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Florentine daily meteorological observations in second half of eighteenth century (1751-1774)
 

Florentine daily meteorological observations in second half of eighteenth century (1751-1774)

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Meteorology in florence during XVIII century: the most prominent figures and remarks, observation retrieval of Pietro Gaetano Grifoni and Luca Martini. Historical consideration on florence considered ...

Meteorology in florence during XVIII century: the most prominent figures and remarks, observation retrieval of Pietro Gaetano Grifoni and Luca Martini. Historical consideration on florence considered a nursery of applied meteorology disciplines ( agrometeorology and biometeorology).

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    Florentine daily meteorological observations in second half of eighteenth century (1751-1774) Florentine daily meteorological observations in second half of eighteenth century (1751-1774) Presentation Transcript

    • INTERNATIONALCONFERENCE ON URBAN Florentine dailyCLIMATE AND HISTORY OF METEOROLOGY meteorological observations 25 - 26 February 2013 – Florence Palazzo Medici Riccardi in second half of eighteenth century (1751-1774) Vergari Daniele Ass.Giovan Battista Landeschi Casati Stefano Museo Galileo Crisci Alfonso Institute for Biometeorology
    • Florentine backgrounds Accademia del Cimento Academy of Experiment “Provando e riprovando” the AC motto: Try and try again Accademia del Cimento : Galieian Milestones •Experimentation method and practices •Creation of laboratory instruments •Standards of measurement A n effectiveCardinal Leopold Medicean scientific “Start-up” favorited by the singular excellence of florentine handcraft. Medici Network (1654–1670) