Itty-Bitty Bugs Do you trap more insects during the day or night?Antonio Berlese was an Italian tists all over the world use theentomologist who studied very Berlese-Tullgren funnel to see whatsmall insects and mites that spend animals are living in the soil.most of their time in the soil.Although thousands of these tinyanimals can live in just a shovelfulof soil, it is hard to spy and catchthem. Instead of looking in the soilfor them, Berlese figured out howto get them to leave the soil. Heplaced a small screen near the bot-tom of a funnel. He put some soilin the funnel, and put the funnel ina tall jar that had alcohol in thebottom. He finished by puttingsome hot water around the funnel.As the soil warmed up and driedout, the small animals moved far-ther and farther down, until theyfell out of the bottom of the funneland into the jar. He shared hisinvention with other entomolo-gists. Many years later, instead ofusing hot water, a scientist namedTullgren hung a lightbulb over thefunnel. Today students and scien- 75
    • Insect Rain S pringtails, scavenger beetles, jumping ground bugs, and other arthropods eat dead leaves and plants. Unless you put a trap right under them, you might not find these decomposers.To find them, you need to shake them out. Materials Plastic ice cream tub with lid Thick rag Pencil Dead leaves Light-colored sheet Place the lid of the ice cream tub on the thick rag. Use the pencil to punch large holes in the lid. Fill the tub with clumps of dead leaves that are brown and crumbly, then put the lid on tightly. Hold the tub upside down over a light-colored sheet and shake it. In your journal, record which insects fall onto the76
    • You’re on a Roll!sheet, sketch the different types,and include a total count. Cockroach Catcher week without water. Place a or any other insect is hiding Providing water is a great way to damp rag on the floor in your underneath it. attract many insects. A cockroach garage. (Check with an adult can live for about a month with- first.) Check under the rag early out food, but for only about one in the morning to see if a roach 77
    • Bug Bait H ere’s another way to collect insects. In this collection activity you may find it Gross Entomology: Pantry Pests raining insects. Another place to look for considers food safe even with the fol- insects is in the food you lowing amounts of insect parts: Materials eat. Food would be too Umbrella expensive to grow, harvest, Flour: Up to 75 insect fragments in Strong stick and process if everyone had to get about 2 cups (50 g) Looking jar out all insect pieces and parts. Considering the fact that in many Canned citrus juice: Five or more fruit Katydids and cicadas spend a countries, people eat insects on fly eggs or other fly eggs in about 1 great deal of time in trees.To purpose, it seems a bit silly to cup (250 ml) catch them, open the umbrella worry about a few ant antennae or and place it upside down under a beetle wings that might find their Peanut butter: An average of 30 insect tree or bush.Take a strong stick way into your mouth. But to make fragments in a little less than 1⁄2 cup and hit a large branch of the tree sure what you eat is safe, there (100 g) or bush several times to knock are standards of how many insects insects off the branch and into or pieces of insects are allowed in Ground cinnamon: An average of 400 the umbrella. Gently tap the sides different types of food. The U.S. or more insect fragments per 1⁄3 cup of the umbrella to shake the Food and Drug Administration (50 g) insects down to the center, then scoop them into your looking jar.78
    • H ere’s another collection technique to find insects that are underfoot.MaterialsLarge rocks, rotting logs, or boards (outside)CrayonPlain paper Some insects spend most oftheir lives just out of sight.Carefully roll over large rocks,boards, and rotting logs to lookfor crickets, carpenter ants, barkbeetles, wood roaches, termites,crickets, and their arthropodcousins, the millipedes, cen-tipedes, and pillbugs. In addition to finding insects,you might notice tunnels underMake a ConnectionIf you want to eat insects onpurpose, get some recipesthat use insects 79
    • White Light the bark on a rotting log.These are created by bark beetles, with each type of beetle creating a M oths, stag beetles, caddis- flies, and other insects that are active at night often use their sense of smell to find their food. Mix up a batch of bug bait to use on a warm summer night, and you will see insects that might otherwise escape your notice. unique tunnel pattern. Some entomologists can tell which beetles are around just by look- ing at the tunnels.To save these patterns in your journal, peel the paper wrapping off of a crayon. Place a piece of plain paper over the bark beetle tunnel, then rub the long, flat side of the crayon over the paper.The tunnels will appear as a lighter area on your colored paper, preserving evi- dence of your insect finds. Carefully put the rocks, boards, and logs back in their original positions before you leave the area.80
    • Walking on WaterMaterials site.Wash the brush thoroughly1 cup (240 ml) fruit juice so you can use it later to catchLarge bowl with lid some of the insects. About anSpoon hour after dark, use a flashlight to2 very ripe bananas check and see if any night1 ⁄4 cup (59 ml) sugar, prowling insects have found your honey, or molasses sugar stash.You can use yourPaintbrush sweep net to catch the flyingFlashlight ones, and the paintbrush to gen-Sweep net tly brush the crawling insectsLooking jar into your looking jar. Leave the fruit juice on yourkitchen counter in a coveredbowl. After two days, open thelid and use the spoon to mashthe two very ripe bananas intothe juice. Stir in the sugar, honey,or molasses. Since this recipe canattract a lot of insects, ask anadult which tree, fence post, orutility pole near your housewould be the best place to paintthe bug bait. Go outside beforedark and use the paintbrush topaint the mixture on the chosen 81
    • W hile they are out looking for food, a mate, or trying to avoid bats, June bugs, Real Entomologists luna moths, mayflies, and many For a long time, scientists other insects get together around have known how water boat- lights at night.You can use this men, backswimmers, and to your advantage as a way to whirligig beetles use their oar- catch even more insects. like legs to move across the water. What they didn’t know was how the Materials long-legged water strider, which String, rope, or clothesline walks on top of the water, moves for- White sheet ward. Two graduate students from Light source (porch light, flash- the Massachusetts Institute of Technology decided to find out. After Journal Notes carefully studying water striders in action, it appeared to them that the striders were using their front and I put _______ paper clips into the full cohesion creates surface ten- back legs for support, and their mid- glass of water. sion. This surface tension dle legs as oars. To test their theory, When I put the paper strider on creates a thin skin on the they created a robotic water strider top of the water, this is what hap- water. This skin on the water is using a 7-Up can, stainless steel wire pened: strong enough to support lightweight legs, and a rubber band–powered ________________________________ objects. pulley. They put the robot in dyed This is how long the water strider Animals that walk on water spread water and filmed the result. Sure floated on top of the water: their weight over a large area so they enough, when the middle legs hit the ________________________________ won’t break through the water’s skin. water, they create tiny vortices (like Water molecules like to stick close Your paper strider should have miniature, underwater tornadoes) to each other, showing a force called remained on top until water soaked – that move the water strider forward. cohesion (co-HE-shun). Where the through its feet, causing it to become water molecules meet the air, their heavier and sink.82
    • Water We Looking For ? light, lantern) have two pairs of eyes so theyNewspaper can see both above and belowLooking jar water at the same time. Diving beetles are scuba divers, rising to On a calm evening, string a the surface to get a bubble of airrope between two trees or use a under their shells so they canclothesline. Hang the white sheet stay underwater longer. Dragon-over the rope or line. Turn on a fly nymphs jet through the waterlight, lantern, or flashlight on one by releasing a powerful squirt ofside of the sheet. Come back water through their abdomens.about two hours later to see how And don’t forget to take a sec-many different insects have landed ond look at those skinny stickson the sheet to be near the light. moving across the top of thePlace newspaper under the sheet pond to see if they are reallyand gently tap the sheet, making water striders walking on top ofsome of the insects fall onto the the water.paper below. If you work quickly,you can tilt the paper and slidethe insects into your looking jarso you can get a closer look.Water WorldIf you only look on land, you willmiss seeing some very specialinsects. Aquatic insects have devel-oped amazing adaptations to help Visit a pond throughout the year to catch anthem survive.Whirligig beetles amazing variety of aquatic insects. 83
    • H ow do water striders and fishing spiders move across the top of the water with- the pattern of the water strider, trace the pattern onto the paper with your pencil, and cut the out falling in? The shape of the pattern out. Bend the feet along animal and the attraction of the lines so the strider can stand water molecules to each other up, and put it to one side. Place both play a part in keeping water the clear cup on the plate or pie walkers from getting wet feet. pan and fill it up to the very top caddisfly larva with water. Count how many Materials paper clips you can carefully slip Thin writing paper into the water one at a time, Pencil making sure your fingers don’t Scissors touch the water. Once the Large-mouthed clear cup water is higher than the rim of Plate or pie pan the cup, carefully place the Water paper strider onto the water and Box of paper clips use the watch to record how Watch long it stays on top. Lay the piece of paper over Make a Connection mayfly nymph stonefly nymph To see examples of aquatic creatures and learn how toler- ant they are of pollution, go to Benthickey.htm. mayfly nymph84
    • Insectigations ! Game BoardU nless you plan on submerg- ing yourself in a pond to see insects that have amazing Materials Kitchen strainer with screen bot- tom aquatic insect, then make a big splash trying to catch it, or, like the sweep net, you can catch a water, then past plants, and through the mud. If you get too much mud, use the cup to pouraquatic adaptations, you’ll have to Small-screened aquarium net large number and variety of pond water through the net. Aftercatch the insects instead.While Clear cup insects by simply scooping most of the mud is gone, seewater striders and whirligigs are Shallow dish with a white bot- through the water with the which insects you have caught. Ifeasy to find on the surface of a tom strainer or net.Visit a shallow you are looking in a stream, pickpond or stream, dragonfly Magnifying lens pond or stream in your area. some rocks from the stream bot-nymphs, diving beetles, and many (Check with an adult first.) Pull tom and see if anything is hang-other insects hide under rocks, in You can wait until you see an the net across the top of the ing on to them.To get a betterthe mud, or on the plants under- look, put the insects and somewater. water in the white-bottomed dish and use your magnifying lens. Since water is a natural magnifier, you can also fill your clear cup with water and insects and watch them in action. Of course, you might also see some non-insect creatures including tadpoles, shrimp-like scuds, leeches, worms, crayfish, and spiders, too. 85
