4. intergumentary

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4. intergumentary

  1. 1. Integumentary System S.S.MOORTHY SEMENCHALAM M.Sc. Comm Health (Occ Health) UKM B.HSc. Nursing (Aust) Dip Med Sc. (Moh) Jan,08HSC1004-8/S1
  2. 2. Learning OutcomesAfter completing this system, students should be able to:i. Identify the functions of skinii. List the layers of epidermis and cells that compose themiii. State the composition of papillary & reticular layers of dermisiv. Discuss the structure & functions of skin appendages (hair, glands and nail) Jan,08HSC1004-8/S2
  3. 3. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM • consists of skin & its accessory structures (inc. glands, hair & nails) • SKIN - cutaneous membrane - covers external surface of body - largest organ Jan,08HSC1004-8/S3
  4. 4. SKIN FUNCTIONS• protection - against invasion of microorganisms, water loss and dehydration.• defense - contains macrophages, lymph nodes and other structures which identify pathogens and provide first line of defense against them.• sensation - the skin contains sense organs for light touch, pressure, temperature, and pain. Jan,08HSC1004-8/S4
  5. 5. Cont.• secretion - the skin secretes the precursor to Vitamin D (this is then activated by processing in the liver and kidney), and melanin.• thermoregulation - by diverting blood into or away from the skin the body can release or conserve heat.• excretion – small amount of waste are lost through the skin Jan,08HSC1004-8/S5
  6. 6. STRUCTURE OF THE SKIN Jan,08HSC1004-8/S6
  7. 7. The layers/ strata of the skin…. EPIDERMIS  superficial  thinner portion of epithelial tissue DERMIS connective tissue  deeper, thicker SUBCUTANEOUS LAYER adipose & areolar tissue Jan,08HSC1004-8/S7
  8. 8. SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE Jan,08HSC1004-8/S8
  9. 9. EPIDERMIS - contains 4 principal types of cell  Keratinocytes  Melanocytes  Langerhan’s cells  Merkel cells Jan,08HSC1004-8/S9
  10. 10.  Keratinocytes• arranged in 4-5 layers• 90% of epidermal cells• Produce:(i) Protein keratin (tough, fibrous) - protection(ii) Lamellar granules - water-repellant sealant Jan,08HSC1004-8/S10
  11. 11.  Melanocytes• Produce melanin (brown-black pigment); contributes to skin color• Everyone have same number• shield DNA from being damaged by UV Jan,08HSC1004-8/S11
  12. 12.  Langerhan’s cells• Originate from bone marrow• Participate in immune response• Site of invasion of HIV Jan,08HSC1004-8/S12
  13. 13.  Merkel Cells • Least numerous • Deepest layer • Associated with Merkel (tactile) disc Jan,08HSC1004-8/S13
  14. 14. EPIDERMIS: STRATA stratum basale (germinativum) stratum spinosum (prickly layer) stratum granulosum (granular) stratum lucidum (clear layer) stratum corneum (horny layer) Jan,08HSC1004-8/S14
  15. 15.  Stratum basale• deepest layer• single row of cuboidal/ columnar of actively dividing keratinocytes• melanocytes, Langerhan’s cells & Merkel cells Stratum spinosum• 8- 10 layers of keratinocytes• projections of melanocytes & langerhan’s cells Jan,08HSC1004-8/S15
  16. 16.  Stratum granulosum • 3-5 layers of flattened keratinocytes that undergo apoptosis • degeneration of nuclei and organelles** apoptosis- genetically programmed cell death Jan,08HSC1004-8/S16
  17. 17.  Stratum lucidum present only in skin of fingertips, palms & soles 3-5 rows of clear, flat, dead keratinocytes  Stratum corneum• 25-30 rows of dead, flat keratinocytes• continously shed & replaced by cells of deeperlayer• protection against abrasion and penetration Jan,08HSC1004-8/S17
  18. 18. Jan,08HSC1004-8/S18
  19. 19. DERMIS• connective tissue; collagen & elastics fibers• 2 layers  Papillary layer - superficial portion (1/5) - loose fibers - contains dermal palpillae that house capillaries, corpuscles of touch & free nerve endings  Reticular layer - deeper portion (4/5) - dense connective tissue - spaces between fibers; adipose cells, hair follicles, nerves, sebaceous glands Jan,08 HSC1004-8/S19
