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  • 1. ―HOW INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) IMPROVES PUBLISHING‖
  • 2. Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of literature, music, or information — the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning: originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver and display the content for the same. Also, the word publisher can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or imprint or to a person who owns a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books (the "book trade") and newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources, such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as micropublishing, websites, blogs, video game publishers and the like. Publishing includes the stages of the development, acquisition, copy-editing, graphic design, production – printing (and its electronic equivalents), and marketing and distribution of newspapers, magazines, books, literary works, musical works, software and other works dealing with information, including the electronic media.(c) Publication is also important as a legal concept:As the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy; As the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation; that is, the alleged libel must have been published, and For copyright purposes, where there is a difference in the protection of published and unpublished works. There are three different categories in which publication house can be divided: Non-Paid Publishers: The term non-paid publisher refers to those publication houses which do not charge author at all to publish the book.Semi-Paid Publishers: Publication houses that charge partially the author in order to meet the expenses of the book. Author has full right to claim 50% of the copies printed in case author has met with the burden of paying 50% of the total amount to get the books published.Paid Publishers: These days paid publication has become very common, here the author has to meet with the total expense to get the book published and author has full right to set up marketing policies. Book and magazine publishers spend a lot of their time buying or commissioning copy; newspaper publishers, by contrast, usually hire their own staff to produce copy, although they may also employ freelance journalists, called stringers. At a small press, it is possible to survive
  • 3. by relying entirely on commissioned material. But as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publisher's established circle of writers. For works written independently of the publisher, writers often first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher. Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, and the majority come from previously unpublished authors. If the publisher accepts unsolicited manuscripts, then the manuscript is placed in the slush pile, which publisher's readers sift through to identify manuscripts of sufficient quality or revenue potential to be referred to acquisitions editors for review. The acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. The time and number of people involved in the process is dependent on the size of the publishing company, with larger companies having more degrees of assessment between unsolicited submission and publication. Unsolicited submissions have a very low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers ultimately choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive. Many book publishing companies around the world maintain a strict "no unsolicited submissions" policy and will only accept submissions via a literary agent. This shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publishing company and onto the literary agents. At these companies, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, if the author has provided pre-paid postage. Established authors are often represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and negotiate contracts. Literary agents take a percentage of author earnings (varying between 10 to 15 per cent) to pay for their services. Some writers follow a non-standard route to publication. For example, this may include bloggers who have attracted large readerships producing a book based on their websites, books based on Internet memes, instant "celebrities" such as Joe the Plumber, retiring sports figures and in general anyone whom a publisher feels could produce a marketable book. Such books often employ the services of a ghostwriter. For a submission to reach publication it must be championed by an editor or publisher who must work to convince other staff of the need to publish a particular title. An editor who discovers or champions a book that subsequently becomes a best-seller may find their own reputation enhanced as a result of their success. Once a work is accepted, commissioning editors negotiate the purchase of intellectual
  • 4. property rights and agree on royalty rates. The authors of traditional printed materials typically sell exclusive territorial intellectual property rights that match the list of countries in which distribution is proposed (i.e. the rights match the legal systems under which copyright protections can be enforced). In the case of books, the publisher and writer must also agree on the intended formats of publication — mass- market paperback, "trade" paperback and hardback is the most common options. The situation is slightly more complex, if electronic formatting is to be used. Where distribution is to be by CD-ROM or other physical media, there is no reason to treat this form differently from a paper format, and a national copyright is an acceptable approach. But the possibility of Internet download without the ability to restrict physical distribution within national boundaries presents legal problems that are usually solved by selling language or translation rights rather than national rights. Thus, Internet access across the European Union is relatively open because of the laws forbidding discrimination based on nationality, but the fact of publication in, say, France, limits the target market to those who read French. Having agreed on the scope of the publication and the formats, the parties in a book agreement must then agree on royalty rates, the percentage of the gross retail price that will be paid to the author, and the advance payment. This is difficult because the publisher must estimate the potential sales in each market and balance projected revenue against production costs. Royalties usually range between 10–12% of recommended retail price. An advance is usually 1/3 of first print run total royalties. For example, if a book has a print run of 5000 copies and will be sold at $14.95 and the author is to receive 10% royalties, the total sum payable to the author if all copies are sold is $7475 (10% x $14.95 x 5000). The advance in this instance would roughly be $2490. Advances vary greatly between books, with established authors commanding large advances. Although listed as distinct stages, parts of these occur concurrently. As editing of text progresses, front cover design and initial layout takes place and sales and marketing of the book begins. A decision is taken to publish a work, and the technical legal issues resolved, the author may be asked to improve the quality of the work through rewriting or smaller changes, and the staff will edit the work. Publishers may maintain a house style, and staff will copy edit to ensure that the work matches the style and grammatical requirements of each market. Editors often
  • 5. choose or refine titles and headlines. Editing may also involve structural changes and requests for more information. Some publishers employ fact checkers, particularly regarding non-fiction works. When a final text is agreed upon, the next phase is design. This may include artwork being commissioned or confirmation of layout. In publishing, the word "art" also indicates photographs. Depending on the number of photographs required by the work, photographs may also be licensed from photo libraries. For those works that are particularly rich in illustrations the publisher may contract a picture researcher to find and licenses the photographs required for the work. The design process prepares the work for printing through processes such as typesetting, dust jacket composition, specification of paper quality, binding method and casing, and proofreading. The type of book being produced determines the amount of design required. For standard fiction titles, design is usually restricted to typography and cover design. For books containing illustrations or images, design takes on a much larger role in laying out how the page looks, how chapters begin and end, colours, typography, cover design and ancillary materials such as posters, catalogue images and other sales materials. Non-fiction illustrated titles are the most design intensive books, requiring extensive use of images and illustrations, captions, typography and a deep involvement and consideration of the reader experience. The activities of typesetting, page layout, the production of negatives, plates from the negatives and, for hardbacks, and the preparation of brasses for the spine legend and imprint are now all computerized. Prepress computerization evolved mainly in about the last twenty years of the 20th century. If the work is to be distributed electronically, the final files are saved as formats appropriate to the target operating systems of the hardware used for reading. These may include PDF files. The sales and marketing stage is closely intertwined with the editorial process. As front cover images are produced or chapters are edited, sales people may start talking about the book with their customers to build early interest. Publishing companies often produce advanced information sheets that may be sent to customers or overseas publishers to gauge possible sales. As early interest is measured, this information feeds back through the editorial process and may affect the formatting of the book and the strategy employed to sell it. For example, if interest from foreign publishers is high, co-publishing deals may be established whereby publishers share