    • 86
    • Action CardsClean Water Monitors greater the variety and number stonefly nymphs, mayfly nymphs, no stoneflies, then the waterNext to air, water is probably the of species you will find in it. and caddisfly larvae. If they find quality is considered good. Ifmost essential item for living As a quick way to determine all three types of immature they find only caddisflies, thenthings. People need clean (not the quality of stream water, mon- insects, they rate the water quali- the water quality is rated as fair.polluted) water for drinking, itors can look for immature ty as excellent.This water is suit- If they don’t find any of thecleaning, cooking, playing, fish- insects that are very sensitive to ed for all human uses. If they three types of immature insects,ing, growing foods, and many pollution.They go to where the find mayflies and caddisflies, but the water quality is listed as poor.other activities. One way water water is moving fast and findexperts determine the quality of three hand-sized rocks that arewater in a stream is by looking not buried under mud or otherfor aquatic nymphs and larvae of rocks.They pick up the rocksinsects.The rule of thumb is that and turn them over, looking forthe less polluted the water is, the 87
    • 7 KeepersS ince insects have been around for so long, it’s not surpris- ing that ancient artifacts show human-insect interactions. A painting made by cave dwellers in Spain more than15,000 years ago depicts someone raiding a honeybee hive.Thereare 4,000-year-old hieroglyphics in pyramids showing Egyptianshonoring dung beetles as their sun god. Cicadas carved of jadethat are more than 2,500 years old have been found as part ofChinese burials, and Chinese folklore suggests that people 89
    • believed cicadas could help them Insects have also provided the experiments and research proj- be reborn. inspiration for inventions, ects, creating an insect col- Bug Business Within recorded history, including paper, sonar, and lection, harvesting their humans have used bees for honey chemical weapons.The question products, selling them as and beeswax, silkworms for silk, is, once you start catching insects, a business or, of course, Japan is a small island that is and a protective covering of resin what do you want to do with simply observing them home to millions of people. made by scale insects in India them? Options include: keeping and then letting them go! There isn’t much room for pet dogs and Burma to make shellac. them as pets, using them in and cats, so many Japanese people keep crickets, beetles, and fireflies as pets instead. The insects are sold in pet shops, train stations, department stores, and one company even puts them in vending machines. While most pet owners are happy to pay as little as $4.50 for an average-sized beetle, other pet owners think that bigger is better and are willing to pay extra to get a large beetle. Even so, it is hard to believe that in August 1999, a Japanese businessman paid an insect dealer $90,000 for one super- sized stag beetle.90
    • Temporary Ter rariumT here’s no doubt about it—if you watch insects long enough, you can witness require too much space, and scientists are still trying to determine what a male lightning bles and sand on the bottom of the other half of your container. Plant a small, green plant in thesome fantastic things, such as beetle eats. Then there are the soil. Add some loose, drywatching a praying mantis catch hornets and wasps, which are leaves for shelter. Stick inand eat another insect, a caterpil- never good candidates for a few branches for climb-lar spinning a cocoon, or two terrariums. ing and a wet sponge onmale stag beetles battling over a a jar lid for water. Dryfemale. If you are very lucky and Materials cereal, apple slices, andobservant, you might see these Soil banana pieces will pro-things in the wild. But it is much Large, clear container with lid vide food for manyeasier if the insects are in an (aquarium, hamster cage, or insects, while others willenclosed space. large plastic food container) eat each other.Top it all It is important to remember Pebbles off with a tight-fitting lidthat insects are living creatures Sand with plenty of breathingand a vital part of our ecosys- Small, green plant holes.You might alsotems. If you have caught some Dry leaves want to cover at leastinsects that you would like to Branches part of the terrariumobserve for a few days, the best Wet sponge with dark paper or clothway to see how they really act is Jar lid to make your night-to duplicate, as close as you can, Dry cereal active insects more activewhat their home is like.They Pieces of fruit (apple, during your day.need food, water, shelter, and banana, and more) Plant eaters need freshspace. For mealworms and crick- food, and some are veryets, these four things are pretty Place the loose soil on the picky. If you catch an insecteasy to supply. But dragonflies bottom of one half, and the peb- on a plant, make sure you put 91
    • and crickets at many pet stores, or use your sweep net to catch its Journal Notes Heads daily dinner. If you are trying to keep aquatic insects alive, make I started my terrarium on sure you have a large jar or this date: aquarium full of pond ______________________ water and plants. Put some I started my terrarium with mud and rocks on the bottom these insects: for insects to take cover. If you ______________________________ need more liquid, don’t put in Here’s what each insect likes to eat: water straight from a faucet. Let ______________________________ tap water sit in a jar for at least Here’s what I’ve seen each of 24 hours before carefully adding them do: it to your aquarium. Otherwise, ______________________________ some of the same plant in the the chlorine that is added to terrarium. If you are not sure Make a Connection make drinking water safe for what plant your insects will humans will likely kill all your eat, gather several different insects. Some aquatic insects will kinds from the area where Visit or eat fish food, while others need they were captured.Watch check out Pet Bugs: A Kid’s to eat insects and small creatures what they eat and replace Guide to Catching and Keep- to survive. those plants every day with ing Touchable Insects by Sally fresh ones. Kneidel (New York: John Wiley and Dead Insect Collections If you have a predatory insect Sons, 1994) for more information Many people, universities, and such as a praying mantis, you will about keeping insects as pets. museums have insect collections. either need to catch or raise food Some people collect insects as for it.You can buy mealworms souvenirs from places they have92
    • ties have insect collections forMake a Connection people to enjoy and for scientific research. Collections also help to show change over longLook in the front of A periods of time. ResearchersField Guide to Insects: can measure insect speciesAmerican North of Mexico that were captured more than(Peterson Field Guide Series) 100 years ago and see if they areby Richard E. White and Donald J. bigger or smaller than onesBorror (Houghton Mifflin, 1998) for found in the same area today.specific instructions on how to label Whether you want to collectand preserve insects as part of a insects for a hobby, as a sport, ortrue collection. to do research, one thing is cer- tain: it’s easier to examine, iden- tify, and draw an insect thattraveled, while others collect doesn’t move!them as a challenge, such as who There are so many of mostcan collect the most kinds of kinds of insects that you will notcrickets. Museums and universi- be threatening the survival of an insect species by capturing and keeping one as part of a collec- tion. However, you should never take more insects than you need. Also, never take an insect if it’s the only one you see in one place at one time. Properly mounted insects include informa- tion about when and where they are found. 93
    • You Saw What ? W hen ancient explorers traveled to new lands, they returned with stories Journal Notes about everything they had seen— including new insects. As the sto- This is my descrip- ries were passed from person to tion of an insect: person, sometimes the descrip- ________________ tions were changed a bit, either I gave this description to by accident or to make the story ______ to draw. a little better. Artists would try to Here’s my drawing of the insect I draw the animals described, with- saw: out ever having seen them. ___________________________ Sometimes, this created very Here’s my friend’s drawing of the unusual looking animals. insect: ___________________________ Materials Here’s how my drawing compares Insect to my friend’s (in words): Paper ___________________________ Pencil Do you think the artist who drew this was looking at a fly or listening to someone else’s description of what a fly looks like? A friend Look carefully at a real insect, details you can, such as it was or her it is an insect) and ask then write a detailed description carrying something four times its your friend to try to draw what of it, without naming what type size, or has eyes that take up most you described. it is. Describe what it looks like of its head. Give your description and how it acts. Include all the to a friend (without telling him94
    • In later years, explorers includ-ing James Cook, who traveled toAntarctica, and Charles Darwindidn’t bring back just stories.They collected actual insects tohelp people understand the newlands they explored. For more than 50 years, moviemakers have entertained audiences with insects. Scary movies have featured oversized moths (Mothra), praying mantises (The Deadly Mantis), and cockroaches (The Mimic 2). Animators have also had fun creating ants, grasshoppers, caterpillars, and fleas that sing, dance, and invent things in films including A Bug’s Life and Antz. If you were making a movie, what would you have this large chestnut weevil do? Jerry A. Payne, USDA ARS 95
    • Before natural land is devel- landowners mad.They want to Bug Business oped, scientists survey the site to know why it is so important to determine what lives there. If save one more kind of fly, or they find an insect (or any beetle, or flea. For many years, people have forests and other important other animal or plant) they The reason scientists believe it hunted, killed, and mounted habitats, some governments haven’t seen anywhere else, is important to save every species insects to sell to collectors and and companies are teaching they do some research.They they can is the same reason you educators. John Assimwe in people how to raise insects that ask museums and universities to keep all the parts that come with Uganda, Africa, walked through his are found in their areas. John look in their collections to see if a new bike you assemble.You country’s dense forests collecting Assimwe is now working with a they have an example of the might not know what each part insects. He pickled stag beetles in United States businessman to start insect in question.The little tags is for, but you don’t want to be alcohol and pinned rare butterflies an insect farm. The farm will have that label each specimen help the missing a part you need.There to stiff boards, then mailed them to workers who tend the native plants researchers understand where the are so many insects that haven’t collectors and researchers around that provide food for the insects, and insect has been captured before. been studied, entomologists don’t the world. He sold some butterflies feed and breed the insects. When Then they can visit those places know what might happen if one for $20 each, and a rare beetle in the insects die, the workers will to see if the insect can still be species of insect disappeared. good condition for almost $100. mount and sell them. When organ- found there or not. If they can’t For example, what would hap- But tracking through the jungle is ized correctly, these insect farms will find the insect anywhere else, or pen if all the endangered Califor- hard work, and finding a specific help sustain the native habitat and find only limited numbers of it, nia Delhi sand flies disappeared? insect isn’t always easy. wildlife while providing people with they can ask that the insect be Perhaps they are the only insect Now there is a new twist on the jobs. classified as an endangered that pollinates a certain type of business. To help preserve rain- species. plant. So if the fly disappears, that How does this affect humans? plant will, too. And maybe that If you owned land that was plant produces a chemical that Endangered Insects very few places where the insects home to an endangered species, someday will be discovered to be In 2004, there were 35 insects can now be found. How do sci- you might not be able to build a a cure for a disease. If the fly dis- listed on the federal endangered entists determine an insect is home on it, farm it, or change it appears and therefore so does species list.This means there is a endangered? This is where col- in any way that could harm the that plant, then we’ll never dis- limited number of each insect, or lections come in handy. insect.This makes some cover this cure.96
    • the windshield and grill. PryMake a Connection them off using toothpicks, then use clear tape to attach them to index cards. If youTo check out the list of want to try to identify them,endangered animals check out the book That(including insects), visit Gunk on Your Car:A Unique Guide to Insects of North America by Mark Hostetler (Berkeley, CA:Ten Speed Press, 1997). • Collect shed exoskeletons What can you do if you want (cicadas are particularly easy toor need an insect collection, but find).don’t want to catch or kill anyinsects? There are plenty of other If you want to have a collec-ways to create a large and unique tion about insects:insect collection. If you want to have a collec- • Collect insect stickerstion of real insects: • Collect insect toys • Collect insect jewelry• Look in the light fixtures and • Collect insect stamps windowsills in your home and school. Most of them have In October 1999, the U.S. Postal Service insects just dying to be a part came out with the Insects and Spiders 3-D of your collection. Use clear stamps. Although you can’t buy them at the post office anymore, you might be able to tape to lift them out and put find one of these (or an insect stamp from a them on index cards for study. different country) on an old letter or card• Look on the front of a car. your parents have. Cut around the stamp, then soak it in water until the stamp slides From the spring to the fall, off the paper. Look on the back of the U.S. insects from butterflies to bee- stamps for information about the arthropod tles can be found smashed on on the front. 97
    • Fly-Tying a Big Bug S ome people who fish don’t use worms or minnows as bait.They use lures, which 1 Slit 5 are fake animals. Most lures are called flies, even though they sponge might be made to imitate min- nows, frogs, beetles, grasshoppers, 2 6 ants, aquatic insects, and their lar- vae. Some fishing flies are smaller than your pinkie nail, while oth- 18 inch piece shank ers are bigger than your whole of yarn thumb. Some flies are made to sink to the bottom of the water, and others float or are skipped hook sponge body 7 along the surface. Fly-tying is a eye hobby, an art, and a business. Anglers (people who fish) tie a This fly was made to look like a caddisfly. It 3 similar but smaller version of the would be used to attract trout and other insect-eating fish. Fly tied by Craig Evans twist ties pattern below to use when they are fishing for bluegill. Glue Materials 1 18-inch (46-cm) piece of yarn Cut the sponge into a triangle Scissors 1 2-inch (5-cm) piece of yarn 4 about 1 inch (2.5 cm) wide and Sponge 2 twist ties (from loaves of bread) 11⁄2 (4 cm) inches long to make Wire hanger hook (left over 2 plastic eyes the body of your bug. Use the tip yarn 2 inch piece of yarn from making sweep net on wrapped of your scissors to make a deep hook glue extra yarn page 71) line down the center of the98
    • wire (shank), apply a 1-inch (2.5- the sponge down on the wire. Mayfly Mania cm) line of glue. Place one inch Wrap one twist tie about one- (2.5 cm) of the long piece of third of the way past the tip of yarn on the glue, with the the sponge to make the head and In the summertime, you might head remaining part hanging off the the first pair of legs.Wrap the to a river or lake only to find it, and wet fly tip. After the glue dries, hold the second twist tie about two-thirds you, covered with flying insects. hook part of the wire in one of the back to separate the thorax Before you start swatting, look hand, and wrap the hanging and abdomen and create the closely to see how many tails the piece of yarn around the wire, third pair of legs. Glue eyes on pests have. If they have two or three starting at the glued tip and end- the front and your big bug fish- long tails, you are in the midst of ing on the hook tip.Wrap any ing fly is done. mayfly mania. nymph leftover yarn back over already After you have made a basic Mayflies spend most of their lives wrapped wire, and glue it in bug, you can create fancier flies as nymphs underwater. The nymphs place. by decorating your sponge or have two or three tails, too. Some- Bend the small piece of yarn adding small feathers and bits of times millions of mayfly nymphs in half, and glue it over the mid- fur under the twist ties. undergo their last molt and emerge dle of the shank.This will make as adults on the same day. There are the middle legs of your big bug. true stories of so many mayflies cov- Squeeze a line of glue in the slit ering roads that drivers have to turn basspepper you made in the sponge. Position their headlights on during the day. the sponge so that the yarn legs But the mania is short-lived.biggest side of the sponge, with- will be under the middle of it Mayfly adults do not have workingout cutting all the way through. and the narrow tip points toward mouthparts, so they only live for oneSet the sponge aside. Starting at the shank tip of the wire. Press to three days. This is just longthe tip of the straight part of the enough to find a mate, lay eggs, and provide a feast for the birds, bats, fishes, and frogs in the area. Mayfly 99
    • Action Cards Materials collections, one to a card. Place • Angler is looking for bait. If a While finding, catching, and 2 3-by-5-inch (7.6-by-12.7-cm) all four cards (including the blank roll of any insect die shows keeping insects is a lot of fun, index cards one) into the envelope for safe- you could live under a rock, sometimes it feels good just to Scissors keeping until you are ready to go back 4 spaces. sit back and let the insects come Pen create your Insectigations! game. • Entomologist doing a land sur- to you. Learn how to make your Envelope vey discovers you are an yard an insect magnet with • Tourist has started a moth col- endangered species.Your land plants, puddles, and shelters in Cut the index cards in half so lection. If a roll of any insect is protected, so move ahead the next chapter on insect that you have 4 21⁄2-by-3-inch die shows you’re a moth, go 10 spaces. gardening. (6.3-by-7.6-cm) cards.Write the back to start. following actions based on insect100
    • 8 Insect GardeningI nstead of spending all your time searching for insects, you can plant a garden to attract insects and watch them come to you! An insect garden can be as small as a pot of flowersin a calm, sunny place or as large as your whole backyard. Thething to remember is that all insects need food, water, and shel-ter. The more variety you can provide of each of these, the moretypes of insects you can attract. 101
    • Food Some insects eat plants, some insects, include a wide variety of for the predatory insects. Lady- insects eat dead or rotting things, plants, grouped by color. bugs, lacewings, and pray- Gross Entomology: and some insects eat animals Try some native plants (plants ing mantises might stop Pass the Poop, Please (usually other insects). It is easiest that grow naturally in your area) by to see if they can to provide food for the plant-eat- and ones with different flower catch some dinner. ing insects, but don’t just think of shapes, colors, smells, and bloom- Gardeners often use animal flowers. Insects eat all the parts of ing times. Day-active (diurnal) Pollination Process droppings as fertilizer for their plants. Beetle grubs often munch insects use shape and color to If there were no insects, there plants. Nutrients that pass through the roots; caterpillars, aphids, and decide which flowers to visit. would be less cocoa, peaches, an animal are taken up by the plants, spittlebugs dine on leaves and Bees like yellow, blue, and laven- strawberries, apples, nuts, oranges, helping them grow stronger and stems; and butterflies, moths, and der flowers that have a tube- cherries, other plant fruits, or healthier. What gardeners might not honeybees head for the nectar- shape, such as jewelweed, cotton. Plants produce edible or realize is that many insects like to eat filled flowers. Flower feeders are foxglove, lupine, and snapdragons. useful fruit to encourage animals poop, too! Dung beetles roll mammal usually garden visitors, flying in Butterflies prefer red, orange, yel- (including humans) to help move poop into balls then lay their eggs to get a meal, then flying away as low, and purple flowers with their seeds to new places.You inside. Satyr butterflies feed on bird soon as they have finished. large flat heads that give them a move seeds every time you wash droppings. So if you want to create a Meanwhile, those insects that place to land. Good flowers purple bird poop off the family garden good for both plants and dine on the other plant parts include milkweed, butterfly car or have a watermelon seed insects, make sure you add the poop! might stay on one plant in your weed, yarrow, columbine, and spitting contest. Although insects garden for their whole lives! purple aster. Night-active (noc- don’t make any of the seeds or Since most insects have fuzzy turnal) insects like moths look fruits, they are an important part eyesight, it is easier for them to for large, light-colored flowers or of the process. pollen.The ova are surrounded by find big groups of similar plants. flowers with strong smells. Good How do insects help? They nectar deep inside the flower in a If your insect garden is small, you plants include evening primrose, pollinate plants—the first step in place called the ovary.The pollen might attract more insects if you moonflower, bouncing Bet, seed production.Think of a flower is sitting on a stamen outside the have just one type and color of Dame’s rocket, and petunia. as a seed factory.To make a seed, a ovary, by a door called the stigma. plant. If you have a large garden As soon as the plant-eating flower must put together two Since most flowers cannot move, area and want many different insects are in your garden, look important parts, the ova and the102
