Planning for
Broadcast Alfie Lyn G. Feliciano
BAMC BC 2A
1
2
• Learn the planning process and skills in the broadcast
industry
• Know the nature of broadcast station (radio and
televi...
4
- a universal human activity involving the
consideration of outcomes before choosing
amongst alternatives.
Primary funct...
PLANNING AND
EFFECTIVE
VISUALIZATION SKILLS
PLANNING AS A
LEADERSHIP SKILL
Planning in today’s context, is
still a formida...
The urban regime theory (1977)
Community leadership has a certain framework, or regime.
For examining issues, individuals ...
Social Learning Theory contributions emphasized planners’ roles in
bringing stakeholders together, gathering and sharing i...
Social Capital
They emphasize the complexity and effectiveness of social networks
and community leadership in moving a com...
1. Background Information
2. Statement of objectives
3. Target Audience Definition
4. Strategy
5. Overall scheduling consi...
 A good way to begin the plan is with the background
information that serve as benchmark data reading to
some assumptions...
Managerial
Process
Objective
TacticsStrategy
Statement of the
task one wishes
to accomplish
Means
prescribed for
attaining...
Pole Principle
1. Planning
2. Organizing
3. Leading
4. Evaluating
Roles of a Manager
1. Planner
2. Provider
3. Protector
4...
Broadcast entails a careful planning approach which is
hinged on the identification and formulation of
objectives, strateg...
Management Authority Peter Drucker’s 5
steps which can be followed by a soon-to-
be established station
1.Establishment of...
• Television is said to be the child of the three parents- theater, film and radio.
• Television as an audio-visual medium...
RADIO STRENGTHS RADIO WEAKNESSES
• can reach both literate and
illiterate audiences
• relatively inexpensive and
available...
TELEVISION STRENGTHS TELEVISION WEAKNESSES
• no need for formal
education to
understand TV
messages
• allows show and tell...
In broadcast, there are (2) very distinct activities
involved as co-equal parts of broadcast
origination. The first maybe ...
5 of these shared qualities are as follows:
1. Ease of delivery of radio and TV materials to audiences
2. The continuous d...
• The continuous availability also means radio and television consume
program relentlessly, compelling conservation of res...
5 strategies employed in Broadcast media
1. Compatibility
2. Habit information
3. Control of audience flow
4. Conservation...
• Compatibility strategies affect not only scheduling but also the
choice of program types and subject matters.
• To apply...
Programming history
• With the beginning of scheduled television in 1936, television
programming was initially only concer...
Block programming
- occurs when the television network schedules similar programs back-to-
back. The concept is to provide...
Dayparting
the practice of dividing the day into several parts, during each of which a
different type of radio programming...
26
Tent poling
In tent pole programming the programmers bank on a well-known series
having so much audience appeal that th...
27
Hotswitching
the programmers eliminate any sort of commercial break when one program
ends and another begins; this imme...
Broadcast programmers must grasp the notion of program appeals if they
are they are to serve particular demographic group ...
• Conflict – every drama, game show, and comedy and
most news stories contain elements of conflict. It is
characterized in...
• Self-preservation- programs devoted to self-improvement
and therapy are obvious example of the self-preservation
appeal,...
“The word “FORMAT” may also be used to refer to the detailed
blueprint of a broadcast program which follows the same outli...
A TV format describes the overall concept, premise and
branding of a copyrighted television program.
The format is license...
• The most common type of format are those in
the television genre of game shows, many of which are
remade in multiple mar...
• A radio format or programming format (not to be confused
with broadcast programming) describes the overall content
broad...
• Active rock- plays More Modern and Current Rock Artists with a mix of
songs common in the Mainstream Rock radio format
•...
90.7 Love Radio
Format : Hot Adult Contemporary, Pop, OPM
Barangay LS 97.1
Format: Adult Top 40, Pop, OPM
93.9 iFM
Format ...
Non-dramatic Programs
- these programs are usually in the form of contests, games, events or
discussion.
- many of the non...
• News Programs- A news program, news programme, news show,
or newscast is a regularly scheduled radio or television progr...
• Discussion Programs- expand beyond the bounds
of a pattern of questions and answers, and become
discussion. The group fo...
• Games, Quizzes, and Contents- these programs tend to be built
upon either a “ panel experts” or “audience contestant”.
•...
• Children’s Programs- usually animated cartoon programs for
children with such elements as live animals, children’s songs...
• Educational Programs- produced by or in cooperation with
educational institution such as university, library or
museum.
...