  • 6. printing costs in producing large print runs thereby lowering the per-unit cost of the books. Conversely, if initial feedback is not strong, the print-run of the book may be reduced, the marketing budget cut or, in some cases, the book is dropped from publication altogether. After the end of editing and design work the printing phase begins. The first step involves the production of a pre-press proof, which the printers send for final checking and sign-off by the publisher. This proof shows the book precisely as it will appear once printed and represents the final opportunity for the publisher to find and correct any errors. Some printing companies use electronic proofs rather than printed proofs. Once the publisher has approved the proofs, printing—the physical production of the printed work—begins. A new printing process has emerged as printing on demand. The book is written, edited, and designed as usual, but it is not printed until the publisher receives an order for the book from a customer. This procedure ensures low costs for storage, and reduces the likelihood of printing more books than will be sold. In the case of books, binding follows upon the printing process. It involves folding the printed sheets, "securing them together, affixing boards or sides thereto, and covering the whole with leather or other materials‖. The final stage in publication involves making the product available to the public, usually by offering it for sale. In previous centuries, authors frequently also acted as their own editor, printer, and bookseller, but these functions have generally become separated. Once a book, newspaper, or other publication is printed, the publisher may use a variety of channels to distribute it. Books are most commonly sold through booksellers and through other retailers. Newspapers and magazines are typically sold in advance directly by the publisher to subscribers, and then distributed either through the postal system or by newspaper carriers. Periodicals are also frequently sold through newsagents and vending machines. Within the book industry, printers often fly some copies of the finished book to publishers as sample copies to aid sales or to be sent out for pre-release reviews. The remaining books often travel from the printing facility via sea freight. Accordingly, the delay between the approval of the pre-press proof and the arrival of books in a warehouse, much less in a retail store, can take some months. For books that tie into movie release-dates (particularly for children's films), publishers will arrange books to arrive in store up to two months prior to the movie release in order to build interest in the movie. Derided in the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica as "a purely commercial affair" that cared
  • 7. more about profits than about literary quality, publishing is fundamentally a business, with a need for the expenses of creating, producing, and distributing a book or other publication not to exceed the income derived from its sale. Publishing is now a major industry with the largest companies Reed Elsevier and Pearson PLC having global publishing operations. The publisher usually controls the advertising and other marketing tasks, but may subcontract various aspects of the process to specialist publisher marketing agencies. In many companies, editing, proofreading, layout, design and other aspects of the production process are done by freelancers. Dedicated in-house salespeople are sometimes replaced by companies who specialize in sales to bookshops, wholesalers and chain stores for a fee. This trend is accelerating as retail book chains and supermarkets have centralized their buying. If the entire process up to the stage of printing is handled by an outside company or individuals, and then sold to the publishing company, it is known as book packaging. This is a common strategy between smaller publishers in different territorial markets where the company that first buys the intellectual property rights then sells a package to other publishers and gains an immediate return on capital invested. Indeed, the first publisher will often print sufficient copies for all markets and thereby get the maximum quantity efficiency on the print run for all. Some businesses maximize their profit margins through vertical integration; book publishing is not one of them. Although newspaper and magazine companies still often own printing presses and binderies, book publishers rarely do. Similarly, the trade usually sells the finished products through a distributor who stores and distributes the publisher's wares for a percentage fee or sells on a sale or return basis. The advent of the Internet has provided the electronic way of book distribution without the need of physical printing, physical delivery and storage of books. This therefore poses an interesting question that challenges publishers, distributors and retailers. The question pertains to the role and importance the publishing houses have in the overall publishing process. It is a common practice that the author, the original creator of the work, signs the contract awarding him or her only around 10% of the proceeds of the book.[7] Such contract leaves 90% of the book proceeds to the publishing houses and distribution companies. However, within the electronic book path the publishing house role is reduced to the proofreading. This raises the question of how reasonable is the practice that leaves them much higher percentage of proceeds
  • 8. than to the authors. In 2005, Amazon.com announced its purchase of Book surge and self-publishing, a major print on demand operation. This is probably intended as a preliminary move towards establishing an Amazon imprint. One of the largest bookseller chains, Barnes & Noble, already runs its own successful imprint with both new titles and classics — hardback editions of out-of-print former best sellers. Similarly, Ingram Industries, parent company of Ingram Book Group (a leading US book wholesaler), now includes its own print-on-demand division called Lightning Source. Among publishers, Simon & Schuster recently announced that it will start selling its backlist titles directly to consumers through its website. Book clubs are almost entirely direct-to-retail, and niche publishers pursue a mixed strategy to sell through all available outlets — their output is insignificant to the major booksellers, so lost revenue poses no threat to the traditional symbiotic relationships between the four activities of printing, publishing, distribution and retail. Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of literature, music, or information — the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning: originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver and display the content for the same. Also, the word publisher can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or imprint or to a person who owns a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books (the "book trade") and newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources, such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as micropublishing, websites, blogs, video game publishers and the like. Publishing includes the stages of the development, acquisition, copy-editing, graphic design, production – printing (and its electronic equivalents), and marketing and distribution of newspapers, magazines, books, literary works, musical works, software and other works dealing with information, including the electronic media.(c) Publication is also important as a legal concept: As the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy, as the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation; that is, the alleged libel must have been
  • 9. published, and For copyright purposes, where there is a difference in the protection of published and unpublished works. There are three different categories in which publication house can be divided: Non-Paid Publishers: The term non-paid publisher refers to those publication houses which do not charge author at all to publish the book. Semi-Paid Publishers: Publication houses that charge partially the author in order to meet the expenses of the book. Author has full right to claim 50% of the copies printed in case author has met with the burden of paying 50% of the total amount to get the books published. Paid Publishers: These days paid publication has become very common, here the author has to meet with the total expense to get the book published and author has full right to set up marketing policies. Book and magazine publishers spend a lot of their time buying or commissioning copy; newspaper publishers, by contrast, usually hire their own staff to produce copy, although they may also employ freelance journalists, called stringers. At a small press, it is possible to survive by relying entirely on commissioned material. But as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publisher's established circle of writers. For works written independently of the publisher, writers often first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher. Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, and the majority come from previously unpublished authors. If the publisher accepts unsolicited manuscripts, then the manuscript is placed in the slush pile, which publisher's readers sift through to identify manuscripts of sufficient quality or revenue potential to be referred to acquisitions editors for review. The acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. The time and number of people involved in the process is dependent on the size of the publishing company, with larger companies having more degrees of assessment between unsolicited submission and publication. Unsolicited submissions have a very low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers ultimately choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive.[1] Many book publishing companies around the world maintain a strict "no unsolicited submissions" policy and will only accept submissions via a literary agent. This shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publishing company and onto the literary agents. At these companies, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, if the author has provided pre-paid postage.
  • 10. Established authors are often represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and negotiate contracts. Literary agents take a percentage of author earnings (varying between 10 to 15 per cent) to pay for their services. Some writers follow a non-standard route to publication. For example, this may include bloggers who have attracted large readerships producing a book based on their websites, books based on Internet memes, instant "celebrities" such as Joe the Plumber, retiring sports figures and in general anyone whom a publisher feels could produce a marketable book. Such books often employ the services of a ghostwriter. For a submission to reach publication it must be championed by an editor or publisher who must work to convince other staff of the need to publish a particular title. An editor who discovers or champions a book that subsequently becomes a best-seller may find their own reputation enhanced as a result of their success. Once a work is accepted, commissioning editors negotiate the purchase of intellectual property rights and agree on royalty rates. The authors of traditional printed materials typically sell exclusive territorial intellectual property rights that match the list of countries in which distribution is proposed (i.e. the rights match the legal systems under which copyright protections can be enforced). In the case of books, the publisher and writer must also agree on the intended formats of publication — mass-market paperback, "trade" paperback and hardback is the most common options. The situation is slightly more complex, if electronic formatting is to be used. Where distribution is to be by CD-ROM or other physical media, there is no reason to treat this form differently from a paper format, and a national copyright is an acceptable approach. But the possibility of Internet download without the ability to restrict physical distribution within national boundaries presents legal problems that are usually solved by selling language or translation rights rather than national rights. Thus, Internet access across the European Union is relatively open because of the laws forbidding discrimination based on nationality, but the fact of publication in, say, France, limits the target market to those who read French. Having agreed on the scope of the publication and the formats, the parties in a book agreement must then agree on royalty rates, the percentage of the gross retail price that will be paid to the author, and the advance payment. This is difficult because the publisher must estimate the potential sales in each market and balance projected revenue against production costs.