    • pollen stigma stamen ovary ovathey need a delivery vehicle.Thisis the job for the insects. As an insect visits a flower toget some nectar, it brushes by thestamens. Some pollen rubs off onits body. (You can see this foryourself if you wrap a piece ofdark felt around a stick and brush Have you ever noticed signs painted on streets? Arrows, colors, shapes, and words give drivers directions. Some flowers have signs, too. Theyit over a flower. Look at the use circles of color, flashy landing spots, lines, and ultraviolet paths to guide bees and other insects to the nectar. The dark spot on this pansy ispollen collected on the felt.) At a sign to lead insects to its nectar.the next flower, the insect deliv-ers some pollen right to the 103
    • stigma (the ovary door) as it gets a drink of nectar.The plant takes over from there, and a seed is started. Water Like all living creatures, insects need water to survive. Mosqui- toes, mayflies, dragonflies, and darners lay their eggs in water. Water striders, whirligigs, and diving beetles use water as their hunting grounds for dinner. Bees, flies, and leafhoppers sim- ply need water to drink. For those insects that don’t live in or near water, a single drop can be more than enough to satisfy their thirst.The trouble is, where do you find a single drop of water on a hot, dry day? If your yard already has a bird- bath in it, there are a few things The rocks act as warming spots while the sponges hold the mineral water. you can do to make it insect friendly. Add some sticks or every other day. Otherwise, mos- every morning. Hang it over a need from the food they eat. But leaves to the water so insects that quitoes might decide it is a good branch or on a clothesline and they do look for seeps (moist soil accidentally fall in can climb out place to lay their eggs! watch flies, leafhoppers, bees, and or sand) where they can slurp up without waiting for you to res- A better way to provide water other insects come for a drink. mineral water, that is, water that cue them.To make the birdbath for insects is to soak a washcloth Most butterflies and some has important nutrients that have people-friendly, change the water or hand towel in clean water other insects get the water they been released from the soil.104
    • Butter f ly PuddlesB y creating a watering hole just for butterflies, you can do these insects a favor and Spread a thin layer of soil in the bottom of the dish. Decorate the rocks with the markers or your butterfly puddle in a sunny area near flat-headed flowers such as zinnias or Queen Anne’sget the chance to take a better paint, then arrange them in the lace.Try to keep it out of thelook at them. dish. Cut the sponges into wind, and make sure it stays designs and place them between moist by checking it daily.Materials the rocks.Wet the sponges so thatRich topsoil some water seeps into the soil Journal NotesShallow dish, such as a plant below, but not so much that pot holder, pie pan, or tray there is standing water. PlaceSeveral flat rocks of different When do butterflies land on colors the dark-colored rocks? (WhenMarkers or paints it is sunny? Cloudy? Cool?Sponges Morning? Evening?)Scissors When do they land on light-col-Water ored rocks? Insects are cold-blooded. They use their surroundings to regulate their body temperatures. Watch your garden just as the sun reaches it on a cool morning. You might see insects warming themselves in the sun. Morning is a great time to catch and observe insects. If the air cooled con- siderably during the night, the insects are likely to be moving much slower. 105
    • Shelter Insects use a wide variety of • Each fall, many insects lay strategies in seeking shelter. Ants their eggs on or near their tunnel underground, beetles hide host plants—the ones their under rocks, bees construct hives babies will want to eat. If you in hollow spaces, paper wasps want to see more insects each build nests in protected corners. spring, leave a thick layer of Underwater, caddisfly larvae cre- leaves and your plant stalks ate a kind of glue to stick small standing after they have died. sticks and pebbles together, mak- That way, new insects won’t ing their own portable home. have to look for your garden Although you can’t build a home the next year; they will already for each and every insect, here be there. are things to consider when you are planning your garden. One caution: if you use potted plants in your insect garden, • Plants with wide leaves provide leave them outdoors when the more protection than plants weather gets colder. Otherwise, with narrow leaves. you might get some unexpected • Piles of leaves, rocks, and bark insects as houseguests! give crawling insects places to hide. • Rotting logs or branches are home to many types of insects. The small tag on a monarch’s wing doesn’t hurt its ability to fly, and it helps researchers track its migration path. Darrin Siefkin106
    • Monarch Migration archs.When people mailed the ancient volcanoes of the Make a ConnectionMystery tagged butterflies to him, he Sierra Madre.When theyDr. Urquhart at the University of marked where they were found reached a clearing, theyToronto had a problem. For 38 on a map. It looked like most saw an estimated 15 mil- To learn more about monarchsyears he had been trying to find monarchs were going to Texas, or lion monarchs resting on and how you can help by tag-out what happened to monarch maybe Mexico. He found 3,000 oyamel fir trees. It was ging monarchs, go tobutterflies in the winter. Some volunteers to help him, but still the first record of outsiders thought that only mon- couldn’t find many live butter- finding the monarchs’ winterarchs in the South survived cold flies.Where were they? Finally, in hideaway.winters, but monarchs could sur- 1972, his wife Norah wrote The next year, Dr. Urquhartvive in the North during mild some articles for Mexican news- went to Mexico.“What a glori- important, but Dr. Urquhart’swinters. Dr. Urquhart believed papers, asking people there to ous, incredible sight!” he said. work wasn’t done. He picked upthat since monarchs are tropical help. Ken Brugger read one of Then he watched a tree branch a butterfly, rubbed a few scalesbutterflies, they had to fly south the articles. He worked at an covered with monarchs fall to off a wing, and attached a brighteach winter to escape the cold. underwear factory in Mexico the ground. As he bent over to pink tag. Now it was time to seeThen each spring, they would fly City and had seen some mon- examine them, he noticed one how far north these monarchsnorth to find milkweed for their archs around the countryside. He with a label. It had been tagged went in the spring.babies to eat. But he didn’t have offered to tag monarchs and look in Minnesota—proof that the Although Dr. Urquhart died inany proof. for their winter home.Two years butterfly had migrated from 2002, researchers today are still In 1937, Dr. Urquhart started passed. In January 1975, Ken and nearly 2,000 miles to the north. tagging monarchs and studyingsticking small labels with his his wife, Catalina, followed local The discovery of the their migration.address on the wings of mon- farmers and loggers hiking up monarch’s winter home was 107
    • Antifreeze I n the parts of the world where the temperature drops below freezing, adult insects do one of three things as winter approaches: they migrate Journal Notes (monarchs), lay eggs and die (grasshoppers), or adapt and spend the entire win- What happened to the canister ter as an adult (mourning completely filled with water? cloak butterfly and box elder What happened to the canis- bug).To survive the cold Plate or tray canister completely full ter half-filled with water? weather, insects that overwinter Decorate the film canisters with rubbing alcohol and snap What happened to the canister filled as adults lose body moisture, and with the stickers so you can tell on the lid. Put all three canisters with rubbing alcohol? some of them produce glycerol, a them apart. Put all three canisters on a plate or tray and put the When water freezes, it expands. type of alcohol that acts as an in a sink or bowl. Fill one canis- tray in a freezer overnight. In the When people suffer from severe antifreeze. ter completely full with water, morning, check on your frostbite, the water in their skin and then snap on the lid. Fill one “insects.” muscle cells freezes, then bursts the Materials canister half full with water, then cells, causing tissue and muscle 3 clear film canisters with lids snap on the lid. Fill the third damage. Insects lose moisture, giving Stickers Never drink rubbing alcohol or the remaining water room to expand. Water car antifreeze. Rubbing alcohol Alcohols are a type of antifreeze. Rubbing alcohol can make you very sick, and Antifreeze is a solution that keeps antifreeze can kill you. liquids from freezing and expanding. Insect antifreeze keeps their blood from freezing and breaking their bodies.108
    • Bug BumpsWhile you are looking for insectsin your garden, you might noticestrange-looking bumps on a fewplants. Some wasps, flies, andaphids lay eggs in a certain partof a plant.The plant growsaround them, forming a snughome called a gall. If you open agall carefully, you might seeinsect larvae wiggling around.Look for galls on tree leaves andplant stems around your home.Hackberry, oak, hickory, andmaple trees often have galls, as dogoldenrod stems and grapeleaves. Since it can be very hardto identify the larvae, tie a pieceof sheer curtain around theunopened gall. Check back onthe gall every few days until theadult has emerged. Sketch thegall and the animal in your jour-nal. Each gall producer makes itsown special kind of gall. Onceyou know who made what, youwill have an easy way to identify The nipple galls on these hackberry leaves are home to psyllid fly larvae.both plants and animals. 109