  20. 20. SUBCUTANEOUS LAYER• Subcutaneous tissue• Deep to dermis• Storage depot for fat• Anchors skin to underlying tissue• Blood vessels & nerves ending: Pacinian corpuscle (sensitive to pressure) Jan,08HSC1004-8/S20
  21. 21. SKIN COLOR• 3 pigments(i) Melanin (pale-yellow-tan-black)(ii) Carotene (yellow-orange) - Precursor of Vit. A - Subcutaneous & fatty area(iii) Hemoglobin (red) - O2-carrying pigment Jan,08HSC1004-8/S21
  22. 22. Melanin • different skin color due to amount of pigment produce • freckles: accumulation of melanin • > UV exposure, > melanin production, > protective against UV radiation Jan,08HSC1004-8/S22
  23. 23. APPENDAGES OF SKIN  Hair  Nail  Glands  Sweat glands  Sebaceous glands Jan,08HSC1004-8/S23
  24. 24. HairFunctions:• warmth• protection (scalp injury, sun)• shield from foreign particles (e.g. eyelashes)• filters (nostrils) Jan,08HSC1004-8/S24
  25. 25. Structure of the hair• Shaft – project from surface• Root- embedded in dermis• Bulb- base of root; enclosed in hair follicle; associated with arrector pili muscle Jan,08 HSC1004-8/S25
  26. 26. Structure of the hair Jan,08HSC1004-8/S26
  27. 27. Free edge (extend past Nails distal end)Nail body  plates of tightly,(visible portion) packed, hard, keratinized epidermal Lunula cells  clear, solid coveringEponychium over dorsal of fingers(cuticle) Nail-root (portion;  Protection from buried in skin fold) trauma  “Tools”- to grasp and manipulate Jan,08 HSC1004-8/S27
  28. 28. Sweat (Sudoriferous) glands • everywhere; except nipples & external genitilia • types: a. Eccrine sweat glands b. Apocrine sweat glands c. Ceruminous glands d. Mammary glands Jan,08HSC1004-8/S28
  29. 29. Eccrine sweat glands• abundant, with odorless secretion• most numerous (palms, soles, forehead), originate in subcutaneous layer• produce sweat (99% water)• excrete salts, vitamin C, antibodies, metabolic wastes, lactic acid• thermoregulation (lower body temperature)• autonomic nervous system Jan,08HSC1004-8/S29
  30. 30. Apocrine sweat glands  less numerous, secretions that develop odors  axillary, groin  ducts empty into hair follicles  true sweat and fatty acids  viscous, milky, bacteria food  active during puberty  sympathetic nervous system (pain, stress) Jan,08HSC1004-8/S30
  31. 31. Ceruminous glands• modified apocrine glands• secrete cerumen (ear wax)• external auditory canal Mammary glands ■ modified sweat glands ■ secrete milk ■ breast Jan,08HSC1004-8/S31
  32. 32. Sebaceous (oil) glands• groups of specialized epithelial cells• secrete oil or sebum• everywhere, except palms & soles• usually secrete into hair follicles• lubricates hair and skin - softens dead cells (pliability) - slows water loss - bactericidal• stimulated by hormones (androgens) Jan,08 HSC1004-8/S32
  33. 33. Wound healing events that repairs the skin to its normal (or near-normal) structure & function 2 kinds (depending on depth of injury): - EPIDERMAL wound healing - affects only epidermis - DEEP wound healing - penetrates dermis Jan,08HSC1004-8/S33
  34. 34. Scar formation- fibrosis • Hyperthropic scar - scar elevated above normal epidermal surface; but within boundaries of original wound • Keloid scar - extend beyond boundaries into the normal surrounding tissue Jan,08HSC1004-8/S34
  35. 35. Jan,08HSC1004-8/S35
  36. 36. Differences between scar and normal skin tissue • Collagen fibers more densely arranged in scar tissue • Less blood vessel, unequal number of hairs, skin gland & sensory structure • More lighter in color (due to arrangement of collagen & scarcity of blood vessel) Jan,08HSC1004-8/S36
  37. 37. Thank you…. Questions please!! Jan,08HSC1004-8/S37

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