  • 11. Royalties usually range between 10–12% of recommended retail price. An advance is usually 1/3 of first print run total royalties. For example, if a book has a print run of 5000 copies and will be sold at $14.95 and the author is to receive 10% royalties, the total sum payable to the author if all copies are sold is $7475 (10% x $14.95 x 5000). The advance in this instance would roughly be $2490. Advances vary greatly between books, with established authors commanding large advances. Although listed as distinct stages, parts of these occur concurrently. As editing of text progresses, front cover design and initial layout takes place and sales and marketing of the book begins. A decision is taken to publish a work, and the technical legal issues resolved, the author may be asked to improve the quality of the work through rewriting or smaller changes, and the staff will edit the work. Publishers may maintain a house style, and staff will copy edit to ensure that the work matches the style and grammatical requirements of each market. Editors often choose or refine titles and headlines. Editing may also involve structural changes and requests for more information. Some publishers employ fact checkers, particularly regarding non-fiction works. When a final text is agreed upon, the next phase is design. This may include artwork being commissioned or confirmation of layout. In publishing, the word "art" also indicates photographs. Depending on the number of photographs required by the work, photographs may also be licensed from photo libraries. For those works that are particularly rich in illustrations the publisher may contract a picture researcher to find and licenses the photographs required for the work. The design process prepares the work for printing through processes such as typesetting, dust jacket composition, specification of paper quality, binding method and casing, and proofreading. The type of book being produced determines the amount of design required. For standard fiction titles, design is usually restricted to typography and cover design. For books containing illustrations or images, design takes on a much larger role in laying out how the page looks, how chapters begin and end, colors, typography, cover design and ancillary materials such as posters, catalogue images and other sales materials. Non-fiction illustrated titles are the most design intensive books, requiring extensive use of images and illustrations, captions, typography and a deep involvement and consideration of the reader experience.
  • 12. The activities of typesetting, page layout, the production of negatives, plates from the negatives and, for hardbacks, and the preparation of brasses for the spine legend and imprint are now all computerized. Prepress computerization evolved mainly in about the last twenty years of the 20th century. If the work is to be distributed electronically, the final files are saved as formats appropriate to the target operating systems of the hardware used for reading. These may include PDF files. The sales and marketing stage is closely intertwined with the editorial process. As front cover images are produced or chapters are edited, sales people may start talking about the book with their customers to build early interest. Publishing companies often produce advanced information sheets that may be sent to customers or overseas publishers to gauge possible sales. As early interest is measured, this information feeds back through the editorial process and may affect the formatting of the book and the strategy employed to sell it. For example, if interest from foreign publishers is high, co-publishing deals may be established whereby publishers share printing costs in producing large print runs thereby lowering the per-unit cost of the books. Conversely, if initial feedback is not strong, the print-run of the book may be reduced, the marketing budget cut or, in some cases, the book is dropped from publication altogether. After the end of editing and design work the printing phase begins. The first step involves the production of a pre-press proof, which the printers send for final checking and sign-off by the publisher. This proof shows the book precisely as it will appear once printed and represents the final opportunity for the publisher to find and correct any errors. Some printing companies use electronic proofs rather than printed proofs. Once the publisher has approved the proofs, printing—the physical production of the printed work—begins. A new printing process has emerged as printing on demand. The book is written, edited, and designed as usual, but it is not printed until the publisher receives an order for the book from a customer. This procedure ensures low costs for storage, and reduces the likelihood of printing more books than will be sold. In the case of books, binding follows upon the printing process. It involves folding the printed sheets, "securing them together, affixing boards or sides thereto, and covering the whole with leather or other materials". The final stage in publication involves making the product available to the public, usually by offering it for sale. In previous centuries, authors frequently also acted as their own editor,
  • 13. printer, and bookseller, but these functions have generally become separated. Once a book, newspaper, or other publication is printed, the publisher may use a variety of channels to distribute it. Books are most commonly sold through booksellers and through other retailers. Newspapers and magazines are typically sold in advance directly by the publisher to subscribers, and then distributed either through the postal system or by newspaper carriers. Periodicals are also frequently sold through newsagents and vending machines. Within the book industry, printers often fly some copies of the finished book to publishers as sample copies to aid sales or to be sent out for pre-release reviews. The remaining books often travel from the printing facility via sea freight. Accordingly, the delay between the approval of the pre-press proof and the arrival of books in a warehouse, much less in a retail store, can take some months. For books that tie into movie release-dates (particularly for children's films), publishers will arrange books to arrive in store up to two months prior to the movie release in order to build interest in the movie. Derided in the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica as "a purely commercial affair" that cared more about profits than about literary quality, publishing is fundamentally a business, with a need for the expenses of creating, producing, and distributing a book or other publication not to exceed the income derived from its sale. Publishing is now a major industry with the largest companies Reed Elsevier and Pearson PLC having global publishing operations. The publisher usually controls the advertising and other marketing tasks, but may subcontract various aspects of the process to specialist publisher marketing agencies. In many companies, editing, proofreading, layout, design and other aspects of the production process are done by freelancers. Dedicated in-house salespeople are sometimes replaced by companies who specialize in sales to bookshops, wholesalers and chain stores for a fee. This trend is accelerating as retail book chains and supermarkets have centralized their buying. If the entire process up to the stage of printing is handled by an outside company or individuals, and then sold to the publishing company, it is known as book packaging. This is a common strategy between smaller publishers in different territorial markets where the company that first buys the intellectual property rights then sells a package to other publishers and gains an immediate return on capital invested. Indeed, the first publisher will often print sufficient copies for all markets and thereby get the maximum quantity efficiency on the print run for all.
