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Food Additives• It would be so boring if we consumedthe same kind of food every day, ifall foods taste, look, color, andsmell were just the same.• For that reason, people add someextra substances to their food, suchas chili, turmeric, salt, granulatedsugar, brown sugar, etc.• All of those additional substancesare called food additives.
Kind of food additives1. Preservatives To peserve food The substances to preserve foodnaturally are salt, sugar, and vinegar. The synthetic preservatives aresulphur dioxide, benzoate acid, sodiumbenzoate, and sodium nitrite. Other food preservation methods areheating process, freezing, canning,sterilization, and radiation.
2. Coloring To make food more desirable Some natural colorings are turmeric as a yellow coloring, screw pine leaves as a greencoloring, bilimbi’s flower, chili, and teakleaves as red coloring, carrot as a orange coloring, brown sugar and granulatedsugar as brown coloring.
There are many kinds of synthetic coloring ; quinoline yellow patent blue v brilliant blue FCF brilliant black BN sunset yellow FCF orange GCN indigo carmine(blue) tartrazine(yellow) Erythrosine (pink) Annato (red) Carmoisine (red) allura red
3. Sweeteners To make food be sweet Natural sweeteners are palm sugar,brown sugar, and cane sugar. The weaknesses of naturalsweeteners are ;- the flavor is not sweet enough- the amount is limited- they have too many calories
Synthetic sweeteners are aspartame,asesulfame, cyclamate, saccharine,sorbitol, and neotame. Synthetic sweeteners have someadvantages ;- a high level of sweetness- ability to be produced on a large-scale- low calories Side effect of synthetic sweetenerscan cause cancer.
4. Flavorings• To strengthen the natural taste offood.• The examples of natural flavoringsare salt, sugar, vinegar, onion,pepper, ginger, and galangal.• The synthetic flavorings are MSG(MonoSodium Glutamate), fruitflavors (apple, orange, pineapple,banana, etc)
5. Antioxidants• To prevent rancid• Food, which contains fat and oil willbe rancid after a certain amount oftime.• Natural antioxidants such as vit. C,vit. E, and lecithin.• Synthetic antioxidants such as BHA(Butylated HidroxyAnisole), BHT(Butylated HidroxyToluene)
6. Nutrient Supplements• To fulfill the need of particularsubstances which food is lacking.• For examples, the addition of vit. Dand calcium to milk, vit. C tobeverages and juice, vit. B1 to rice,iodine to salt to prevent goiter, etc
Organization of Food andMedicine Control• Every country usually has anorganization that control the use ofadditives in food.1. FDA (Food and Drug Administration)in US.2. EC (European Commission) in Europe.3. BPOM (Badan Pengawas Obat danMakanan) in Indonesia.
• All kinds of food, beverages, anddrugs which are about to bedistributed to the market have topass the test by the BPOM.• If the chemical content in those food,beverages, and medicines are safe tobe consumed, the BPOM will allowthe producer to put a label “DEPKESRI MD No. ...” or “BPOM RI MD No. ...” onthe food package.
• For being safe in consuming food,beverages, and medicines, notice tothese following tips ;1. See if there is label from Depkesor BPOM on the package.2. Pay attention to the expire date3. See if there is damage to thepackage, such as a leak, stain, colorchange, or bizarre smell.4. For some people, pay attention tocertain ingredients that canallergies.
Addictives and Psychotropics• Addictives are substances that cancause their user to becomeaddicted.• Addiction is a physical andpsychological condition ofsomeone that doesn’t functionproperly without consuming of aparticular substance.• If the condition happenscontinuously the user will enterthe phase of drug dependency.
• Drug dependency can be classifiedinto 2 types ;a. Physical dependencythe desire to keep consuming andadding more doses. If it is notfulfill, the user will become sick.b. Psychological dependencythe unbearable desire to consumethe drugs. If it is not fulfill, theuser will become nervous,stressed, and extremely anxious. Itis called sakau.
• In the beginning every addictive wasmade from plants.• For examples; hemp (Cannabis sativa),marijuana (Cannabis indica), opium(Papaver somniferum), cocaine(Erythroxylum coca).• The development of science, thesedays humans able to producesynthetic addictives that have thesame abilities as natural addictives.• At first, addictives were utilized formedical purposes.
