8-2. Movement in humans
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8-2. Movement in humans

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8-2. Movement in humans 8-2. Movement in humans Presentation Transcript

  • THE HUMANMUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM
  • • All body movements involve bones and muscles found in the body• The human movement system consists of the skeleton and muscles• The skeleton consists of bones• Bones are the passive movement device, because they cannot move without the help of the muscles.• The muscles are called the active movement device, because they can move the bones Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • The skeleton function1. Shape the body2. Protect vital organs3. Attach the muscles4. Produce bone marrow5. Erect the body Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • BONES• The types of bones are classified into two, namely cartilage and hard bones.1. Cartilage During the embryo stage, the skeletons of humans and vertebrates are mostly composed of cartilage In their development, the cartilage will develop into bones (hard bones) However, some cartilage does not develop into bones. The nose, earlobes, and larynx are some examples of cartilage which does not develop into bones Contains many adhesive substances, such as protein and less calcium so the cartilages are more flexible Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • There are 3 types of cartilage, namely ;a. Hyaline cartilage; is the cartilage that is composed of a similar substances. It is found in the trachea lining, the ends of the leg and arm bones, joints, and between the ribs and breastbone.b. Elastic cartilage; is flexible and found in the nose and earlobesc. Fibrous cartilage; is strong but less flexible compared to the other types of cartilage. It is found in the disks between the backbones. Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • 2. HARD BONES• The term “bones” is actually referring to the hard bones• Bones are distinguished from the cartilage based on the constituent substances.• The bones develop from cartilage, the development process of cartilage becoming bones is called ossification.• Much of the intercellular space in the bone contains calcium (calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate), some adhesive substances, and protein.• That’s why the bones are hard and not flexible. Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • • The hardening process in the bones is affected by vitamin D that increases the calcium absorption in the small intestine.• That is the reason why people who lack vitamin D have fragile bones.• The bones tissue structure ;  the outer part of the bone is covered with pliant connective tissues that called periosteum  layers of circles surround the haversian canal  inside the haversian canal there are blood vessels whose function is to provide nutrients to the bone cells, and nerves, in each layer Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • There are 2 types of bones according to thecomposing substance ;1. Compact bones possess compact composing substances, ex. Long bones2. Spongy bones possess hollow composing substances, ex. Short bones, flat bones, the ends of the long bones Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • • The outer layers are hard (compact bones) and they surround the hollow space called the marrow space.• Thus, the bones are not closely arranged, but they are hollow inside.• If bones were not hollow inside, then our body would be very heavy and would be hard to move Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • Based on their form, bones are classified into 3 categories;1. Long bones Long bones are long and round like a pipe, both ends of these bones thicken like knobs and are composed of spongy bones, and called epiphysis Between the knobs is the compact bone that is surrounded by the periosteum, and called diaphysis The middle part of long bones contains yellow marrow and fat Ex. Upper arm, thigh, toes, fingertips Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • 2. Flat bones flat bones are flat, with spongy –like hollows inside them these bones contain red marrow as the production place of red blood cells ex. Ilium bones, rib bones, breastbone, scapula, skull bones Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • 3. Short bones shorth bones are short, contain red marrow ex. Vertebrae, carpus, tarsus Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • Bone Marrow• Bone marrow fills the space inside the bones• There are 2 types of marrow ; red marrow and yellow marrow• Red marrow is where red blood cells are produced• Yellow marrow is found in the bones of adults, it is composed of a mixture of connective tissues, like fat tissues and red marrow Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • Bone Growth• Bones are living tissues that are able to grow and repair themselves.• During the formation of long bones, the cartilage develops into bones, starting from the middle part of the bones.• The process begins by the appearance of blood vessels in the cartilage and the bone cells (osteoblast) production of the bone tissue.• Ossification starts when the fetus is still inside the womb. Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • • Other types of bones develop from bone cells, the bones grow bigger and longer.• The increase in length of the bones takes place in the growing are near the end of the bones, called the epiphyseal disk Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • The Structure of Human Skeleton• The human skeleton consists of 206 bones.• The bones that contructing the skeleton consist of 3 general categories; 1. the skull, 2. body skeleton, 3. limbs. Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • Skull The Cranial bones1. Frontal bone :12. Parietal bones :23. Occipital bone :14. Temporal bones :25. Sphenoid bones :26. Ethmoid bones :2 Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • Skull The facial bones 1. Maxilla :2 2. Mandible :2 3. Palatine bones :2 4. Nasal Bones :2 5. Zygomatic bones :2 6. Lacrimal bones :2 7. Vomer bone :1Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • Body Skeleton• The body skeleton is the group of bones that forms the body.• The body skeleton is further classified into smaller groups that consist of the ; 1. Backbones 2. Sternum (breastbone) 3. Ribs 4. Shoulder girdle 5. Pelvic girdle Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • 1. Backbone 1. Cervical vertebrae : 7 2. Thoracic vertebrae : 12 3. Lumbar vertebrae : 5 4. Sacral vertebrae :5 5. Coccygeal vertebrae : 4 Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • 2. Sternum (breastbone) 1. The upper part (manubrium) :1 2. The body of the sternum (gladiolus) : 1 3. The xiphoid process : 1 Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • 3. Ribs 1. True ribs : 7 sets attached to backbone and sternum 2. False ribs : 3 sets the ends are attached to the backbone, while the front parts are attached to the ribs above 3. Floating ribs : 2 sets the ends are attached to the backbone, while the front part are floating Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • 4. Shoulder girdle • The shoulder girdle is located on the left and the right side of the body, each consist of : 1. clavicles : 2 2. scapulas : 2 • the clavicles are located at the front, and each connects the girdle with the sternum • The scapulas are located at the back and are attached to the ribs Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • 5. Pelvic girdle 1. The ilium :2 2. The pubis :2 3. The ischium :2 • The 3 bones join into one Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • The Limbs• The limbs consist of the upper limbs (arms) and the lower limbs (legs)• The upper limbs are connected to the shoulder girdle• The lower limbs are connected to the pelvic girdle Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • The bones of the upper limb consist of ; 1. Humerus :2 (upper arms) 2. Radius :2 3. Ulna :2 (lower arms) 4. Carpals :2x8 5. Metacarpals :2x5 6. Phalanges : 2 x 14 Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • The bones of the lower limbs consist of ; 1. Femurs :2 2. Patellae :2 3. Tibias :2 4. Fibulas :2 5. Tarsal bones : 2 x 7 6. Metatarsal bones : 2 x 5 7. Phalanges : 2 x 14 Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • JOINTS• The location where two or more bones are connected is called a joint.• Base on their movement ability, the joints are classified into 3 types as follows ; 1. Synarthrosis 2. Amphiarthrosis 3. Diarthrosis Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • 1. Synarthrosis• A synarthrosis is a joint which permits no movement.• The connector in this joint are connective fibers.• Ex. Joints in the skull (called sutures), in the bone connection that forms the pelvic girdle Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • 2. Amphiarthrosis• An amphiarthrosis is a joint which permits slight movement.• The connector in this joint is the cartilage tissue.• Ex. The connection between backbones , between the ribs and the breastbone. Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • 3. Diarthrosis• A diarthrosis is a joint which permits free movement.• At both ends of the bones that are connected to this joint, a space is formed containing synovial fluid.• There are 4 types of diarthrosis ; a. hinge joints b.pivot joints c. saddle joints d.ball and socket joint Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • a. Hinge joints• The hinge joints are the joints which only allow movement in one direction.• These joints are similar to a door hinge which can only open to one side• Ex. The knee and the elbow joints, the joints between the phalanges Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • b. Pivot joints• The pivot joints are the joints which allow bone to rotate around another bone.• Ex. Between the atlas and axis neckbone which enables you to turn your head. Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • c. Saddle joints• The saddle joints are the joints which resemble a saddle.• Ex. The thumb, between the metacarpal and carpal Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • d. Ball and socket joints• The ball and socket joints are the joints which enable move in all direction.• Loose joints often happen in these types of joints.• Ex. Between the humerus and the shoulder girdle, between the femur and the pelvic girdle. Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • MUSCLES• Muscles bring about the body movement, therefore the muscles are called the active movement devices.• Based on the shape and working procedures, muscles are classified into 3 types ; 1. smooth muscle 2. striated muscle 3. cardiac muscle Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • 1. Smooth muscles• Smooth muscles are also called the visceral muscles, because they are located in the visceral tracts such as digestive tracts, blood vessels, reproductory tracts, and the uterine wall.• Smooth muscles are also called involuntary muscles because they work involuntary, without the coordination from the brain.• These muscles are affected by the autonomousnerves, namely the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • The characteristics of smooth muscles are ;• The cell has one nucleus.• The cells are spindle- like with sharp ends.• The muscles work involuntary, slowly, regularly, and do not wear out easily. Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • 2. Striated muscles• Striated muscles are also called the skeletal muscles, because these muscles attach and cover the bones that form the body skeleton.• The striated or skeletal muscles are also called meat.• Skeletal muscle cells form muscle fibers.• The muscle fibers form bundles of muscles.• The bundles of muscles join to form the muscles or meat. Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • • Muscle cells  muscle fibers  muscle bundles  muscle/meat• At the end of the striated muscles are the tendons.• Tendons are the connective tissues that connect the bones and muscles.• Tendons that are attached to a moving bone are called insertions, while a tendon that are attach to a non-moving bone are called origos Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • The characteristics of striated muscles are ;• The cells have many nuclei.• The cells are cylindrical or tube-like with light and dark areas (striated). The cells are striated because of the existence of muscle proteins called actin and myosin.• Work voluntary or by the coordination from the brain. Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • 3. Cardiac muscles• The cardiac muscles are special.• The cardiac muscles have astructure similar to the striated muscles, but their working procedure is similar to the smooth muscles.• The cardiac muscles that construct the heart wall work for a human lifetime.• When we are working, taking a rest, sleeping, or even when we pass out the cardiac muscles keep on working Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • The characteristics of cardiac muscles are ;• The cells are striated with many branches, they have one nuclei located in the middle of the cells• The cardiac muscles work involuntary, but are controlled by the autonomous nerves (sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves) Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • How Muscles Work• Muscles will contract if they receive stimuli from the nerves.• Contracted muscles will appear to be bigger, shorter, and harder.• If muscles contract, the bones where the muscles are joined will be pulled by the muscles so the joints move.• In conclusion, body movement involves muscles, bones, joints, and nerves. Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • • To bend the lower arm and straighten it back, we need 2 muscles, the muscle to bend and the muscle to straighten it.• The muscles that bend the joints are called the flexors, while the muscles that straighten the joints are called extensors.• Muscles can not continuously contract, they also need relaxation.• When 2 or more muscles are involved in bone movement, they can work antagonistically or synergically. Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • a. Antagonist Muscles• Two or more muscles that work in opposition to one another are saidnto be antagonist.• ex. Biceps and triceps that found in the upper arms.• We need 2 muscles to move the lower arms up and down.• If the biceps contract, the triceps will extend so the lower arm is lifted.• On the other hand, if the triceps contract, the biceps will extend so the lower arm will extend. Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • b. Synergist Muscles• Two muscles that work in the same way, namely to contract or extend together while moving the bones, are called synergist muscles.• Ex. Pronator muscles in the lower arms.• The lower arm consists of 2 pronator muscles, the pronator teres and the pronator quadratus, that work synergistically to lift palm up or down. Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • BONE AND MUSCLE DISORDERS1. BONE DISORDERSa. Bone Fractures and Fissures usually happen because of accident If the broken bone is exposed through the skin, it is called an open fracture. If the broken bone is still inside the skin and muscles, it is called a closed fracture. Bone fractures and fissures in children are easier to cure than in adults, because children’s bones are still growing and their bones still contain much periosteum. Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • b. Rickets Rickets is the leg bones disorder, which leg bones bend into an O or X shape. This occurs due to vitamin D and calsium deficiency in food which causes imperfect bone growth and formation. Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • c. Rheumatoid Arthritis This disease can occur at any age. It is marked by hardened connective tissue that grows inside the joints. As a consequence, the bones in the joints will join so they can not be moved. Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • d. Scoliosis, Lordosis, and Kyphosis poor sitting posture can cause a bent backbone. if the backbone is curved from side to side, it is called scoliosis. if the backbone is curved too much at the front is called lordosis. if the backbone is curved too much at the back is called kyphosis. in order to prevent backbone disorders, we must sit with a correct body posture Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • Posture Comparising Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • 2. Muscle Disordersa. Cramp Cramps are caused by muscle contraction. Cramps can occur in cold weather or because the muscles are overused. Cramps can also be a symptom of water and ion imbalance in tje body. Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • b. Muscle Pain commonly among elder people. this diseases may be caused by muscle swelling in connective tissue. the swollen tissue compreses nerve endings and blood vessels. as a consequence, the blood flow is blocked and the pain appears. muscle pain usually recurs during cold weather and can be overcome by massaging the muscle and self-warming. Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • c. Polio caused by viral infection in the nerves that control the movement of the skeleton. people with polio usually become paralyzed. Polio can be prevented by polio immunization for children under the age of 5. Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • d. Sprain sprains occur in the joints and ligaments. muscles or tendons can be damaged due to a strong and sudden pull. Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High
  • Created by Alfie Msk_A Biology teacher of GIS Junior High