  • 14. Some businesses maximize their profit margins through vertical integration; book publishing is not one of them. Although newspaper and magazine companies still often own printing presses and binderies, book publishers rarely do. Similarly, the trade usually sells the finished products through a distributor who stores and distributes the publisher's wares for a percentage fee or sells on a sale or return basis. The advent of the Internet has provided the electronic way of book distribution without the need of physical printing, physical delivery and storage of books. This therefore poses an interesting question that challenges publishers, distributors and retailers. The question pertains to the role and importance the publishing houses have in the overall publishing process. It is a common practice that the author, the original creator of the work, signs the contract awarding him or her only around 10% of the proceeds of the book. Such contract leaves 90% of the book proceeds to the publishing houses and distribution companies. However, within the electronic book path the publishing house role is reduced to the proofreading. This raises the question of how reasonable is the practice that leaves them much higher percentage of proceeds than to the authors. In 2005, Amazon.com announced its purchase of Book surge and self-publishing, a major print on demand operation. This is probably intended as a preliminary move towards establishing an Amazon imprint. One of the largest bookseller chains, Barnes & Noble, already runs its own successful imprint with both new titles and classics — hardback editions of out-of-print former best sellers. Similarly, Ingram Industries, parent company of Ingram Book Group (a leading US book wholesaler), now includes its own print-on-demand division called Lightning Source. Among publishers, Simon & Schuster recently announced that it will start selling its backlist titles directly to consumers through its website. Book clubs are almost entirely direct-to-retail, and niche publishers pursue a mixed strategy to sell through all available outlets — their output is insignificant to the major booksellers, so lost revenue poses no threat to the traditional symbiotic relationships between the four activities of printing, publishing, distribution and retail. Vast expansion of human communication is profoundly influencing culture everywhere.Information revolution had made the information process speedy and rapid, news and information can be sent in a flash to any corner of the world. When printing press was not invented that time newspapers were published in hand written shape. Today in this age of
  • 15. information technology the use of computer is the part media industry (Print, Broadcast, Electronic and Advertising Agency, News Agency and Films). Composing, printing, animation, diagrams, audio, video visuals, large data storage and centralized newspapers, magazines publishing is only possible through this advance system. Online newspaper editions are also possible through this rapid technology. For years, publishers of newspapers, magazine and other print products have been fascinated with the idea of delivering information electronically. In contrast to conventional printing on paper, delivery by computer and other means seemed to offer several benefit both the producer and consumer. Information is disseminated to readers much more quickly than it could in printed publication. The bulk of information in a daily newspaper is at least 12 hour old; articles in a monthly magazine are often written three or four months before they are published. During the next decade, publications turned to several other means of delivering information electronically. Some hooked up with online services such as CompuServe and America. Other experimented with fax editions and computer bulletin boards. The evolution of internet journalism begins in 1995. The Year the web Exploded in 1995, electronic delivery came to age. At of 1993, 20 newspapers worldwide - and a few magazines and newsletters – were published electronically, mostly on online services such as prodigy and CompuServe. During 1994, the number of online newspaper reached to thousands. At this relationship between the journalist and the technical means of gathering and reporting information emerges, we see a new breed of communicator, the techno journalist. In reporting, working and thinking, the journalist of the future will be different from those of today. Photo setting was made possible by the computer but it owed its utilization to the web-offset printing process. The continuance of hot metal typesetting and page make – upheld been unchallenged because it suited the plate making process used in letterpress printing. The plate makers shared the same hot metal and foundry facilities as the line casters which were located usually on the same floor moreover metal plates I heavy relief had always been regarded on the only way type could be transferred successfully to newsprint by means of the high speed rotary presses used to print modern newspapers. Thus newspapers that the new plates were considerably lighter than the 18 kg conventional stereotype metal plate. A disadvantage was that, while the durability and cheap running of the rotary presses had been married to the cost-saving of cold type technology, plate-making time had been considerably increased and edition schedules upset by the extra procedures needed to convert
  • 16. pasted-up pages into metal printing plates. This was alleviated when the development of tougher polymer in the early 1980s, enabled traditional rotary presses to be used for direct printing from polymer plates derived from pasted-up pages. Page facsimile transmission is a technique whereby made-up pages can be photographed and transmitted from the main production centre to satellite printing plants within the circulation area so that the printing operation can be carried out simultaneously at several centers. The page photographs digitized by means of scanners so that the data is compatible for sending by microwave, for short distances, or by broadband telephone lines or earth satellite for longer distances. The signal is encoded by a special receiver at the other plant and is made into a page transparency. This is fed into a plate-maker which produces a polymer printing plate identical to the one being used in the main centre. The average transmission time is about three and a half minutes. This makes it an attractive proposition in countries, especially in the Third Word, in which the use of satellite printing centers can be the answer to communication and distribution problems. In Britain, to help in efficient distribution, a number of provincial and national newspapers, including The Guardian, Daily Mirror, Daily Star, the Sun and News of the World, are using page facsimile transmission for all or part of their production outside London, while The Financial Times and the Wall Street Journal circulate internationally on the same day by this means. The used of computerized systems has meant the down of the electronic newsroom, with news editors checking reporters , files on the screen, sending back stories where coverage is not sufficient or has failed in some way, and routing stories to the copy-taster and the subeditors as they become ready.Electronic copy-tasting, in which the taster reads from the screen, is necessary one direct input of copy is adopted – when reporters and correspondents type their stories directly on to a VDU instead of a typewriter, or when their telephoned copy is likewise entered into the computer by the telephone copy-takers. Once such copy has been cleared by the newsroom it can be recalled from its queue‗in the computer for tasting and, after that, for page planning and editing. Electronic copy-tasting is made easier not only by the taster being able to call up stories at a stroke, but by being able to call up the complete directory‗ of stories held in a given queue (i.e. newsroom, agency, sport, etc.) which gives the source, name and catch-line and the first few lines of each story, and also its length. The different stages which computerized technology has reached in the various production centers has resulted in news agencies – the principal suppliers of news copy in any country – having to maintain a variety of services to
  • 17. satisfy all their subscribers. With direct input of copy into the computer the subeditor the advantage of electronic aids in editing. As with copy tasting, the ease of operation is greatest where everything comes through the computer, rather than with come sub Subeditors who have become familiar with screen editing do not usually like to go back to subbing hard copy. Stories can be checked for length by relating the word count and number of line given in the screen header‘ to the space allocated on the page layout. Fact and word pruning are then carried out as with hard copy subediting. The difference is that the use of the cursor, or electronic pen, on screen enables deletions and alterations to be make faster than by bull pen, while at the same time resulting in instantly clean copy without the scribbles, scorings and connecting lines that characterize hard copy subbing. After each change or alteration the text automatically rearranges itself on the screen. Split screen, on which two stories are displayed side by side, can be used when working on copy from another source. Deleted material may be also left in the computer in note form from which it can be reactivated and brought back into the text, if needed, by a simple command stroke. With electronic editing, copy is capable of almost endless reworking and revising as it is with any word processor-while at the same time finishing up clean and ready for typesetting. Moreover, after a story has been checked and cut to fit it can be scrolled back for re- reading on the screen and any late alterations made with greater ease than would be the case with already heavily subbed hard copy. Modern systems have facility for delivering print-out proofs after the H & J stage showing the story as it will look when typeset. These are useful if the story needs to be taken away-for telephone checking, stay. In fact, many newspaper offices make little use of the facility once direct input has transferred the whole editing operation into the computer. Nor is the print-out proof needed to increase the distribution of a story within the editorial department since it is now possible to generate carbon copies of a story within the system. This means that it can not only be read by one person versions for use in different papers fed from the system bing still having to be done on hard copy. Newsroom computers chapter the keystrokes of reporters and editors, eliminating the need for keyboarding that took place in the good old day when reporters wrote on manual typewriters. Without computers, newspapers would have to hire people to fill all those positions eliminated in the computer revolution. Computers make it possible for reporters to cover stories that were simply impossible to write in simpler times. It would take several reporters several lifetimes to
  • 18. do the data analysis to done on computers. All electronic editing systems are built around computers. Newspapers quite commonly use a computer to handle ad billings, subscription lists and payrolls as well as news stories. Larger papers are more likely to have separate computer for the news operation. You can think of the computer as a big file. Before you can get something out, something has to go in. Input is handled in a variety of ways. Here are the four main ways: Direct keyboarding-you type on a VDT hooked up to the computer, Scanner copy-reporters type scanner copy and run it through the optical character recognition (OCR) machine. This machine reads copy electronically and puts it directly into the computer, Computer-to-computer hookups- the wire services send material to your computer at great speed; you hear nothing, but you get notes on what is in the system, Paper tape-human operators called tape punchers read your typewritten copy and from it make a perforated tape that can be used to set type directly or to feed a story into the computer. Because it requires extra work, including a second keyboarding of the story, this system is being sup planted by other methods. Newspaper publishers are increasingly distributing their editorial and advertising material over several delivery channels, primarily a combination of print and Internet. More specifically, they are re-purposing content from the printed editions in various secondary electronic editions, notably on the Web. The channels reviewed include CD/DVD-ROM, Web, webcasting, PDA, TabletPC, e- mail, SMS, PDF, WAP, RSS, and Wi-Fi. These channels are the ways news is published in the United States beyond the traditional paper publication that has traditionally defined a newspaper. It is important to note that these channels do not represent different categories of technology but simply various methods for publishing news. These channels can be grouped according to various characteristics (static-changeable, interactive, non-interactive, etc.). We employ the concept of push versus pull orientation. A channel is defined as push oriented when ―forced‖ upon the end user without a specific request from him. On the other hand a channel is pull oriented when the end user makes a deliberate action to access the information The oldest and most widely used publication channel is print. Print is limited to a certain field of applications. For instance, printed products take a rather long time to produce. The process from planning the product until publication is long and, in many cases, complex. This makes topical information—information that changes quickly— less suited for print. Print offers the ability to communicate one-to-many, but not in real time. The possibility of communication
  • 19. between two individuals is limited to personal columns and classified advertisements; with no privacy .Print has been facing competition from other information channels, such as radio and television, for half a century. During the last decade of the past century new competitors to print have emerged. CD/DVD-ROM: CD and DVD ROMS are considered to be an alternative publishing channel best suited for reference information. The main advantage of this electronic medium over print is the functional capabilities it can include. Usually, information in CDs and DVDs is structured in a form of a database that offers searching functions .With the right programming it is also possible to include short descriptions of items, metadata, that the search engine can use to find information, an option that is very restricted in print. The information can be presented as a multimedia presentation with text, images, animations, sound, and video and can even include links to web sources. Today many print publications are accompanied by a CD/DVD ROM. Although topical information is best suited for an on-line publishing channel, restrictions in bandwidth and the absence of reliable standardised pay systems still make publishers use CD/DVD-ROMs. The Web, or World Wide Web, can be described as a mixture of a CD/DVD-ROM and a broadcast medium. Its main advantage over other publishing channels is its ability to send information over great distances, and its potential for continuous updating (Negroponte 1995). Spreading information on the Web does not require any physical transportation, which is preferable from both an economic and an environmental point of view. Pull oriented-information is very suitable for publishing in a Web publishing channel (Sabelström 1998). Even topical information benefits from being published online, but the options for ―pushing‖ information— sending it to subscribers—is still not very well developed. Push information requires a push publishing channel. Today a number of push technologies and push software are available on the Web, and one of them seems to have the potential to convert the publishing channel to push oriented publishing. This technology, RSS, is described later in this section. The Internet technology that is most like traditional broadcast technology is streaming. Streaming allows a broadcast station to use the Internet as a secondary mode of transmission— webcasting (Ju-Yong Ha al. 2003, 155). By compressing the digital signal and enabling the user‘s computer to decode and play the signal almost immediately, Web sites can provide video and audio content in quality similar to television and radio. The technology is almost ready for
  • 20. quality broadcasts over the Internet. Internet users can today view live or on-demand programs from more than 50 TV stations and networks (Ju-Yong Ha et al. 2003, 155). According to the Arbitron New Media study on Internet listening, released June 1999 at the Streaming Media East Conference in New York, 27% of all U.S. Internet users have listened to radio via the Web (Atwood 1999, 82). In the last decade a new generation of electronic devices has emerged, PDAs (personal digital assistants). These devices are light and portable, and they include small screens that support true color. They also offer wireless connections through the mobile-phone network. Thus PDAs represent a mobile distribution channel that resembles the Web channel to some extent. However, because these devices have small screens and a limited storage capacity, publishers can provide only a small portion of the content from in their printed editions, typically headlines and abbreviated stories without graphics, typographic embellishment, or advertisements. Today many newspapers worldwide offer a PDA version of their publication. More people download the PDA version of the Wall Street Journal each day than log on to its Web site (Budde 2001). Tablet PCs are pen-based portable computers that include a wireless connection to the Internet (Molina 1998; Fidler 1998). The screen orientation and the mobility (light weight, wireless connection) are the main advantages of the tablet PC when compared to other computers. Publishers tried distributing tablet PC versions of their newspapers that exploited the portrait format (that resembles the format of the paper edition). Thus readers of the paper edition could easily adapt to an online version that came very close to the paper edition, while retaining all (or most of) the features of the Web. In 2002 and 2003 Kent State University‘s Institute for Cyber information worked with the Los Angeles Times and Adobe Systems Inc. to design a newspaper template specifically aimed at Tablet PC users. The Kent format was intended to allow newspapers to retain their brand identity while integrating the dynamics of the Web (Duran 2003), making them visually and typographically consistent from device to device (Wearden et al. 2001). They also afforded advertisers a more print-like environment where advertisements in a variety of sizes and shapes are juxtaposed on pages with editorial content. A newspaper edition designed for Tablet PCs was expected to combine the convenience and familiarity of a newspaper with the storage, searching, and communications of computer files (Rosenberg 2002). Unfortunately Tablet PCs were not successful. The devices were expensive and the publishers were reluctant to spend money on a new format (Duran 2003).
  • 21. E-mail is the oldest and one of the most widely used Internet services. When it was invented (more than 40 years ago) it included only simple text. Eventually e-mail was enriched and now it can include graphics and all kinds of files. There remain size limitations, but those limitations are based on the e-mail server and not the technology itself. Newspapers use e-mail to alert their readers about breaking news, relay the headlines of the main stories (with links to the entire articles included in an online version of the newspaper), or send them the entire edition in a PDF file (Schiff 2003). SMS (short message service) or text messaging is a service offered by network providers that allows customers to send text messages over their mobile phones. Each message can contain up to 160 alphanumeric characters. About the only thing that differs from carrier to carrier are price and the kind of device a customer will use. SMS has been a staple of the information diet just about everywhere mobile phones have penetrated markets. Many newspaper worldwide use SMS to send their readers main headlines or to alert them about breaking news (Gilmor 2004). PDF (portable document format) is a proprietary product of Adobe. PDF files are completely portable and platform-independent. They are also highly compressed, enabling rapid transmission over medium-bandwidth communication lines or easy distribution of many pages in CD/DVDs. PDF documents is searchable, important capability especially after documents are archived. Many third-party tools allow PDF files to be searched for specific text strings. PDF even has features for interactive document use. Hyperlinks can be added to move from page to page with ease. That is the reason why many newspapers have used this format to deliver exact copies of their printed edition. Since many newspapers already use the PDF format in the post- production process, this alternative channel is very easily implemented with minimum cost (Avraam et al. 2005, 1523). WAP (wireless application protocol) is a secure specification that allows users to access information instantly via handheld wireless devices such as mobile phones, pagers, two-way radios, smart phones (wireless telephone sets with special computer-enabled features), and communicators (Van der Heijden et al. 2000). Some newspapers are offering WAP editions that usually include the headlines and a short summary of each article. RSS (the initials may stand for ―really simple syndication‖ or another phrase—they have not been standardized) is a set of formats for pushing information on the Web. RSS automatically delivers selected data into the user's computer at prescribed intervals or based on
  • 22. some event (Käpylä et al. 1998). It ‖feeds‖ (distributes or syndicates) news or other Web content from an online publisher to Web users. Wi-Fi is a technology standard that allows mobile devices, such as laptop computers and PDAs, to connect to nearby wireless local area network access points. Newspapers have created ―hotspots‖—wireless local area access points—for downloading special versions of their printed editions, or users can find other public Wi-Fi sites, often in cafes. Of course newspaper publishers continue to experiment with new approaches to the age- old problem of putting the story in front of the reader. In the digital world, some of these solutions imitate the printed edition‘s layout, and others reflow all content into optimised layouts or build hybrids that try to keep the best of both methods (Edwards 2002). Electronic publishing is form of publishing where books, journals and magazines are stored and produced electronically and not printed out. These publications have the same level of quality as the normal publishing. For example, the colours, graphics and images are much convenient. It‘s the process for production of typeset quality documents containing text, graphics, pictures, tables, equation etc. it is used to define the production of any that is digitized form. Electronic Publishing = Electronic technology + Computer technology + communication technology + publishing Electronic publishing is defined as the application by publishers of a computer aided process, by which they find, capture, shape, store and update information content in order to disseminate it to a chosen audience. There are many forms of E-publishing for instance, one of them are the Electronic Book or also known as E-book. A book is our everyday common document to meet the academic needs of user community. To achieve a quick publishing and dissemination of information, publish a book electronically. A book may not have contemporary value that a journal has but is an archival and reference value. Encyclopedias do exist in CD-ROM. It is said that the internet is not a satisfactory platform for publishing full text of documents but CD-ROM is suitable medium for publishing books. Book length e-text is also available on Floppy Disc and CD-ROM. However, distribution by floppy disc is decreasing because of the popularity growth of CD-ROM. Most CD-ROM is public exposed works including encyclopedias. By using the E- publishing language on internet like SGML presented and published attractively with graphic effects especially for specific documents.