    • Plan Your Garden N ow that you know a bit about what insects need, you can plan your garden. (Minnesota Bookstore, 1987) pro- vides great background informa- tion for almost all types of insects. Look in your library, bookstore, special group of butterflies).Your next step would be to find a type of goldenrod plant that grows where you live. Journal Notes Heads First decide on the best place for This is the best location for your garden, and what types of or online for more specific details Continue keeping my insect garden: insects you want to attract. It is about your favorite type of insect. notes in your journal after This is the best place for these easiest to find information about For example, imagine you want your garden is planted. Do reasons:__________________ how to attract butterflies and to watch ambush bugs grab and the butterflies seem to like I want these insects to visit or live in moths, but that doesn’t mean you eat unsuspecting insects.You read one plant better than another? my garden: _____________________ can’t plant a garden for grasshop- a book about ambush bugs and Do all the plants survive? When These are the insects I’ve found in my pers or stinkbugs if you want to.A learn they are often found in did you see your first predatory garden: _________________________ general gardening guide such as goldenrod plants, which are a insect? Did any other animals ________________________________ Landscaping for Wildlife & Air Qual- favorite food for flower flies (syr- (such as spiders, centipedes, and These insects like to eat ity by Carrol L. Henderson, et al. phids), butterflies, and skippers (a millipedes) move into your gar- ________________________________ den as well? These insects have other special needs, including these: ___________ Bergamot ________________________________ Purple Coneflower ________________________________ Moonflower ________________________________ ia nn Zi Jewelweed Sedum Butterfly Puddle Butterfly Bush Snap Dragon Petunia Violet Plant tall flowers in the back, medium ones in the middle and short ones in front. Don’t forget to include a place for your butterfly puddle.110
    • Insect CalendarP eople haven’t always used paper calendars to indicate the day, month, and season. Some people call phenology the science of appearances and disappearances.To be a phenolo- years to collect enough informa- tion to look for patterns in your own garden, you Make a Connection There are many online phenologyBefore paper was even invented, gist, you need to notice when can test the following sites, including the North Ameri-people used the position of the each type of insect and plant in observations made by can Butterfly Association’s dailysun, phases of the moon, and the your garden appears, sings, other phenologists to see sighting list atappearance and disappearance of migrates, and disappears. Since it if they work in your area. and animals to guide them is easier to notice when some- ml. You can also use phenology if youthrough the seasons. For exam- thing starts, such as the first day • Grasshopper eggs hatch when take part in the migration studiesple, people knew that once they you notice cicadas singing, some- lilacs bloom. with Journey North atheard the katydids start singing, times it is best if you record • Mexican bean beetle larvae first frost was only about six every insect and plant you appear when foxglove flowersweeks away.This study of recur- notice, every day.When you look open.ring events in nature is called back over your calendar to check • Wasps building nests inphenology (fi-NOL-a-jï). A gar- for patterns, it will be easier to exposed places indicate a dry After collecting informationden is one of the best places to see the last day you heard a season. for several years, you can makepractice phenology. cricket sing or saw a butterfly. • When you see a white butter- your own insect calendar, with Although it will take several fly, summer is almost here. stickers or drawings on the datesMaterials when you expect to see mon-Calendar archs returning, when to listenPencil for a cricket singing, and whenInsect garden the box elder bugs will start looking for a hibernation spot in your windowsills. 111
    • Insect Repellants • You can build houses for bats Many insects won’t visit fuzzy Although we rely on some Real Entomologists and insect-eating birds like plants, such as lamb’s ear. insects to pollinate our food wrens, bluebirds, and purple Chrysanthemums (kri-SAN- crops, other insects cause millions martins. (See Resources for the-mum) produce the Some people don’t like to use of dollars in damage to other more information.) chemical pyrethrum, chemicals to keep mosqui- crops.The Colorado potato bee- • You can put out traps and which is used as a pesti- toes away, but they still don’t tle, boll weevil, cabbageworm, wrap tape, sticky-side out, cide to kill many insects, want to get mosquito bites. corn root worm, and tobacco around plant stems. including the fleas on your So scientists are trying to find horn worm (these “worms” are • You can buy and release lady- cat or dog. Other plants also pro- natural repellants. An entomologist at really caterpillars) are just five bugs, lacewings, and praying duce chemicals that insects don’t North Carolina State University has examples of insect pests. So while mantises in your gardens. like, so smart gardeners plant discovered that a chemical found in some entomologists have studied • You can garden with plants insect-repelling plants around the tomatoes seems to keep mosquitoes how to attract or encourage that insects don’t like. plants they want to keep. Here away. Researchers at Iowa State Uni- insect visitors, other entomolo- are some plants and the insects versity are testing how well catnip oil gists have studied how to keep they naturally repel. insects away. Putting up a sign or Make a Connection works to do the same thing. To see if they are right, you can do some scarecrow doesn’t work, Plant Repels These Insects research of your own. The next time and those blue-light bug Nasturtium Colorado Potato Beetle, There is more information Squash Bug, Whitefly you are going outside for the evening, zappers kill more harm- about companion plants and stop by your garden first. Rub a few Garlic Aphids, Flea Beetle, Japanese less insects than mos- a list of good companion Beetle, Mexican Bean Beetle leaves of crushed catnip on one arm quitoes, but there are Onion Bean Leaf Beetle, Flea Beetle, plant combinations at Harlequin Bug, Squash Vine and leg, and some crushed tomato on plenty of other ways to the other arm and leg. You may need Borer limit the number of insects in a EAP55.htm. Mint Ants, Aphids, Flea Beetle, to watch out for stray cats or tomato garden. Here are a few ideas: Imported Cabbage Worm beetles, but those pesky mosquitoes might leave you alone!112
    • Action CardsMaterials Cut the index cards in half so • Oh no! Got eaten by a praying2 3-by-5-inch (7.6-by- that you have 4 21⁄2-by-3-inch mantis. Go back to start. 12.7-cm) index cards (6.3-by-7.6-cm) cards.Write the • If a roll of the head die showsScissors following actions related to insect you are a nectar eater, rollPen gardens, one to a card. Place all again.Envelope four cards (including the blank • Overwintered on a plant stalk one) into the envelope for safe- in the garden. Lose one turn. keeping until you are ready to create your Insectigations! game. 113
    • After a day of exploring, your pit trap. After sketching and flower before finding an evening ize, maybe it doesn’t.You head to experimenting, and working in releasing the beetles and cen- resting spot. As the evening the phone to invite some friends your insect garden, you decide to tipedes (even though they are insect chorus starts to hum, you over for an incredible game of spend the evening sitting in a insect imposters) that fell in the grab the bug buzzer tucked in Insectigations! When they say they comfortable spot among your trap during the day, you look up your journal pocket and try to are on their way, you suddenly plants, flipping through your just in time. A butterfly like the match the pulsing rhythm of the realize you need to put the game Insectigations journal. But you one you found as an egg, then cicada song. It seems a shame together. Better read on and get don’t sit still long, for you raised to maturity, stops in its that a day full of insect investiga- going! remember you need to check special puddle, then flits off to a tions has to end.Then you real-114
    • Insectigations ! The Game2 to 4 players The object of the game is to be the first one to make it from the If a single pair of flies were to breed, and all their babies survived start (Egg) to the finish (Adult). Here are the rules of the game:and had more babies, and all those babies survived and had even morebabies, then within a year—if you crammed all the flies’ bodies 1. Have each player roll a regular, numbered die.The one rolling thetogether into a ball—the ball would be about 96 million miles in highest number goes first.diameter! So, some insects have to die before they have a chance to 2. Each player takes a turn by rolling the numbered die and thenmate and lay eggs.What causes them to die? The answer is on your moving his or her game token along the action card path.action cards! 3. Follow the instructions on the action card that you land on after moving the number you rolled on the die.Materials 4. If a player lands on a space that is already occupied, it is time for aGame pieces Dice duel. Each player selects either the head or abdomen insect die to (see sidebar) Tokens, such as plastic bugs, roll. (They can choose the same die.) If a player rolls a weapon (likeTape or glue cicada exoskeletons, and a stinger or pincer), that player can send the other player back toMarker decorated bottle tops start. If both players roll a weapon, they both go back to start. If neither one rolls a weapon, they both stay on the square. Place the game board on the floor or a big table. Read through youraction cards and decide in which habitat they would work best. For Do you have the luck you need to survive as an insect? Roll theexample, if you have a card about turning over rotten logs in a forest, dice and see what happens.that card should be in the forest habitat. After you have determined thebest place for each action card, line them up in the trail area you madeon the game board. It’s OK to create more action cards or use the Game Piecesblank cards where you need them. Once you have a path that goes through your habitats, tape the The instructions for creating all the parts you need are found in the following into place. Draw an oval as your starting square and label it “Egg.” Game board: See Chapter 6 on page 85.Draw an adult insect at the finish line of the path. Find a few friends Insect dice: See Chapter 2 on page 27.and collect some exoskeletons or plastic bugs to use as your tokens and Action cards: See the end of Chapters 2 through 8 on pages 31, 43, 55, 68, 87,get ready to play! 100, and 113). 115
    • A ppendixTen Common Insect OrdersW ith so many insects in the world, it would take a very thick book to identify every single one. Sometimes, the best you can do is figure out which order an insectbelongs to. Insects are grouped by things they have in common.The order name usually gives you a clue to their common char-acteristics.This table will help you put the insects you find intothe correct order. 117
