TEACHING READING
REALLY IS
ROCKET SCIENCE.
IT IS AN
ENORMOUSLYCOMPLEX ACT.
Donald N. Langenberg, Chair
National Reading Pa...
Speaking and listening come first.
But learning to read is, without
question, the top priority in elementary
education.
Bo...
“Yes, parents may have the greatest
impact on how their children come to
us. But we have the greatest impact
on how they l...
High Home
Support

Low Home
Support

Consistent High Quality
Classroom Support Instruction

100%

100%

Mixed Classroom Su...
The Simple View of Reading

R = D x C
(Phil Gough)
Fluency
Word Recognition & Comprehension
What are the Essential Components?






Phonemic Awareness
Phonics
Th
Vocabulary development F F a e
iv b
e!
Reading...


Classroom organization



Matching pupils and texts



Access to interesting texts, choice, and
collaboration



Wri...
What are the Major Findings?











Most children need explicit instruction in decoding and
comprehension.
While...
Chall’s Stages of Reading Development
Changing Emphasis of Big Ideas
K

1

2

3

Phonological
Awareness
Alphabetic
Principle

Letter Sounds
& Combinations

Mult...
The Effects of Weaknesses in Oral Language
on Reading Growth/Academic Achievement
Reading Age Level

16

High Oral Languag...
Children must become accurate
readers as a first step toward
becoming fluent readers.
An accurate, fluent reader will
read more.
The Failure Cycle
Percentage of youngsters in
the school who can read
grade level material

The Reading Gap
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%...
Importance of Independent Reading
100%

Percentile Rank

80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
0.0

1.0

4.3

9.2
Minutes Per Day

16.9

33.4...
Importance of Independent Reading
Minutes/Day
Percentile Rank

(Books, Magazines,
Newspapers)

Words/Year

98th

67.3

4,7...
Reading rate is strongly correlated
with comprehension.
Reading rate (fluency) is causally
related to reading comprehension.
Reading rate is correlated with many
other student characteristics that also
influence reading comprehension.
Vocabulary =...
How much fluency (rate) is enough to
facilitate good reading comprehension?

1 st

DIBELS
Norms
45 wpm

H & T
Norms
43 wpm...
Oral Reading Fluency Goals
Grades 1 – 2
Grades 3 – 5

2-3 words per week
1½-2 words per week
The role of vocabulary becomes
increasingly important as students
progress in school.
Kindergarten vocabulary (PPVT) is closely related
to later reading comprehension
End of Grade One -- .45
End of Grade Four...
Comprehensive Vocabulary
Development
1.

Wide reading

2. Direct teaching of important words
3. Teaching word learning str...
Magic Number

=

1,000,000 words
read per year

For a child who reads 15-200 words per minute,
reading 20 minutes per day ...
Tier One:
 The most basic words
 Rarely require instruction in school
 Examples: happy, bed, school
Tier Two:
 High-frequency words for mature
language users
 Instruction adds productivity to an
individual’s language abi...
Tier Three:
 Words whose frequency of use is
quite low, often limited to specific
domains
 Best learned when needed in a...
Prior Knowledge . . .
Better than I.Q. for predicting success
on inferential comprehension.
Types of Prior Knowledge


Topic knowledge



Text structure and organization



Vocabulary
The punter kicked the ball.
The baby kicked the ball.
The golfer kicked the ball.
How did the ball change?
Mary Lou’s heart was pounding as
she stood on the highest portion of the
platform, flanked by a Japanese and a
Rumanian. T...
Today’s Cricket
The batsmen were merciless against the
bowlers. The bowlers placed their men in
slips and covers, but to n...
Proficient comprehension of text is
influenced by:


Accurate and fluent word reading skills



Oral language skills


...
Three Major Strategies to Teach
Comprehension
1.

Reading a lot

2.

Strategic reading

3.

Deep discussions about
books o...
Two Approaches
1.