The classification and Effectsof Addictives• Narcotics are classified into ;1. type I, consist of 26 varieties (rawopium, opium, cocaine, hemp, THC, andheroin)2. type II, consist of 87 varieties(morphine, opium)3. type III, consist of 14 varieties (ethylmorphine, codein)
• Psychotropics are classified into ;1. type I, consist of 26 varieties2. type II, consist of 14 varieties3. type III, consist of 9 varieties4. type IV, consist of 60 varieties
The effects of Additives• There are 3 side effects of the use ofaddictives, they are ;1. Stimulation is a symptom that happensin the central nervous system toaccelerate processes in the humanbody, such as heart rate, bloodpressure, and respiration.Substances that cause stimulation arecalled stimulants.Due to acceleration process, someonewho uses stimulants will seem health,alert, happy, fresh, and so on.Examples; caffeine in coffee, nicotine incigarettes, cocaine, and amphetamines.
2.Depression is a symptom thathapppens in the central nervoussystem to slow down processes inthe human body. Depression decreasesomeone’s awareness of the worldaround him/her.Substances that cause depression arecalled depressants.in the medical world, depressantsare employed for people withinsomnia. Examples; alcohol andsedatives.
3.Hallucination is a symptom thathappens to human nerves that leadsto fantasy. Hallucination makes aperson hear sounds, see things, andfeel something which do not exist.Hallucination can make someonelaugh by himself/herself.substances that cause hallucinationare called hallucinogen.Example; LSD (LySergic acidDiethylamide)
NARCOTICS• UU RI No. 22/1997 stated that narcoticsare all substances or material thatare made from plants, or syntheticand semi-synthetic material, whichcan decrease or change a person’sawareness, reduce pain, and causeaddiction.• Substances categorized as narcoticsare opium, hemp, cocaine, heroin,morphine, and codein.
1. Opium• Opium is made from the extraction ofraw Papaver somniferum.• Opium is changed into morphine andcodein which are needed in the medicalworld as analgesics (painkillers).• Opium also can make people fallasleep or happy (euphoric) without anyreason.• Example natural opium; morphine,codein, and thebaine.• Example semi-synthetic opium; heroin,and hydromorphone.• Example synthetic opium; meperidine,and propoxiphene.
2. Hemp• Hemp is made from Cannabis sativaleaves that contain a psychoactivesubstance (hashish), a kind of substancethat can affect someone’s mental stateand behavior.• The tree and branches of a hemp plantalso contain hashish, but in a lowcontent.• The highest content can be found in thesprout of this plant, which is ± 10%.• Hashish is produced from dried hemp’ssap.
3. Cocaine• Cocaine is a white powder made fromcoca leaves (Erythroxylum coca).• Cocaine used to be employed as alocal anesthetic.• nowadays, cocaine is no longer usedas an anesthetic because a saferpsychoactive substance has beenfound.
4. Heroin• Heroin is a variety of narcotics thatcan cause an extraordinarily happyfeeling to the user and make theuser forget all troubles that he/shehad.• Heroin is the most misusedpsychoactive substance.• The hazardous narcotics calledputauw, also contain heroin.• Consumption of a high dose of heroinwill cause death.
5. Morphine• Morphine is a natural opiode that ismade from the sap of opium fruit.• Morphine is a white crystals, almostlike cocaine, that can depress therespiration center.• In a morphine-overdose case, the userusually experience a fatal respirationfailure.• Morphine can disturb the mestruationcycle of women, cause impotency inmen, constipation, and many otherdangerous side effects.
6. Codein• Codein is a weak analgesic.• Its power is only about one-twelfthof morphine’s.• Codein is often used as an analgesic instrong cough medicine.
PSYCHOTROPICS• A psychotropics is a substance which isnot included as a narcotic or alcohol,but has abilities and effect likenarcotic and alcohol.• Examples of psychotropics areamphetamines and ecstasy.
1. Amphetamines• Amphetamines are addictivesubstances that are included as astimulant because they canaccelerate the body process throughthe central nervous system.• They are often misused as weight-reducing drugs and dope forathletes.• Frequent use of amphetamines cancause addiction.
2. Ecstasy• Ecstasy contain an amphetamine.• Ecstasy can cause a sense ofrevitalization, alertness, andstamina. However, ecstasy can makethe user suffer from dehydration, ithappens because the user does notfeel thirsty.• Frequent use of ecstasy will causememory damage and disturb thecoordination system such as themovement of the hands and feet
ALCOHOL• Alcohol is an example of adepresant.• Alcohol is chemically known asethanol whose formula is C2H5OH.• Alcohol originated from thefermentation of plants.• For example Cassava, can befermented to yield tapai and if theprocess continues it will yieldethanol.