• Informational Programs- understood to be informal
explorations of public affairs, current events and problems
to the wor...
• Religious Programs- presented by stations as a public
service or denomination or churches which buy the
time to broadcas...
Dramatic Programs
Dramatic programming in the UK, or television
drama and television drama series in the United States,
or...
• Serials- descendants of radio soap operas most
commonly presented on video tape.
• Situation Comedies- dramatic writing ...
• Anthology Series- An anthology series is
a radio or television series that presents a different
story and a different se...
• Dramatic Specials- special drama programs produced on a
monthly or irregular basis by such a sponsor. Full-length
dramas...
A. Books
Broadcast Management (A course Module for College Students) by Robert F. Soriano;
published by Booklore Publishin...
To God be the Glory!
Prepared by: Alfie Lyn G. Feliciano BAMC BC 2A
Submitted to: Mr. Florentino Pineda
50
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Planning for broadcast

  1. 1. Planning for Broadcast Alfie Lyn G. Feliciano BAMC BC 2A 1
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. • Learn the planning process and skills in the broadcast industry • Know the nature of broadcast station (radio and television) • Understand the common attributes of broadcast and it’s strategies • Identify the various broadcast appeals to target the audiences • Identify and assess the broadcast program formats 3
  4. 4. 4 - a universal human activity involving the consideration of outcomes before choosing amongst alternatives. Primary functions of Planning - improve efficiency of outcomes - counterbalance market failures - widen the range of choice - civic engagement
  5. 5. PLANNING AND EFFECTIVE VISUALIZATION SKILLS PLANNING AS A LEADERSHIP SKILL Planning in today’s context, is still a formidable part of what is expected in a great leader; at the same time, it requires much more if it has to be translated into success – such as intuition, aggressive movement towards change, fast decision-making and a willing to take chances. Planning is a skill set and requires consistent practice and focus to master. It tends to become better with time and experience. 5
  6. 6. The urban regime theory (1977) Community leadership has a certain framework, or regime. For examining issues, individuals or interest groups that argue from outside; that regime will find it very difficult or even impossible to win decisions. This results in an effective disenfranchisement of the outsiders. Implications for planners are both descriptive and normative: If planners want to influence decisions, power lies in speaking the language of the dominant regime(s). They will have to make arguments in a manner that the dominant regime(s) will understand and be responsive to. (Lauria 1997). 6
  7. 7. Social Learning Theory contributions emphasized planners’ roles in bringing stakeholders together, gathering and sharing information and helping social structures to learn from their experiences. ( Argyris and Schon 1974; Friedmann 1987). Communicative Planning Theory (1989- John Forester) Through communicative strategies complementing their technical work, planners can alert citizens to the issues of the day, arm them with technical and political information, and otherwise encourage community-based planning actions (Hemmens and Stifte11980; Sager 1994). 7
  8. 8. Social Capital They emphasize the complexity and effectiveness of social networks and community leadership in moving a community toward an operable response to new challenges (Briggs 1997; Putnam 1995). Feminist Planning Theory Calls planners to task for valuing economic production while undervaluing or ignoring familial and community re-production, as well as ignoring the different ways men and women use space (Moore Milroy 1991; Ritzdorf 1995). Mainstream Planning Theory Increasingly focused on the procedural side of planning, external developments on the substantive side are increasingly pushing the profession in new directions and demanding responses. 8
  9. 9. 1. Background Information 2. Statement of objectives 3. Target Audience Definition 4. Strategy 5. Overall scheduling considerations 6. 9
  10. 10.  A good way to begin the plan is with the background information that serve as benchmark data reading to some assumptions and knowledge of the broadcast plan. The plan should then review broadcast objectives the station wishes to accomplish. The target audience/public must be defined so that the most appropriate program formats or vehicles can be selected.. Finally the broadcast plan must include an explanation of how the activities will be scheduled and carried out within a given timetable. 10
  11. 11. Managerial Process Objective TacticsStrategy Statement of the task one wishes to accomplish Means prescribed for attaining the objective Specific activities requires for implementation of the strategy 11
  12. 12. Pole Principle 1. Planning 2. Organizing 3. Leading 4. Evaluating Roles of a Manager 1. Planner 2. Provider 3. Protector 4. Visionary 12
  13. 13. Broadcast entails a careful planning approach which is hinged on the identification and formulation of objectives, strategies, tactics. To begin a process, one must have a clear understanding of the nature of broadcast station, specifically the attributes of the media such as radio and television. Also important is to know the strategy of broadcasting in creating the greatest program appeal possible, to attract a wide range of audience. These audiences can have a variety of broadcast program formats to choose from. 13
  14. 14. Management Authority Peter Drucker’s 5 steps which can be followed by a soon-to- be established station 1.Establishment of objectives 2.Determining priority 3.Identifying resources 4.Executing action programs 5.Maintaining control 14