Competent reader strategies

2. Text structure strategies
The Big Five


Predict and Infer



Self-Question



Monitor and Clarify



Evaluate and Determine Importance



Summ...
Narrative Structure (Story Grammar)
Expository (Informational) Structure
The effectiveness of instruction
in comprehension strategies
depends critically on how they are
taught, supported, and pra...
1.

An explicit description of the strategy and when and
how it should be used.

2.

Teacher and/or student modeling of th...
Engaged Readers


Meaningful conceptual content in reading instruction
increases motivation for reading and text
comprehe...
Reading may07 rauscher
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Reading may07 rauscher

  1. 1. TEACHING READING REALLY IS ROCKET SCIENCE. IT IS AN ENORMOUSLYCOMPLEX ACT. Donald N. Langenberg, Chair National Reading Panel Chancellor, University of Maryland
  2. 2. Speaking and listening come first. But learning to read is, without question, the top priority in elementary education. Boyer, 1995, p.69
  3. 3. “Yes, parents may have the greatest impact on how their children come to us. But we have the greatest impact on how they leave us.” Superintendent, North Carolina
  4. 4. High Home Support Low Home Support Consistent High Quality Classroom Support Instruction 100% 100% Mixed Classroom Support 100% 25% Consistent Low Classroom Support 60% 0%
  5. 5. The Simple View of Reading R = D x C (Phil Gough)
  6. 6. Fluency Word Recognition & Comprehension
  7. 7. What are the Essential Components?      Phonemic Awareness Phonics Th Vocabulary development F F a e iv b e! Reading fluency Reading comprehension
  8. 8.  Classroom organization  Matching pupils and texts  Access to interesting texts, choice, and collaboration  Writing and reading
  9. 9. What are the Major Findings?       Most children need explicit instruction in decoding and comprehension. While fluency isn’t sufficient for comprehension, it is absolutely necessary for good comprehension. Assessment and instruction are inextricably linked. Writing, spelling, and reading are highly related, especially in the early stages of learning to read. Children should spend more time independently reading and writing. Children not reaching benchmarks benefit from daily intensive instruction.
  10. 10. Chall’s Stages of Reading Development
  11. 11. Changing Emphasis of Big Ideas K 1 2 3 Phonological Awareness Alphabetic Principle Letter Sounds & Combinations Multisyllables Automaticity and Fluency with the Code Vocabulary Listening Reading Comprehension Listening Reading
  12. 12. The Effects of Weaknesses in Oral Language on Reading Growth/Academic Achievement Reading Age Level 16 High Oral Language in Kindergarten 15 14 13 5.2 years difference 12 11 10 Low Oral Language in Kindergarten 9 8 7 6 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Chronological Age 16 (Hirsch, 1996)
  13. 13. Children must become accurate readers as a first step toward becoming fluent readers.
  14. 14. An accurate, fluent reader will read more.
  15. 15. The Failure Cycle
  16. 16. Percentage of youngsters in the school who can read grade level material The Reading Gap 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Target The Reading Gap Actual PreK K 1 2 3 4 Target: 85-90% of students can handle grade level material. Actual: Where schools say they are. The difference between the Target and Actual levels is the Reading Gap that can only be closed by comprehensive literacy strategies at the school level. 5
  17. 17. Importance of Independent Reading 100% Percentile Rank 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 0.0 1.0 4.3 9.2 Minutes Per Day 16.9 33.4 76.3
  18. 18. Importance of Independent Reading Minutes/Day Percentile Rank (Books, Magazines, Newspapers) Words/Year 98th 67.3 4,733,000 90th 33.4 2,357,000 70th 16.9 1,168,000 50th 9.2 601,000 30th 4.3 251,000 10th 1.0 51,000 2nd 0.0 --
  19. 19. Reading rate is strongly correlated with comprehension.
  20. 20. Reading rate (fluency) is causally related to reading comprehension.
  21. 21. Reading rate is correlated with many other student characteristics that also influence reading comprehension. Vocabulary = .99 % F/R Lunch = .97 % Minority = .97 % ELL = .96
  22. 22. How much fluency (rate) is enough to facilitate good reading comprehension? 1 st DIBELS Norms 45 wpm H & T Norms 43 wpm Aimsweb Norms 45 wpm 2 nd 91 wpm 79 wpm 85 wpm 3 rd 110 wpm 96 wpm 102 wpm
  23. 23. Oral Reading Fluency Goals Grades 1 – 2 Grades 3 – 5 2-3 words per week 1½-2 words per week
  24. 24. The role of vocabulary becomes increasingly important as students progress in school.
  25. 25. Kindergarten vocabulary (PPVT) is closely related to later reading comprehension End of Grade One -- .45 End of Grade Four -- .62 End of Grade Seven -- .69 The relationship of vocabulary to reading comprehension gets stronger as texts become more complex. (Snow, 2002)
  26. 26. Comprehensive Vocabulary Development 1. Wide reading 2. Direct teaching of important words 3. Teaching word learning strategies 4. Fostering word consciousness
  27. 27. Magic Number = 1,000,000 words read per year For a child who reads 15-200 words per minute, reading 20 minutes per day will yield 1,000,000 words read in a year. Anticipated vocabulary growth: 1,000 – 4,000 new words learned
  28. 28. Tier One:  The most basic words  Rarely require instruction in school  Examples: happy, bed, school
  29. 29. Tier Two:  High-frequency words for mature language users  Instruction adds productivity to an individual’s language ability  Examples: coincidence, absurd, industrious
  30. 30. Tier Three:  Words whose frequency of use is quite low, often limited to specific domains  Best learned when needed in a content area  Examples: isotope, lathe, peninsula
  31. 31. Prior Knowledge . . . Better than I.Q. for predicting success on inferential comprehension.
  32. 32. Types of Prior Knowledge  Topic knowledge  Text structure and organization  Vocabulary
  33. 33. The punter kicked the ball. The baby kicked the ball. The golfer kicked the ball. How did the ball change?
  34. 34. Mary Lou’s heart was pounding as she stood on the highest portion of the platform, flanked by a Japanese and a Rumanian. The last two years had been worth it!
  35. 35. Today’s Cricket The batsmen were merciless against the bowlers. The bowlers placed their men in slips and covers, but to no avail. The batsmen hit one foul after another with an occasional six. Not once did a ball look like it would hit their stumps or be caught.
  36. 36. Proficient comprehension of text is influenced by:  Accurate and fluent word reading skills  Oral language skills  Extent of conceptual and factual knowledge    Knowledge and skill in use of cognitive strategies to improve comprehension or repair it when it breaks down. Reasoning and inferential skills Motivation to understand and interest in task and materials
  37. 37. Three Major Strategies to Teach Comprehension 1. Reading a lot 2. Strategic reading 3. Deep discussions about books or articles
  38. 38. Two Approaches 1. Competent reader strategies 2. Text structure strategies
  39. 39. The Big Five  Predict and Infer  Self-Question  Monitor and Clarify  Evaluate and Determine Importance  Summarize and Synthesize
  40. 40. Narrative Structure (Story Grammar) Expository (Informational) Structure
  41. 41. The effectiveness of instruction in comprehension strategies depends critically on how they are taught, supported, and practiced.
  42. 42. 1. An explicit description of the strategy and when and how it should be used. 2. Teacher and/or student modeling of the strategy in action. 3. Collaborative use of the strategy in action to construct meaning of text. 4. Guided practice using the strategy with gradual release of responsibility – scaffolding by the teacher. 5. Independent use of the strategy.
  43. 43. Engaged Readers  Meaningful conceptual content in reading instruction increases motivation for reading and text comprehension.  Giving students choices of texts, responses, or partners during instruction.  Have an abundance of interesting texts available at the right reading level for every student.  Allow students the opportunity to work collaboratively with ample opportunities for discussion, questioning, and sharing.

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