    • Order Name (What It Means) Familiar Members Characteristics Blattodea (flat body) Roaches: cockroach, wood roach, Chinese roach Flat oval bodies with long, hairlike antennae. Small heads are hidden by a visorlike shield, abdomen hid- den by four wings that they rarely use. They are fast runners who prefer the dark. Coleoptera (sheath wings) Beetles: Water beetles, lightning beetles, June bugs, weevils Bodies can be almost any shape or size, but they all have a hard “shell,” with a straight line down the middle of the back. This shell is made by the first set of wings that act as covers for the clear flying set folded underneath. Chewing mouthparts, some with large mandibles. Antennae can be very short or very long, usually threadlike or clubbed. Diptera (two wings) Flies: housefly, mosquito, midge Only order where all adults have only two, transparent wings. Small antennae, bristle-like or feathery, and very large eyes. Piercing, lapping, or sponging mouthparts. Soft body. Ephemeroptera (living one day) Mayfly Four transparent wings, the first set much larger than the hind set, held up over the back when resting. The abdomen is long and slender with three hairlike “tails” at the end. Large eyes, no working mouth- parts as adults. Hemiptera (half wings) True bugs: ambush bug, assassin bug, stink bug Two pairs of wings. When resting, the first pair folds flat over the back, making a rough “X” pattern. The head on land-based bugs is usually small with small eyes and long antennae. Water-based bugs have large heads with large eyes and short antennae. All have piercing-sucking mouthparts that form a beak that is held under the body when not in use. Homoptera (similar wing) Cicadas, leafhoppers, froghoppers Most have four wings that are all very similar. When they are not being used, the wings form a “tent” or “roof ” over the stocky body. Very short antennae, medium eyes, and sucking beaklike mouths for feeding on plants. Hymenoptera (Membranous wings) Ants, bees, wasps Only insects with stingers. Are often found in social groups. Two pairs of thin, transparent wings, with the hind wings usually smaller. Some adults have no wings. Many have hard bodies with a narrow connection between thorax and abdomen that forms a pinched waist. Chewing or chewing-sucking mouthparts, and usually medium to long antennae. Ants have small compound eyes while bees and wasps often have large ones. Lepidoptera (scale wings) Butterflies and moths Four wings covered with tiny, often colorful scales. Abdomens are much longer than the thorax and usual- ly stout. Smallish heads with large compound eyes, coiled-tube mouthparts, and long antennae. Butterflies usually have knobbed antennae, moths usually have feathery antennae. Odonata (tooth + water) Dragonflies and damselflies Four nearly equal-sized transparent wings with many veins. Dragonflies hold their wings out to the side when resting, damselflies hold theirs up over the body. The thorax looks short and stocky when com- pared to the long, slender, tapering abdomen. Very large compound eyes, very short bristle-like anten- nae, and biting/chewing mouthparts. Orthoptera (straight wing) Grasshoppers, katydids, crickets, and mantids Long legs in front (praying mantis), bent higher than the body at the knee on the hind pair (crickets, grasshoppers, katydids), or all over (walking stick). Females may have long ovipositor at end of abdomen. Chewing mouthparts, usually long antennae, very small to large compound eyes. Those with wings have a leathery first set with the second pair folded like a fan and often tucked to the sides of the body.118
    • Glossary 1abdomen: third (last) of the three main body parts of an insect. mandible: a jaw.amplitude: the measurement of the vertical size of a sound wave. metamorphosis: the development of an insect from egg to adult,arthropod: an invertebrate with a segmented external skeleton and during which it changes shape from one stage to the next. jointed legs; including insects, spiders, ticks, millipedes, centipedes, nymph: the stages of growth between egg and adult of an insect that and crustaceans. undergoes simple metamorphosis.cerci: small hooklike structures at the end of the abdomen, often used ocelli: simple eyes; larvae can detect some colors and shapes, while in mating. adult insects are sensitive to light and movement but cannot seedecomposer: an organism that helps break down dead plants and images. animals. organ: a specific part of an animal that has a specialized function.dilute: to make a liquid weaker by adding water. ovipositor: the egg-laying structure on the rear abdominal segmentecosystem: a community of interacting plants and animals and the of a female insect. area they live in. periodical: occurring at regular time intervals.entomology: the study of insects. pheromone: a chemical smell produced by insects to attract a mateexoskeleton: hardened outer skin of an insect and other arthropods. or form a cooperative group.frequency: how often something repeats itself. predator: an animal that hunts, kills, and eats other animals.function: how an item is used; the purpose for which something pupa: the third stage of complete metamorphosis in insects during exists. which a larva transforms into an adult.habitat: the kind of place that is natural for the life and growth of an spiracle: an external opening of the breathing system in an insect. animal or plant. surface area: measurement of that part of an object that touches theinstar: the stage of development between two molts of an immature air. insect. thorax: the body region of an insect between the head and abdomen,invertebrate: any animal lacking a backbone. Includes insects, spiders, it has the legs and wings. worms, and many other animals. volume: the amount of space that something occupies.larva: the stage of development between egg and pupa in an insect vortex: a whirling mass of water, like a whirlpool. that undergoes complete metamorphosis. A larva is usually an active feeding stage of an insect and doesn’t look like the adult in form. 119
    • ResourcesChapter 1: Getting Started • Glausiusz, Josie. Buzz:The Intimate Bond Between Humans and Insects.Insect Folklore San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 2004.• Many instructors encourage beginning artists to look at other draw- This site contains an extensive collection of both factual and fanciful ings or photos as they learn the basics. Buzz features stunning pho- insect proverbs from around the world. tos and scanning electron micrographs of insects, giving readers an eyeful of details that would otherwise be missed.• Kite, L. Patricia. Insect Facts and Folklore. Brookfield, CT:The Mill- brook Press, 2001. • Aimed at student in grades 3 to 7, the pictures, stories, and informa- In conjunction with its annual Insect Fear Film Festival, the Univer- tion about twelve different insects provide a fascinating look at sity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign hosts a thematic insect art con- insect-human interactions through the ages and around the globe. test for students grades K to 12.You’ll find the rules, information, and an entry form on this Web site.Drawing Insects• Dubosque, Doug and Damon Reinagle. Draw Insects. Columbus, NC: • Peel Productions, 1997. As part of its educational outreach efforts, the Smithsonian National Targeted to grades 4 to 8, this book provides lessons for creating Museum of Natural History offers profiles of various career oppor- detailed pencil drawings of over 80 arthropods. It also includes classi- tunities, including that of an insect artist. fication and habitat information about each creature. Chapter 2: Body Basics• Masiello, Ralph. Bug Drawing Book. Watertown, MA: Charlesbridge, About Abdomens 2005. • The Firefly Project, 103 Wiltshire Drive, Oak Ridge,TN 37830, Written for children ages 5 to 9, this book provides simple instruc- 888-520-1272, e-mail: tions for drawing nine different adult insects, a caterpillar, chrysalis, The direct address for the company that pays people to collect fire- and a spider and its web. flies for research. 121
    • Mighty Muscles • Zim, Herbert S. Ph.D., and Clarence Cottam, Ph.D. Insects: A Guide • to Familiar American Insects. A Golden Guide. NY: Golden Press, 1987. You can either view or contribute to the University of Florida at Gainesville Department of Entomology’s list of 39 insect records, Chapter 3: Metamorphic Magic from the fastest flier to the smallest eggs. Complete Metamorphosis • Wright, Amy Bartlett. Peterson’s First Guides: Caterpillars. NY: • Houghton Mifflin, 1993. A more thorough explanation (with illustrations) of how insect mus- Identification of caterpillars, including their habitat and food prefer- cle use compares to human muscle use. ences and their final adult form. What’s Bugging You • • A computer-animated version of the complete metamorphosis of a As part of the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension butterfly. Service, many county extension offices assist residents with insect Chapter 4: Sense-sational identification of local species.You can also find the number to your Vision local extension office under “Extension Services” in the county gov- ernment section of your phone book. • The direct site for a standard test for color perception with links to • Insects and Spiders: National Audubon Society’s Pocket Guide. NY: Chan- helpful sites that have further information. ticleer Press, Inc., 1988. • • Kavanagh, James. Bugs and Slugs: An Introduction to Familiar Inverte- Information about what it means to be colorblind, how to test brates. Pocket Naturalist. Chandler, AZ:Waterford Press, Inc., 2002. young children for color perception, and suggestions for inclusive educational strategies. • Leahy, Christopher. Insects:A Concise Field Guide to 200 Common Insects of North America. Peterson’s First Guides. NY: Houghton Mifflin, 1987. • View computer-modeled bee vision with a selection of preloaded images or enter your own design. • McGavin, George C. Insects: Spiders and Other Terrestrial Arthropods. Dorling Kindersley Handbooks. NY: Dorling Kindersley Inc., 2000.122
    • Chapter 5: Can We Talk? Chapter 7: Keepers• • A virtual library of animal sounds, many accompanied by a picture A continually updated list of animals on the federal endangered and explanation of how and when the sound was recorded. species list with links to information about the plans to monitor or improve the endangered populations.• Information, activities, pictures, current research projects, and links • about insect hearing at the Wake Forest University Bats and Bugs site. A large site with the goal of providing links to articles about the appropriate care information for all the nearly 15,000 animal speciesChapter 6: Finders (including insects) currently kept as captive pets.Gross Entomology: Pantry Pests• • Kneidel, Sally. Pet Bugs: A Kid’s Guide to Catching and Keeping Touch- Download the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Food able Insects. NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1994. Safety and Applied Nutrition Food Defect Action Level booklet to Information about and instructions for capturing and keeping 26 find out more about the allowable levels of insect pieces and parts kinds of common arthropods, including several types of insects. found in your food. • Zakowski, Connie. The Insect Book: A Basic Guide to the Collection and• Care of Common Insects for Young Children. Highland City, FL: Rain- If you are interested in adding cheap protein to your diet, this site bow Books, 1996. offers recipes and links to companies that market edible insects. An elementary guide to capturing, identifying, and housing 28 com- mon insects.Water We Looking For?• Dead Insect Collections This Case Western Research University site explains its research into • insect motion and displays its models of cockroach robots. Take an insect museum virtual tour, selecting which insects you want to examine more closely with the click of a mouse.• In addition to providing graphics that aid in the identification of aquatic insects and other invertebrates, this site features information about starting your own water quality monitoring project. 123