  15. 15. • Television is said to be the child of the three parents- theater, film and radio. • Television as an audio-visual medium called entertainment. • It has tended to carry over old, non-functional traditions and structures of it’s parent art forms. • Many types of program materials have gone through a process of mutation, and a highly modified species has emerged. • These types have adapted well, some have been improved as TV programs. • Early radio dramas were simply one-act plays performed before the microphone. • It was only when men began to write for the microphone. • Similarly, early TV news programs were little more than radio news casts covered by a camera. 15
  16. 16. RADIO STRENGTHS RADIO WEAKNESSES • can reach both literate and illiterate audiences • relatively inexpensive and available to many people • can use batteries useful in areas without electricity • broadcast can be repeated many times during the day • production is relatively inexpensive • not useful for teaching people how to perform that requires demonstration • listeners who do not hear or understand message clearly cannot interact • some people do not have access to radio 16
  17. 17. TELEVISION STRENGTHS TELEVISION WEAKNESSES • no need for formal education to understand TV messages • allows show and tell • people can see and hear role models on TV • not available in all areas of the country • expensive for some people • production cost is expensive than radio and print • listeners who do not hear and see cannot interact 17
  18. 18. In broadcast, there are (2) very distinct activities involved as co-equal parts of broadcast origination. The first maybe characterized as creative origination which includes the work of artists, writers, directors, producers and all the other creative people in the station. The second part is called sponsorship origination which involves the people and agencies who pay for the materials that are aired. 18
  19. 19. 5 of these shared qualities are as follows: 1. Ease of delivery of radio and TV materials to audiences 2. The continuous day-and-night availability of broadcast program services 3. The ease of audience access 4. The capacity of broadcast for realism 5. Broadcast potentials for social effects 19
  20. 20. • The continuous availability also means radio and television consume program relentlessly, compelling conservation of resources. • Chief among conservation mechanism are networking and syndication, the primary means of reducing programming costs to manageable proportions by sharing them among many users. In broadcasting, syndication is the sale of the right to broadcast radio shows and television shows by multiple radio stations and television stations, without going through a broadcast network, though the process of syndication may conjure up structures like those of a network itself, by its very nature. It is common in countries where broadcast programming is scheduled by television networks with local independent affiliates, particularly in the United States. Ex: 20
  21. 21. 5 strategies employed in Broadcast media 1. Compatibility 2. Habit information 3. Control of audience flow 4. Conservation of program resources 5. Mass appeal 21
  22. 22. • Compatibility strategies affect not only scheduling but also the choice of program types and subject matters. • To apply it, the programmer studies the lifestyles of listeners and viewers. These strategies are spoken of in terms of day-parting, the scheduling of different types of programs to match parts of the day known by such terms as drive time, fringe time and primetime. • In this aspect, BROADCAST PROGRAMMING entails. In which it is the practice of organizing television shows or radio programs in a daily, weekly, or season-long schedule. 22
  23. 23. Programming history • With the beginning of scheduled television in 1936, television programming was initially only concerned with filling a few hours each evening – the hours now known as prime time. Over time, though, television began to be seen during the day time and late at night, as well on the weekends. As air time increased so did the demand for new material. With the exception of sports television, variety programs became much more important in primetime. 23
  24. 24. Block programming - occurs when the television network schedules similar programs back-to- back. The concept is to provide similar programming to retain viewership. Cross-programming involves the interconnection of two shows. This is achieved by dragging a storyline over two episodes of two different programs. Counterprogramming is used when a time period is filled with a program whose appeal is different from the opponent program because it is a different genre or appeals to a different demographic. 24
  25. 25. Dayparting the practice of dividing the day into several parts, during each of which a different type of radio programming or television programming appropriate for that time is aired. Daytime television programs are most often geared toward a particular demographic, and what the target audience typically engages in at that time. Ex: Sign-on-Daytime Television-Prime Time-Late Night News-Late Night Television-Graveyard Slot-Sign-off(closedown) Stripping is running a syndicated television series every day of the week. It is commonly restricted to describing the airing of shows which were weekly in their first run. Habit formation calls for this strategy. Fringe Time This includes programming immediately before the evening's prime- time schedule, called "early fringe", and the time following the local evening news or the network's late-night talk shows, called "late fringe" 25
  26. 26. 26 Tent poling In tent pole programming the programmers bank on a well-known series having so much audience appeal that they can place two unknown series on either side, and it is the strength of the central program that will bring the others along to victory. Theming  Having special theming days (such as for a holiday), or theme weeks such as Discovery Channel's Shark Week. Stacking  a technique used to develop audience flow by grouping together programs with similar appeals to "Sweep" the viewer along from one program to the next.