  • 23. On the other hand, Electronic periodicals are accessible to all users regardless of geographic locations. It is available anywhere in the world with services and the computer software and online journals can be accessed by browser services by anyone in the world. This accessibility will lead to a more diverse audience throughout the world as well as readership that may include not only academics but also students. This media is a way of scientific communications and purely a product of scientific research. These include electronic journals, newsletters, magazines and discussion lists. E-publishing has received more study than areas of E-journals. As they are adapted to scholarly research. These are very useful source of information for Academic Library System (A.L.S). Other than that, due to the growth of computers and communication technologies, the strength of academic information system in the up-bringing if modern database has taken a new form. The library database which contains books, periodicals and reports can be changed to electronic form that allows access for public use through the internet. The Online Electronic Library Card Catalogue (OPAC) tells us how the information could be published which enables users to search desired documents with several types of access points like author, title or subjects. Many electronic database publishers these days account for publishing information both bibliographic and full text on a CD-ROMs and also enabling them for download. The basic online publishers include DIALOG, BRS and EBSCO host etc. A good example of electronically published database, the ERIC (Educational Resource Information Centre) database is the biggest education database in the world that consists of up to 800,000 records per year. ERIC is available CD-ROM format and also online where it is free of charge. In the meantime, there is new way of publishing via CD-ROM. CD-ROM has given a new look for information storage and retrieval. Publishing information by extracting sources is quiet common in CD-ROM. Although much of the work on e-journals has concentrated on distribution via the World Wide Web, there have been some advantages on CD-ROM as well. The advantages of using the CD-ROM is that more materials can be stored, in terms of quantity which is 650+MB and type of multimedia and also text base searching is relatively easy to include. Another one new way is POD, which is a method for printing books. It‘s a combination of electronic and print publishing. The book is held by the publisher in electronic form and is
  • 24. printed out in hard copy form. This method aids the free publishers from the process if doing a traditional print run of books at a time. This technology involves complicated laser printing systems and electronically formatted text that the printers can understand. This technology is currently very much in a high price and the NYT (New York Times) recently reported that Lightning Source, Inc., a leading provider of e-book fulfilment, charges publishers over $4.00 per book and which $4.00 is a higher cost per unit than that of small print run. The price should come down if publishers and retailers purchase the technology. POD is a good intermediary step between the regular method if printing paper books and electronic books. However, due to the POD‘s requirements of paper and is not cheap, its popularity would suggest consumers to become comfortable with electronic reading software and e-book reading device. This refers to the electronic delivery of fiction that is shorter than book-length, notification and other short written works. Publishers of digital content deliver shorter sized works to the consumer via download to handheld and other wireless devices. Adobes PDF, XML, HDML, WAP (wireless application protocol) are the technologies used for delivering digital content. Publishers usually are wary of the data security that is being transferred. Publishers are concerned that their data might be copied by a third party to be used as their own product for sale. The new and futuristic technology is the Electronic Ink. It is a technology that could leave a huge impact on the media and publishing industries. Electronic Ink could be used to create a newspaper or book that can update itself. Furthermore, this content with electronic ink could be programmed to update anytime from time to time. For instance, billboards that could change images every few seconds according to the settings or you could have a ticket voucher received via e-mail that frequently updates to its latest offers. As for media companies, the possibilities are almost endless. Someday, our daily newspapers can update its content to the latest news every day. In email publishing, that is designed for delivering regular content-based email messages. Email or newsletter publishing is a popular choice among readers who enjoy receiving news items, articles and short newsletters in their inbox. The ease of sending and receiving newsletters has led to the development of massive number of available email newsletters, mailing lists, and discussion list on a wide range of topics. Many publishers or authors publish their latest works to inform their fans about their latest works or upcoming books and book signings.
  • 25. One of the few many advantages of E-publishing is that electronic publishers are able to provide quick gratifications for late-night readers, books that customers may not be able to obtain from their local book store and books by new authors that would be unlikely to be profitable for traditional publishers. One of the biggest catch of E-publishing is the cost usage which is extremely low compared to printing and writing down on a piece of paper. Other than that, it can be stored safely and can be easily maintained from time to time. It is most suitable for publications like journals, research reports and newsletters. In this case, it is also suitable for information which is constantly changing from time to time. E-publishing also got good ratings for academics in online publishing educational books or tutorials. With an increase of distance in learning programmes, the requirements for outstanding educational materials are on the rise. - (http://crl.du.ac.in/ical09/papers/index_files/ical-117_142_311_2_RV.pdf) Information technology also had influence the music industry. Some musician or singer composed a song to gain money. To gain money from the song that had been created, the singer must find way on how to make the song well-known. There are many ways that now a day singer use for to make their song famous. The most effective way to make it happen is by using information technology. Information technology and publishing are two elements that are perfectly matched to make a song become famous. Music publishing has been an important part entertainment industry since the early twentieth century. Songwriter‘s contract with music publishing companies to exploit their songs, with both parties sharing the income generated from the songs. Before the introduction of musical recordings, songwriters and publishers earned their income primarily from the sale of sheet music. In the modern era, songs can be commercially exploited in many types of media, including recordings, radio, television, film, and video. Music publishers are powerful intermediaries between songwriters and recording companies. Typically, a music publisher demands copyright ownership from the songwriter, along with half of the royalties. A publisher may make a large cash advance to a popular or promising songwriter, but often the advance is minimal. In return, the publisher seeks to place the songwriter's compositions with performers who will make a recording. In addition, a publisher will try to place songs in films, television shows, and advertisements. If the songwriter is also a performer, the publisher will assist the artist in obtaining a recording contract. The publisher also assumes the responsibility of collecting royalties and giving the songwriter his
  • 26. share. Publishing income comes from various sources, but it is separate from income derived from retail sales of recordings. Income from recording sales flows to the owner of the recording. Usually the record company. This then pays a contractually negotiated recording royalty to the performer. The owner of the recording separately pays the publisher of the recorded compositions a mechanical royalty for the right to record, copy, and distribute copies of the composition. These royalties are called mechanical royalties because the license is for mechanical recording and reproduction of the composition. Under copyright law, a publisher is required to grant a mechanical license to anyone wishing to record a composition that has previously been recorded and released commercially. This is called a compulsory license, and the minimum rate that must be paid to the publisher for such a license is set by Congress at a few cents for each copy made of a recording of the composition. Normally, however, a record label that wishes to record a publisher's composition will negotiate a private license with the publisher rather than follow the strict accounting and reporting rules that accompany recording under a compulsory license. Because of this situation, the statutory compulsory license rate has become the effective ceiling rate for recording a composition, because no one need pay more than the rate set by law. A lucrative part of music publishing involves performance royalties. Performance royalties are paid when a song is played on the radio or television, used by businesses for background music, or used by clubs for dance music or by bands performing at a club. A popular song can earn thousands and sometimes millions of dollars through the collection of performance royalties. However, it would be too demanding for a publisher to sign performance licenses with every club, radio station, and business office that might use a particular song. Instead publishers and songwriters register with a performing rights organization (PRO) to collect fees on their behalf. The three PROs in the United States are the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP), Broadcast Music Inc. (BMI), and the Society of European State Authors and Composers (SESAC). The PROs negotiate blanket licenses with all who use music for profit. Such fees can range from less than one hundred dollars for a small business using music to enhance its business environment, to hundreds of thousands of dollars or millions of dollars for large-scale broadcasting entities. The PROs then monitor radio and television broadcasts, and then using a complex statistical model, they pay publishers and songwriters
  • 27. based on projected actual uses of a song. When a composition is registered with a PRO, the registrant informs the PRO what percentages of royalties are to be paid to the publisher and songwriter. The PRO issues separate payments to the publisher and to the songwriter (or song- writers). A particular songwriter may only be registered with one PRO at a given time to avoid confusion as to which PRO is responsible for collecting performance royalties on the song- writer's behalf. The use of blanket licenses allows an artist to perform compositions written by another songwriter without first requesting the songwriter's permission. As opposed to mechanical licenses, there is no statutory rate for the use of a song in films and television advertisements (synchronization licenses), in radio advertisements (transcription licenses), or for sale as sheet music (print licenses). These fees are negotiated separately between the user and the music publisher. The licensee pays the entire fee to the publisher, who then pays the songwriter's share to the songwriter. Recording artists who feel that the publishers have cheated them out of part of their royalties often take the publishers to court. High-profile artists have sued, claiming that their celebrity and marketability has not given them leverage against the music industry. The pop star Michael Jackson, who was wildly successful in the 1980s, launched a lawsuit against Universal Music Group (UMG) in 2003 claiming that UMG owed him millions of dollars in royalties from music he recorded (alone and with his brothers) that was released after 1980. In September a judge in Los Angeles threw out part of Jackson's lawsuit. Jackson had given up his rights to all songs released before 1979 in a deal with the music publisher Motown (which was later bought by UMG). Jackson attempted to cancel the 1980 agreement with Motown as part of his suit, but the judge ruled that there was no justification to cancel the agreement; consequently, all pre-1980 tunes were removed from the suit. Musicians also sue each other for copyright infringement. In the case of Three Boys Music Corporation v. Bolton, 212 F.3d 477 (9th Cir. 2000), a jury awarded rhythm-and-blues group the Isley Brothers $5.4 million in a lawsuit against the singer-songwriter Michael Bolton and his co-writer. The Isley Brothers maintained that Bolton and Goldmark's 1991 song Love is a Wonderful Thing was substantially similar to their song of the same name, released in 1966.
  • 28. While Bolton and Goldmark contended that they had not deliberately copied the song, the jury felt they were similar enough to prove the Isleys' case. The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the verdict. Since the 1960s, many popular musical performers have written their own musical compositions. Some of these artists choose to "self-publish," forgoing relationships with publishers and thus retaining full ownership and control of their copyrights. These artists are more often songwriters whose compositions are so unique that they are not likely to be recorded by other performers. Therefore, this type of artist will receive little benefit from an outside publisher's marketing efforts. However, because the music industry's royalty structure assumes that publishing income will be paid to a publisher, a self-published artist often will set up her own publishing company under an assumed name to receive publishing income. A self-published artist will frequently hire an accounting firm to handle specific administrative functions such as royalty collection, for a much smaller fee than a full-service music publisher would demand. In the early 2000s, the advent of music-sharing over the internet has begun to change the face of the recording industry. With file-sharing software such as Napster and KaZaA, individuals can trade favorite songs and down-load them to their computers. The recording industry began retaliating with a series of lawsuits, as did individual artists such as the rapper Dr. Dre and the heavy metal band Metallica. Although the creators of file-sharing software have made efforts to comply with copyright laws and work with music publishers, the computer has made music piracy a significant issue. The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) went on the offensive in the summer of 2003 with a series of legal actions. It filed 261 lawsuits against individuals who allegedly downloaded and shared music illegally. Since some of those named were children and others were adults who claimed their grandchildren had downloaded the music, it was widely believed that the move was more to make a point than to go after ordinary citizens. The RIAA also went after colleges and universities, a huge market for file-sharing, and a number of colleges have begun to crack down on illegal music sharing. This situation has raised issues of privacy (should a college be required to report a student caught downloading pirated music, or does the student have the right to anonymity, for example), and as technology continues to become more sophisticated the issue will undoubtedly need to be explored carefully and continuously. (http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3437703009.html).
  • 29. These, song will be published in several format in the internet, such as, audio, digital music sheet. There are ways to publish the song. To publish a song through a publisher, you need to define your genre and stick to it. Since publishers look for new material based on genre, it's better for you to focus your songwriting in a single genre; you can also cross over to other genres later. Second, create a demo. After that, Submit your music to publishers directly. Search the databases of ascap.com, bmi.com, sesac.com, in the U.S.A. or the performing rights organization in your country. Look for song titles and writers in your genre, find out who publishes them, and research how you can submit your songs. Another way to find publishers is to pick up Billboard Magazine, look up songs on the Hot 100, R&B or Country charts in your genre, and see the accompanying list of publishers. Call the publisher to confirm who you should send your music to, and in what format. Network within the music industry. This is so important that if you don't live in or near a city where people can make a living writing songs (a 'music centre') then you should seriously consider moving. You mustattend industry functions. Hang out wherever the 'movers and shakers' in your industry and genre hang out.Go to songwriter nights Join relevant associations. Be assertive yet polite when meeting key people in the industry; remember that they are probably bombarded by pushy starving artists every. Co-write songs with both published and unpublished artists. You never know when someone you've worked with will introduce you to their publisher, now or later. When you're offered a publishing contract, get a lawyer. Here are some factors to consider when deciding whether or not to sign with a particular publisher. First, how quickly can the publisher pay? Does the publisher have an international network to collect money abroad via sub-publishing agreements or via membership of overseas collection societies? How is publishing income split with songwriting partners or other members of the band? Straighten this out from the start so you don't battle it out later in court. If the person who signed you leaves the company, are there others who are as enthusiastic about your music as they were who can pick up where they left off? Does the publisher specialize in your genre? Can the publisher pay an advance? Do you prefer a large or small publisher? Music publishers generally make their income only when the writers have made theirs. Therefore it is mostly music publishers that belong to major record labels that pay advance to staff writers unless you are a songwriter with major credits to have the power to negotiate for receiving an advance. Advances are therefore recoupable upon the income generated by the song/s published. Most independent music publishers would market your song for free until the song generates income for both the
  • 30. writer/s and publisher. Songwriter's should not expect music publishers to pay them just for taking their songs on board. Songwriters are paid when the song generates income or advance is paid when there are good indications that the song will generate income. Besides advertising you song through a publisher, there is another way on how to publish your own song on the internet, which is known as self-publishing. To do so, you need to, Record your songs onto CDs and sell them at shows, through your website, or and/or through a third-party website. Optional: Make your songs available for downloading (at whatever cost you deems appropriate). You can do this through your own website or through a third-party website. A simple personal site doesn't present many difficulties, however, if you would like to create something more refined, like establish an online store - that would demand more knowledge and efforts. At some of the platforms you can sell not only sheet music but also the rights for its performance. Next, Register with a performance rights organization (PRO). This is essential so if airplay and other public uses of your music occur, you can get paid. To full fill this, you are advised to pick a name for your publishing company. This is what checks will be made out to. Register with BMI or ASCAP (in the US) as a publisher. Register as a musician as well as for whichever organization you choose. ASCAP has a $35 non-refundable fee for applying as a musician or a publisher. BMI will charge a $150 non-refundable processing fee to register as a publisher (or $250 if you are incorporated). ASCAP has a more flexible agreement. Once the name is approved, file a DBA (Doing Business As) application at a bank. This is done so you can cash checks made out to your publishing company. Finally, register each of your songs. (http://www.wikihow.com/Publish-Your-Music) It is not about publishing your song by a publisher or self-publishing, but it is all about how the information technology has improves the publicity of the music and entertainment industry, the musician can gain their profit faster and more than ever. The way the information technology has changes the publicity of music and entertainments are, it makes the advertisement become real and interesting due to the ability of the internet to download the song. Second, it makes the transaction between the singer and the fans faster. As we all know, publishing is the process of production and dissemination of information and its make works available to the public. Books, magazines, film and video are some example of products that produce by publishing. For the person who published products are called publisher. In the other word, publisher can be referring to the person who leads a publishing