    • • Plan Your Garden index.html • Henderson, Carrol L. Landscaping for Wildlife. St. Paul, MN: Min- The Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History nesota’s Bookstore, 1987. in Washington, D.C. has an incredible exhibit area in the O. Orkin A useful guide filled with photographs, garden plans, and tables rat- Insect Zoo. If you are not able to visit the museum in person, you ing the wildlife value of plants, shrubs, annual and perennial plants. can use the Web address to take a virtual tour online. Insect Calendar • Hostetler, Mark, PhD. That Gunk on Your Car: A Unique Guide to • Insects of North America. Berkeley, CA:Ten Speed Press, 1997. Part of the North American Butterfly Association’s Web site, the A funny book that includes habitat and life cycle information about daily sightings list includes observations from butterfly enthusiasts insects that are often found splattered on the front end of a vehicle. across the continent and throughout the year. • White, Richard E., and Donald J. Borror. A Field Guide to Insects: • American North of Mexico. NY: Houghton Mifflin, 1998. The home of Journey North, an international phenological collec- tion site where students can record their wildlife observations and • Zakowski, Connie. Insects on Display: A Guide to Mounting and Dis- track those made by other students. playing Insects. Highland City, FL: Rainbow Books, 2000. Easy instructions on how to best preserve and show insects from Insect Repellants beetles to butterflies in a professional manner. • Henderson, Carrol L. Woodworking for Wildlife: Homes for Birds and Mammals. St. Paul, MN: State of Minnesota, Department of Natural Fly-Tying Resources, 1992. • A guide to the habitats, feeding preferences, and nest box construc- Home site of the Federation of Fly Fishers with links to sites that tion for North American birds and bats. include instructions for fly-tying. • Chapter 8: Insect Gardens Patterns for building bird feeders and nest boxes, and information Mystery of Monarch Migration and plans for building a bat house. • A premier site for monarch enthusiasts, it features everything from butterfly garden tips to the latest monarch research results.124
    • Companion Plantings • www/• Cunningham, Sally Jean. A Companion-Planting System for a Beautiful, The Insect Fear Film Festival at University of Illinois has gained Chemical-Free Vegetable Garden. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, Inc., 2000. international attention by showing films that are entomologically wrong, then explaining the truth behind the scenes. During inter-• missions, insect snacks are served, and moviegoers have the opportu- Both sources offer information about companion plants and addi- nity to view and touch live and dead insects. tional suggestions of companion plant combinations. • The home page for the Young Entomologist’s Society, the siteAdditional Web Sites Worth Visiting includes a mini-beast museum, listing of state insects, and some lim-• ited information for teachers. For additional insect activities or to chat with the author of Insectigations! • A thorough database with sections on insect identification, research,• control, clubs, museums, and schools. As the home of the Extension Service in Iowa, Iowa State Univer- sity’s Department of Entomology Web site offers assistance in identi- • fying insects found in the state, with plenty of information about One of the best insect Web sites for kids, the University of Kentucky how to control pest species.The site’s highlight is the Web cam Department of Entomology features insect crafts projects, recipes, insect zoo.Visitors take turns running the remote control camera to games, book lists, helpful links and information about its annual zoom in on a giant cockroach, tobacco hornworm, or whatever Night Insect Walk. other live insect is on display.• Each April as part of the annual Spring Fest, the Purdue University Entomology Department hosts the Bug Bowl. It features edible insects such as chocolate covered crickets, an insect petting zoo, edu- cational exhibits, craft booths, and wacky contests including cricket spitting and cockroach races.The entomology home page provides access to hundreds of interesting articles providing details about insect lives and habits. 125
    • Teacher’s GuideE ntomology is a study in which the necessary skills can be learned at an early age and used throughout the course of one’s life. In truth, it is often the younger students who are the most enthusi- world and recording their experiences in a journal. Additionally, as is demonstrated in the Real Entomologist features, insects can be a part of a career in engineering, robotics, food sciences, and many other fields.astic and adept amateur entomologists, as they have yet to establish an The following guidelines should help you locate activities that addressunappreciative attitude toward insects or any preconceived ideas of topics frequently presented at the listed grade level and that can be per-what to expect.They are eager to learn, full of questions and explana- formed by each student with minimal instruction or supervision.tions, and more often than not, willing to get dirty.They love to lift uprocks, sweep nets in grassy meadows, dip into pond water, and set up Grades K to 1live traps. Once they have caught their quarry, they handle, poke, prod, Raising Mealwormsand question every last detail.What is it? How do you know? What Leaf Litter Shakerdoes it eat? Why does it have big eyes? What are those things on its You’re on a Roll!bottom? Butterfly Puddles With helping hands and guidance from an experienced educator,students as young as five can complete nearly all the activities in this Grades 2 to 3book.There are several instances where the concepts presented may be Excellent Exoskeletonsmore interesting to older students than younger ones.The difference Spontaneous Generationbetween insect and human muscles, the mechanisms of flight (chapter Colorblind Challenge2), the properties of sound waves (chapter 5), and water quality testing Dinner Detour(chapter 6) are four examples. By using the Web sites and books listed Buzzing Bugin the resource sections, you can use the activities presented in Insectiga- Insect Amplifiertions! as a springboard to more detailed investigations that will stretch Insect Trapthe minds of older students. Insect Rain While it is unlikely that every student will ultimately become an Temporary Terrariumentomologist, all children benefit from close examination of the natural 127
    • Grades 4 to 5 Science as Inquiry Mighty Muscles Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Twist-an-Insect Understanding about scientific inquiry Training Bees Concentration Science Standards, Levels K through 4 Wing Waves Life Science Standards Sweep Net Characteristics of organisms Fly-Tying a Big Bug Life cycles of organisms Insectigations! The Game Organisms and environments Science and Technology Standards Science Standards Abilities to distinguish between natural objects and The premise behind Insectigations! is investigation. The information objects made by humans presented supports activities that encourage children to explore and Abilities of technological design study insects in their environment.While some of the activities have Understanding about science and technology expected outcomes that are explained, many others are open ended, History and Nature of Science Standards with the results dependent upon the actions and observations of the Science as a human endeavor user.This structure aligns closely with the guidelines presented in the National Science Education Standards, available from the National Science Standards Levels 5 through 8 Academy Press (800-624-6242) or online at Life Science Standards Structure and function in living systems Unifying Concepts and Processes Regulation and behavior Systems, order, and organization Diversity and adaptations of organisms Evidence, models, and explanation Science and Technology Change, constancy, and measurement Abilities of technological design Evolution and equilibrium Understanding about science and technology Form and function History and Nature of Science Science as a human endeavor Nature of science History of science128
    • BibliographyAkre, Roger D., Gregory S. Paulson, and E. Paul Catts. Insects Did It First. Fair- Keith,Tom. Fly Tying and Fishing for Panfish & Bass. Portland, OR: Frank Amato field,WA:Ye Galleon Press, 1992. Publications, 1989. Cocks,Tim.“Desperate Measures” in Johannesburg Mail & Kram, Rodger.“Inexpensive Load Carrying by Rhinoceros Beetles” in The Guardian, February 17, 2004. Journal of Experimental Biology. Great Britain:The Company of BiologistsAllison, Linda. Wild Inside. Boston, MA: Little Brown & Company, 1988. Limited, 1996.Anderson, Margaret. Children of Summer: Henri Fabre’s Insects. NY: Farrar Straus Krebs, J. R., and N. B. Davies. An Introduction to Behavioural [sic] Ecology. Sun- & Giroux, 1997. derland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc., 1981.Bailey, Jill. Bug Dictionary. London, England: Andromeda Children’s Books, 2002. Lasky, Kathryn. Monarchs. NY: Harcourt Brace & Co., 1993.Berenbaum, May R. Buzzwords.A Scientist Muses on Sex, Bugs, and Leahy, Christopher. Peterson’s First Guide to Insects. NY: Houghton Mifflin, Rock ’n’ Roll. Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press, 2000. 1987.Berger, Melvin, and Gilda Berger. How Do Flies Walk Upside Down? NY: (League for the Hard of Hearing Noise Scholastic, 1999. Center)Bingham, Jane. The Usborne Book of Science Experiments. London, England: Usborne Publishing, 1991. Pyle, Robert Michael. Chasing Monarchs. NY: Houghton Mifflin Company,Borror, Donald Joyce, et. al. An Introduction to the Study of Insects. Philadelphia, 1999. PA: Saunders College Publishing, 1981. Robertson, Matthew. Reader’s Digest Pathfinders: Insects and Spiders. Pleasantville,Bosak, Susan V. Science Is—. Ontario, Canada: Scholastic Canada, 1991. NY: Reader’s Digest Children’s Publishing, Inc., 2000.Clausen, Lucy W. Insect Fact and Folklore. NY: The MacMillan Co., 1954. Ross, Herbert H., Charles A. Ross, and June R. P. Ross. A Textbook of Entomol-Forsyth, Adrian. Exploring the World of Insects. Ontario, Canada: Camden House, ogy. NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1982. 1992. VanCleave, Janice. Play and Find Out About Bugs: Easy Experiments for YoungGlausiusz, Josie. Buzz:The Intimate Bond Between Humans and Insects. San Fran- Children. NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1999. cisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 2004., M. Lee. A Fly for the Prosecution: How Insect Evidence Helps Solve Crimes. Waldbauer, Dr. Gilber. Handy Bug Answer Book. Detroit, MI:Visible Ink Press, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000. 1998.Guinness Book of World Records. Enfield, England: Guinness Media, Inc., 1998 through 2004. Zim, Herbert S., and Clarence Cottam. Insects:A Golden Guide. NY: GoldenImes, Rick. The Practical Entomologist. NY: Simon and Schuster Inc., 1992. Press, 1987. 129