  27. 27. 27 Hotswitching the programmers eliminate any sort of commercial break when one program ends and another begins; this immediately hooks the audience into watching the next program without a chance to change the television channel between programs. Hammocking a technique used by broadcasters whereby an unpopular program is scheduled between two popular programs in the hope that viewers will watch it. Public television use this as a way of promoting serious but valuable content.
  28. 28. Broadcast programmers must grasp the notion of program appeals if they are they are to serve particular demographic group of audiences. - A radio programmer is someone who schedules the content which is broadcast on a radio station. Program directors actually shape the nature of the content, determining what kind of content they want to broadcast, while other types of radio programmers are responsible for ensuring that broadcasts run smoothly and that no dead air occurs during broadcast periods. - Is charged with the overall direction and coordination of programming 28
  29. 29. • Conflict – every drama, game show, and comedy and most news stories contain elements of conflict. It is characterized in terms of conflict. • Ego-involvement- refers to any kind of personal identification the listener /viewer makes with what goes on in the program. • Sex- sex and sex-related emotions constitute powerful appeals that radio and television exploit in many ways, but mainly through featuring sexy stars or personalities with oozing sex appeal. Broadcast Program Appeals 29
  30. 30. • Self-preservation- programs devoted to self-improvement and therapy are obvious example of the self-preservation appeal, which hinges on concerns for safety, health, and well-being. • Recognition- there is a certain appeal in recognizing important figures on radio and television. • Curiosity- wondering what’s next , how things are going to turn out, what other people and places are like. • Escape- programs also consider the audience’ need to escape from reality. 30
  31. 31. “The word “FORMAT” may also be used to refer to the detailed blueprint of a broadcast program which follows the same outline week after week.. In effect, it is an outline of the order in which different elements in the program will be presented; although specific content of each element changes from week to week, the general pattern remains much the same in each broadcast.” 31
  32. 32. A TV format describes the overall concept, premise and branding of a copyrighted television program. The format is licensed by TV networks, so that they may produce a version of the show tailored to their nationality and audience. Formats are a major part of the international television market. Format purchasing is popular with broadcasters, due principally to:  • the lower risk and extra revenue potential associated with an already-proven idea;  •the preference of national audiences to watch national programming (as opposed to broadcasting the original, foreign version of the show); • the ability to tailor a show for a particular market. 32
  33. 33. • The most common type of format are those in the television genre of game shows, many of which are remade in multiple markets with local contestants. Recent examples include Survivor, Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?, Pop Idol and Big Brother that have all proved successful worldwide. • TV formats are viewed as a form of intellectual property (IP), and are regularly bought and sold by TV producers, distribution company and broadcasters. 33
  34. 34. • A radio format or programming format (not to be confused with broadcast programming) describes the overall content broadcast on a radio station. Radio formats are frequently employed as a marketing tool, and are subject to often change. Music radio, old time radio, all-news radio, sports radio, talk radio and weather radio describe the operation of different genres of radio format and each format can often be sub-divided into many specialty formats. 34
  35. 35. • Active rock- plays More Modern and Current Rock Artists with a mix of songs common in the Mainstream Rock radio format •Blues- melancholy and sadness •Country music- a genre of American popular music • Jazz- more on instruments played • Mainstream rock- play primarily rock music • Oldies- oldies tunes are typically from R&B, pop and rock music genres • Variety- loosely defined as a format that plays music across numerous genre • Classical- like the jazz music but differs in some aspect • Dance- music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dancing 35
  36. 36. 90.7 Love Radio Format : Hot Adult Contemporary, Pop, OPM Barangay LS 97.1 Format: Adult Top 40, Pop, OPM 93.9 iFM Format : Hot Adult Contemporary, Pop, OPM Jam 88.3 Format : Alternative music, rock ,Indie Pop, Indie Rock Monster Radio RX 93.1 Format : Urban Contemporary, Pop 36
  37. 37. Non-dramatic Programs - these programs are usually in the form of contests, games, events or discussion. - many of the non-dramatic programs were previously developed for radio and have merely been adapted, dressed-up, or made visual for the television screen. - broadcasting has applied what has been called the “pie formula” system of programming, which means the format of the program is likened to a “pie crust” which is the same from week to week, but the “pie filling changes”. - they usually require far less rehearsal, and can be prepared for short order. 37