• In a low dose, consuming alcoholwill cause euphoria or happinesswithout any reason.• In a high dose, it will cause someoneto become drunk.• In a higher dose, it will cause death.• In the medical world, alcohol is achemical substance that has animportant role, it is often used as asolvent and antiseptic.
CIGARETTES• We already know that UU RI No.22/1997 only controls the use ofnarcotics and psychotropics.• Other addictives such as cigarettes,caffeines, gasolines, thinners, andadhesives are not controlled indetail.• However, those substances are alsodangerous, so that we need to knowthe uses and the effect.
• A cigarette is a roll of tobacco thatcontains a psychoactive compoundcalled nicotine.• The tobacco in cigarettes has beenadded with addictives such as clove,incense, and other kinds of organicssubstances.• Cigarette smoke is very dangerousfor human health.• When someone is smoking, the smokeenters the respiration system andgoes straight to the lungs.
• People who don’t smoke but arearound a smoker will inhale exactlythe same smoke, these people arecalled passive smokers.• Active and passive smokers have thesame risks.• Why is cigarette smoke verydangerous for human health?• How can we avoid it?• Let us learn further to answer thosequestion.
Hazardous substances in cigarette• Cigarettes contain substances thatare hazardous to human health,especially the respiration system.1. Carbon monoxide (CO)Carbon monoxide is poisonous.in a certain amount, it will killhumans who inhale it.the carbon monoxide gas willbind with haemoglobin in humanblood so that the blood’s abilityto bind oxygen is reduced.
2. Nicotinenicotine is a dangerous chemicalcompound with the chemicalformula C10H14N2.nicotine can cause addiction andcause cancer in human lungs.nicotine in smoke only needs 9seconds to reach the human brain.as a result, the blood pressurerises, respiration rate increases,and central nervous system isstimulated.
3. Tar tar is burnt residue of a cigarettethat we can see on a cigarette filter. the color is black, and it is sticky. it will make the teeth, fingers, andnails of a smoker become darkyellow. it is very dangerous because it iscarsinogenic (able to cause cancer). moreover, tar makes the oscillationof respiratory har should oscillateto prevent hazardous materialsfrom coming inside the respiratory
4. Nitrogen oxide (N2O)in a certain dose, nitrogen oxidecan cause a spontaneous laughwithout any reason.it can reduce pain in humans sothat it is used as anesthetic in thechemical field.
5. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN)HCN is very poisonous gas and verydangerous for human health.6. Ammonia (NH4)ammonia is a gas that smells bad,poisonous, and corrosive.7. Methanol (CH3OH)methanol is a simple compound ofalcohol which is also poisonous.
• Every substance contained incigarettes give no advantages forhuman health, conversely it canharm human health.• But why do people still smoke?• The answer is because to stopsmoking is hard for a smoker.• This means that the person hasalready become addicted.
• That’s why you shouldn’t try tosmoke. All smokers started fromjust trying.• In the end, they are trapped in abad habit and very hard to breakthis addiction.• To keep our body healthy, we hadbetter not smoke and not bearound a smoker.
CAFFEINE• Caffeine is a psychotropic substancecontained in coffee, tea leaves, andchocolate.• After consuming some caffeine,someone will feel fresh and energetic.• In a higher dose, it can cause anxiety.• Gasoline, thinner, and adhesives arealso classified as addictive, because ifthey are inhaled continuously, theywill cause the same symptoms as theother addictives.
Drugs Addiction Prevention• Things you can do to prevent drugs addiction are;1. Do not ever try any dose and/or any kind ofdrugs with any excuse.2. Find a good social network in a reliable place,with good people, and at a proper time.3. Strengthen the affection of your family bywatching each other’s back, loving each other,and encouraging each other. Develop love andcare for your siblings, family, and friends.4. Be aware of your life and your environtment.Say NO to drugs.5. Intensity your faith in God for strength andblessings. Without God’s power, humans will beweak.
Drugs Addiction Treatment• Treatment for drug users takes a very longtime depending on the addiction level.• Drug addiction is different from a smoking habitor a cigarette addiction.• Drug addicts need therapy and medication.• There are many rehabilitation centers for drug-addicts.• In those rehabilitation centers, there areprofessionals, medical and non-medical thatwill give therapy and medication to the peoplewith drug addiction.• Most of the drug addicts cannot self-medicateat home no matter how tight the surveillance is.• Ex-users need to have a community where theycan strengthen, motivate, and remain each other.