  • 31. company or to a person who owns a magazine. Publishing can make income. Do you know the way to get income from publishing? We can make publishing as a business. Today‘s business environment is no longer limited to the city or the state in which the business is located.It often extends to an entire nation or even the entire world. The function of business includes production, marketing and sales, accounting and finance, and building information systems. Besides it is useful to the public for getting information, the publisher can get their income from it. Today, publishing become a part of business because it gained large of profits from its sale. Furthermore, it also becomes the major industry in the world because many of largest companies are having publishing operations. Publisher published their product and then sent them at the storage where the place that their product will be sells. Besides that, they are also controls in the advertising and other marketing tasks. There a few types of publishing such as newspaper publishing, book publishing and academic publishing. Newspapers publishing scheduled publications the present of recent news. Most of them are sold by subscribers. In United States, there are about one-third of publisher are newspaper publisher. Newspaper usually containing information of education, sports, business and entertainment. In Malaysia, the most popular newspaper is ‗The New Strait Times‘ because this newspaper content a lots of information and also can improve our English languages. For book publisher, it is mostly published by a small number of large book publishers but thousand of smaller book publisher exist. In addition, many authors have created their own publishing companies. For academic publishing, it can be either book or periodical publisher that have specialized in academics subjects. Some of business is only focus on academic subjects. Today, publishing academic, journal and textbooks is a major part of an international industry because they are mainly used for student and public as a guideline and reference. With the advent of information technology, the process of publishing hasimproved because it has provided the electronic way of products distribution. This exclude the used of physical printing, physical delivery and storage of the products. For example, many people now used their smart phones or the other electronic devices to publish their product. They usually used special computer software or program to publish their products. Besides that, The World Wide Web (WWW), or Web are the application used service on the Internet. Publisher commonly used it for business or marketing. They published Web sites that contain content that promotes or sell products. Mostly every enterprise has a business Web site. They also allowed the public or
  • 32. customer to purchase their products or service online. This modern way enables the publisher to open their business with the small use of money. Amazon.com is an example of Web site that open business via online. In 2005, this web site have announced it purchase a print on demand operation. But now, they offers a variety of products such as books, toys, clothing and the other items to get more income and benefits. Movies have been with us since the year 1877, according to an ehow.com writer, Alan Donahue. He stated that the earliest forms of movie making over a bet to whether a horse lifted all four of its legs up to the air while it was running. In order to do this, a photographer named Eadward Muybridge uses a camera to capture pictures of a running horse fast. Then, Jean Lousi Meissonier who‘s a painter put the pictures captured into a spinning disc where they could view them frame by frame to create moving pictures. Nowadays, instead of putting the pictures captured to a spinning disc, we have tons of hi- tech gadgets to create epic movies. Basic gadgets that we need to create a movie is obviously a camera and a computer to create a video, a simple video editing software and some basic knowledge about filming. Releasing films these days is not something rare for all of us as IT had been more and more advanced. Statistic shows that the number of films published is increasing in a great number every year. This is enough to prove that movies released each year increased because of IT Publishing is defined by thefreedictionary.com as to prepare and issue for public or to bring to the public attention meanwhile according to Shelly Cashman, the writer of Discovering Computers-Fundamentals: Your Interactive Guide to the Digital world, described publishing as the process of makimh works available to the public. The Computer Dictionary, tenth edition, written by Bryan Pfaffenberger states that Information Technology is a generic term for all aspect of computer, networking, and information systems technology. Information Technology plays an important role in film making. In the film industries, there are inevitable technological advances necessary to keep the attraction of the public. The professionals work hard to create a film with best graphic effects, sounds and visual recordings that all individuals see how we have evolved to present day Information Technology and digital technology. According to the article 'The Rise of Technology and Film throughout the Twentieth Century.‘ Information technology is a main issue of the film making industries from the times of
  • 33. Charlie Chaplin's silent films to today's modern computer animated films such as Transformers, Iron Man, Man of Steel, Harry Potter and many more with computer animated effects. In addition, there has been a system of changes in computers, smartphones, and video enhancement which has propelled vast amounts of Information knowledge to public at the speed of lightning. Simple software such as windows movie maker could even helps an individual to create a simple video. Meanwhile, in the filming industries, there are even more advance software in order to create effects either sound or visually. Film nowadays was not always as it is today because of the digital sounds and graphic pictures enhancement of George Lucas's THX digital sound in the late 1970 to enhance audience audience's perceptions. Sound was the first discovered in 1928 and the first film going experience and it allows each person to color their own views of what they see and presents either directly or indirectly society's moral values. The main factor of innovation because it provides visions, at which point to the future but do not disregard the attempts of innovation in the past. Such inventions are Industrial Light and Magic's development of special effects like motion-control camera's which alter the audience's perceptions and create more unique and realistic setting to enhance the imagination. Filming industries often uses Computer Generated Imagery or as known as, CGI for almost two decades. In the area of movies and films CGI has become an essential tool for film publishers to bring their vision to the screen , be it by creating computer generated characters, props, sets or just simplifying the process of image and sound editing. This helps the process of film making faster and more efficient in the post production phase, offering an unprecedented level of freedom and quality. According to Wikipedia, CGI is the application of computer graphics to create and contribute to images in art, printed media, video games, films, television programs commercial and simulators, the visual scenes maybe static and maybe 2D. Through the term "CGI" is most commonly used to refer to 3D computer graphics used for creating scenes or special effects in films. They can be used by a home user and edited together via Windows Movie Maker or iMovie. To create CGI and 3D animation graphics need some special kind of software product. As graphics software become even more user-friendly and intuitive, the process of creating CGI started to resemble its real world counterparts, like painting, sculpting, photography and film making. For example, computer animation requires the same steps of real world film making
  • 34. with the addition of modelingsets, props and characters first. Bringing the mass of digital clay into shape to form a convincing character is the initial step. Then cameras, lights and other entities are arranged in the virtual space, and animated if stop-motion animation, although many other ways of animating virtual objects and character. The last step is called ' rendering' and describes the process of collecting all information of the scene and light setup to process and output the final image through the lens of a virtual camera, either in the form of still frames, or a series of frames which create the illusion of movement. We all knew that the first movie is the 'silent movie'. As years pasts, Sounds were generated into the film, making it even more interesting with sound effects. Until today, sounds play an important part of a movie to create an epic and happening movie where as sounds establishes mood, build suspense and adds realism. In animated film, sound if often used to differentiate between a cute cartoon and a convincing digital reality. The sound editor is responsible for everything we hear during a movie. The job is sometimes called sound design because the editor is essentially creating an ''aural landscape'' from scratch. They'll be editing the sounds via sound editor software. The sounds edited will be inserted into the film to make it even more interesting and realistic. The publishing of film throughout the years has been increased gradually since it is easier and faster to create film these days. In addition the number of income of a filming company increases due to increase of viewers around the world as the film or movie is getting even more interesting.
  • 35. References http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3437703009.html http://crl.du.ac.in/ical09/papers/index_files/ical-117_142_311_2_RV.pdf en.wikipedia.org/wiki/publishing http://www.e now.com/m/about4588784-history-movie-making.html

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