    • IndexA Brugger, Ken, and monarch butterfly Collier, Rachael, 5 exoskeletons, 10, 12, 13A above and below middle C, wavelength migrations, 107 colorblindness activity, 48 eyes of insects, 13, 46. See also vision of of, 58 “bug,” in Mark II computer, ix common names, significance of, 25 insectsabdomens of insects, 10–11, 19, 27 bug bait, making, 78 companion plants, examples of, 112. See alsoaction cards, making, 31 Bug Bowl, 125 plants Faerial nets, finding insects with, 72 bug business, 96 compound eyes, 11, 13, 46 Fabre, Jean Henri, 51amplifiers, 65–66. See also sounds Bug Business sidebars, x Cooperative State Research, Education and families of insects, 23amplitude of sound waves, 58 finding fireflies, 20 Extension Service, 25 femur, location of, 19antennae, 11, 13 insect farms, 96 crane flies, 19 A Field Guide to Insects: American North ofantifreeze activity, 108 insects as pets in Japan, 90 crickets, 19, 27, 29, 58, 64, 67, 118 Mexico (White and Borror), 97ants, 20, 54, 118 bugs, order associated with, 118. See also crop specialists, 41 field guides, determining orders with, 24aquatic insects, 81, 83–84, 92 endangered insects; itty-bitty-bugs; cube pattern, using for twist-an-insects, 28 field notes, 70aquatic nymphs, 84 insects field research tips, 7arachnids, 26 bumblebees, 18, 60 D fireflies, 19, 20, 50army ants, 54 butterflies, 17, 36, 60, 102, 105, 106, 111, damselflies, 118 first-aid kits, bringing for field research, 7Arthropod phylum, 23 118. See also monarch butterflies Darwin, Charles, and The Origin of Species, 70 fishing flies, 98arthropods, 74, 123 Buzzing Bug activity, 63–64 death-watch beetle, 61 fishing striders, 81Asian vampire moths, 59 decibels, 60 flies, 19, 27, 98, 118assassin bug, 19 C depth perception, 47 flour, U.S. Food and Drug AdministrationAssimwe, John, and African insect caddisfly larva, 84 diptera (two wings) order, 118 allowance for, 78 collection, 96 caterpillars, 36, 37 diurnal insects, 102 flower preferences for insects, 102 catnip oil, repelling mosquitoes with, 112 diving beetles, 81 flowers, 102–104, 110B cave crickets, 13 dominant eye, definition of, 47 fly maggots experiment, 35backswimmers, 19, 61 centipedes, 26 dragonflies, 39, 60, 118 fly-tying activity, 98–99bark beetles, 77 cerci, 19 dragonfly nymphs, 81 foodbasspepper fishing fly, 99 chestnut weevil, 95 drawing insects, 4 finding insects in, 78bathtub laboratory, 5 cicadas, 13, 37, 58, 60, 70, 76, 118 droppings, including in insect gardens, providing for insects, 102bee larvae, 36 cinnamon, U.S. Food and Drug Administra- 102–103 Food and Drug Administrationbee stings, 7 tion allowance for, 78 allowances, 78bees, 19, 27, 29, 49, 50, 60, 64, 102 citrus juice, U.S. Food and Drug Administra- E forensic entomologists, 41beetle grubs, 102 tion allowance for, 78 e coli bacteria, detecting with luciferin, 20 frequency of wavelengths, 58beetles, 12, 27, 36, 118 classes, examples of, 23 ears of insects, 61–62Berlese, Antonio, and itty-bitty bugs, 75 classification of insects, 23–24 endangered insects, 96. See also bugs; insects; Gbird feeders, 124 cockroach catchers, 75 itty-bitty bugs G above middle C, sound wave measure-blattodea (flat body) order, 118 cockroaches, 118 entomologists and metamorphosis, 41 ment of, 60body parts, 10 cold weather, 108 entomology, 2 gall gnats, 41bombardier beetles, 19 coleoptera (sheath wings) order, 118 ephemeroptera (living one day) order, 118 galls on plants, 109 131
    • Game Action Cards, 31 insect collections, 92–93, 97 J leaf litter shaker, making, 74 game board for patterns of insect habitats, insect drawings, 5 Japanese people, keeping of insects as pets legs, 19 85–86 insect ears, 61 by, 90 lenses, 46, 47 game dice, 27–30 insect eggs, 40 journal entries, 3 lepidoptera (scale wings) order, 118 games, playing Insectigations!, 115 insect farms, 96 Journal Notes, x light, attracting insects to, 80 gardening resource, 110 insect gardens, 102, 106, 110 Antifreeze activity, 108 lightning bugs, 19, 20, 50 garlic, repelling insects with, 112 insect habitats, making game board for, 85–86 Butterfly Puddles activity, 105 Linnaeus, Carolus, and classification, 23 genus, 23, 25 insect imposters, 25–26 Buzzing Bug activity, 64 logs, 3, 77 glycerol, 108 insect orders, 118 Colorblind Challenge activity, 48 looking jar, 6 Goliath beetle, 63 insect pests, 112 Concentration activity, 53 luciferin, 20 grasshoppers, 19, 20, 27, 39, 64, 118 insect repellants, 112 Dinner Detour activity, 54 lures, fishing, 98 Gross Entomology sidebars insect traps, making, 73 Excellent Exoskeletons activity 12 explanation of, x Insect Zoo, 124 Here’s to Ears activity, 62 M gall gnats, 42 Insectigations! game, 115 Insect Amplifier activity, 66 Madagascar hissing cockroach, 64 including animal droppings in insect gar- insects. See also bugs; endangered insects; Mighty Muscles activity, 21 maggots, 35, 36, 51 dens, 102 itty-bitty bugs Need a Lift? activity, 17 magnifying lens, 5 insects in foods, 78 attracting to light, 80 Plan Your Garden activity, 110 Make a Connection sidebars, x maggots as medicine, 51 body parts of, 10 Point of View activity, 47 aquatic creatures, 84 ground beetles, 19 catching, 77 Raising Mealworms activity, 38 cicada and cricket sounds, 58 grubs, 36 characteristics and history of, ix Rigged Ratios activity, 22 colorblindness, 49 gypsy moths, 53 classification of, 23–24 Searching for Insect Eggs activity, 41 companion plants, 112 collecting, 7, 76 Sound Off Sentry activity, 67 computer-animated butterfly metamor- H drawing, 4, 94 Spontaneous Generation activity, 35 phosis, 37 habitats, 96 eating, 79 Training Bees activity, 49 Cooperative State Research, Education and hackberry leaves, 109 finding, 70, 71–73 Walking on Water activity, 82 Extension Service, 25 heads of insects, 10–11, 13, 27 finding in food, 78 Wing Waves activity, 59 endangered animals, 97 hemiptera (half wings) order, 118 grouping in orders, 23 You Saw What? activity, 94 honeybee vision, 50 Henderson, Carrol L., Landscaping for history of, 69–70, 89–90 journals, 3, 77 insect art contest, 5 Wildlife, 110 identifying, 25, 97 jumping distance activity, 20–21 insect recipes, 79 homoptera (similar wing) order, 118 as Japanese pets, 90 insects as pets, 92 honeybees, 13, 50 labeling and preserving in col- K labeling and preserving insects, 93 Hopper, Grace, Dr., ix lections, 93 katydids, 61, 64, 76, 118 monarch butterflies, 107 Hostetler, Mark, That Gunk on Your Car: in movies, 95 keys, determining orders with, 24 phenology, 111 A Unique Guide to Insects of North names for, 25 kHz (kilohertz), 60 mandible, 11, 27 America, 97 nearsightedness of, 46 Kingdoms, 23 mantids, 118 houseflies, 27, 29, 60 observing, ix–x Kirkaldy, G.W., and fun Latin names for Mark II computer, testing, ix hymenoptera (membranous wings) order, as pets, 92 insects, 25 mayflies, 99, 118 118 providing food for, 102 Kneidel, Sally, Pet Bugs:A Kid’s Guide to mayfly fishing fly, 99 Hz (hertz), explanation of, 60 Insects and Spiders 3-D postal stamps, 97 Catching and Keeping Touchable Insects, 92 mayfly nymph, 84 invertebrates, 10 mealworms, 38 I isopods, 26 L mealybugs, 70 infrasonic sounds, 58 itty-bitty bugs, 75. See also bugs; endangered larva, 37 meat, sensitivity to smell of, 51 Insect Calendar activity, 111 insects; insects Latin insect names, 25 metamorphosis132
    • action cards for, 42 orders, 23 Redi, Francesco, and spontaneous genera- ticks, 7, 26 definition of, 34 orthoptera (straight wing) order, 118 tion, 35 tobacco hornworm, 41 examples of, 37 ova, role in pollination, 102–103 rhinoceros beetle, 20 traps for insects, making, 73 of gall gnats, 41 ovary in flowers, 103 roaches, 118 treehoppers, 70 of mealworms, 38 ovipositor, 11, 19 road dust, relationship to monarch caterpillar twist-an-insect activity, 27 process of, 36 observation, 5 tymbal, 61 and Real Entomologists, 41 P robber fly, 19 stages of, 39 peacock moths, 51 Umidge larvae, 37 peanut butter, U.S. Food and Drug Adminis- S ultrasonic sounds, 58midges, 70 tration allowance for, 78 Salvodora caterpillars, 70 Urquhart, Dr., and monarch butterfly migra-milkweed plants, 5 pencils, drawing insects with, 4 scorpion, 26 tions, 107millipede, 26 pets, keeping insects as, 92 seed factories, flowers as, 102–104 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Centermint, repelling insects with, 112 phenology, 111 shelter, providing in insect gardens, 106 for Food Safety and Applied Nutritionmite, 26 pheromones, 51–53 simple eyes, 13, 46 Food Defect Action Level booklet, 78monarch butterflies, 107. See also photoreceptors, 46 smells, 51, 52–53, 54 butterflies Phyla, 23 snow fleas, 70 Vmonarch caterpillars, 5 pictures, drawing insects from, 4 sounds, 58, 59, 60. See also amplifiers veterinarians, 41monitors, determining water quality plant-eating insects, 102 South American hawk caterpillar, 70 vision of insects, 46, 49, 54. See also eyes of with, 84 plants, 14–15, 109. See also companion sowbug, 26 insectsmosquitoes, 37, 59–60, 112 plants species names, 25moth larvae, 36 Podisus maculiventris, 23 spiders, 26, 27, 30 Wmoths, 27, 30, 118 pollen in flowers, 103 spiracle, 11 walking sticks, 70movies, insects in, 95 pollination process, 102–104 spontaneous generation activity, 35 wasps, 118muscles, capacity of, 20–21 polluted water, testing for, 84 stag beetles, 27, 29 water, 104 ponds, catching insects in, 83 stamen in flowers, 103 water boatmen, 19N poop, including in insect gardens, 102 stamps of spiders, 97 water holes, creating for butterflies, 105names of insects, types of, 25 postal stamps of spiders, 97 stigma in flowers, 103–104 water insects, 81, 83, 84, 92nasturtiums, 112 praying mantises, 19 stonefly nymph, 84 water quality, 84native plants, 102 pupates, 37 stream water, 84 water striders, 81–82nest boxes, 124 pyrethrum pesticide, 112 supersonic sounds, 58 water words, 61nocturnal insects, 78, 102 sweep nets, 71–73 water world activity, 81–82North American Butterfly Associa- R wavelengths, 58 tion, 111 rainforests, preserving, 96 T wet fly, 99no-see-um midges, 60 Real Entomologists sidebars tags, 106 whirligig beetles, 81“noses” of insects, 51 explanation of, x tarsus, 19 White, Richard E., and Donald J. Borror, Anymph fishing fly, 99 grouping insects, 23 tastes, 52–53 Field Guide to Insects: American North of gypsy moth pheromones, 53 terrarium, 91–92 Mexico, 93O insect vision, 46 That Gunk on Your Car: A Unique Guide wings, 16ocelli, 11, 13, 46 metamorphosis, 41 to Insects of North America woodboring beetles, 37odonata (tooth + water) order, 118 natural insect repellants, 112 (Hostetler), 97 wood-eating beetles, 61official names, 25 water navigation of insects, 82 thermals, 17onions, repelling insects with, 112 recipes for insects, 79 thorax, 10–11, 16, 27 Yorange markings on insects, 73 red markings on insects, 73 tibia, 19 yucca moths, 37 133
    • Other Books from Chicago Review Press Deserts Oceans Rainforests An Activity Guide for Ages 6–9 An Activity Guide for Ages 6–9 An Activity Guide for Ages 6–9 By Nancy F. Castaldo By Nancy F. Castaldo By Nancy F. Castaldo *A selection of the Primary Teacher’s Book ClubIntroducing children to the wild and Rainforest-inspired activities introduceoften misunderstood environment of the “Using fun activities and games, Oceans children to plants, animals, and peopledesert and the people and cultures that brilliantly underscores the connection that contribute to the beauty of thesethrive in and around them. Filled with that kids have with the oceans.” forests, and encourage young readers toengaging activities and ideas on how become active defenders of the rain- —Barbara Jeanne Polo, executivechildren can help protect these delicate director, American Oceans Campaign forests no matter where they live.environments. Illustrated throughout Illustrated throughout Illustrated throughout $14.95 (CAN $22.95) 1-55652-476-5 $14.95 (CAN $22.95) 1-55652-443-9 $14.95 (CAN $22.95) 1-55652-524-9 Available at your favorite bookstore or by calling (800) 888-4741. Distributed by Independent Publishers Group