  38. 38. • News Programs- A news program, news programme, news show, or newscast is a regularly scheduled radio or television program that reports current events. News is typically reported in a series of individual stories that are presented by one or more anchors. A news program can include live or recorded interviews by field reporters, expert opinions, opinion poll results, and occasional editorial content. 38
  39. 39. • Discussion Programs- expand beyond the bounds of a pattern of questions and answers, and become discussion. The group format is popular in radio. ex. AM discussion programs and some FM discussion programs 39
  40. 40. • Games, Quizzes, and Contents- these programs tend to be built upon either a “ panel experts” or “audience contestant”. • Women’s Programs- feature news and interviews of interest to women, and such homemaking features as cooking, decorating, and fashion hints. 40
  41. 41. • Children’s Programs- usually animated cartoon programs for children with such elements as live animals, children’s songs and brief educational features. • Teen-age Programs- viewers from 12-20 watch shows appealing to adolescents. Sometimes, a personable emcee interviews young people who have achieved some measure of prominence in sports, hobbies, or the arts. 41
  42. 42. • Educational Programs- produced by or in cooperation with educational institution such as university, library or museum. • Variety and Musical Programs- shows a good talent through good songs and dances, can even be made to look/sound better through a winning emcee and skillful presentation. ex. Eat Bulaga & Showtime 42
  43. 43. • Informational Programs- understood to be informal explorations of public affairs, current events and problems to the world around us. Two types most commonly used are the : - illustrated lectures - documentary ex. I witness & Brigada 43
  44. 44. • Religious Programs- presented by stations as a public service or denomination or churches which buy the time to broadcast such programs as brief meditations, modified services from the church, discussions or conversations based on spiritual or ethical problem, and syndicated religious programs. ex. Fishbowl & 700 Club Asia 44
  45. 45. Dramatic Programs Dramatic programming in the UK, or television drama and television drama series in the United States, or teledrama in Sri Lanka, is television program content that is scripted and (normally) fictional along the lines of a traditional drama. Source: en.wikipedia.org 45
  46. 46. • Serials- descendants of radio soap operas most commonly presented on video tape. • Situation Comedies- dramatic writing to get the audience into laughable predicaments, with funny antics and humor on a half-hour run. A situation comedy, often shortened to sitcom, is a genre of comedy that features characters sharing the same common environment, such as a home or workplace, accompanied with jokes as part of the dialogue. Such programs originated in radio, but today, sitcoms are found mostly on television as one of its dominant narrative forms.  A situation comedy television programme may be recorded in front of a studio audience. The effect of a live studio audience can be imitated by the use of a laugh track. Ex. Pepito Manaloto 46
  47. 47. • Anthology Series- An anthology series is a radio or television series that presents a different story and a different set of characters in each episode. These usually have a different cast each week. Best example of it is MAGPAKAILANMAN in Kapuso and MMK in Kapamilya. 47
  48. 48. • Dramatic Specials- special drama programs produced on a monthly or irregular basis by such a sponsor. Full-length dramas or musical dramas, running from 90 minutes to two hours can be seen under these circumstances. • Detective Dramas- also called police story or mystery Detective Drama is a type of Mystery Fiction that follows the cases of a central detective character as he investigates a crime, usually from initial investigation to arrest. The character is usually a police detective or Private Detective, but can also be an Amateur Sleuth or even a Kid Detective with acute sleuthing skills. 48
  49. 49. A. Books Broadcast Management (A course Module for College Students) by Robert F. Soriano; published by Booklore Publishing Corporation (2000) Newly Revised Webster’s Dictionary (Newly Revised edition especially designed for school, home and office use) The National AICP Examination Preparation Course Guidebook 2000, Ed. Roshi Petaseyed (Am. Inst. Cert. Planners) Washington DC, 2000 B. URL’s http://www.ask.com http://www.bates.ctc.edu/broadcasting http://www.incedogroup.com/planning-as-a-leadership-skill-2/ http://www.knowledgewoods.in/pmp/skills good project manager needs.html http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-radio-programmer.htm http://www.scribd.com/doc/46988792/Broadcast-Program-Format-and-Design-for-FM-Stations http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadcast_programming http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fictional_crossover http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planning 49
  50. 50. To God be the Glory! Prepared by: Alfie Lyn G. Feliciano BAMC BC 2A Submitted to: Mr. Florentino Pineda 50
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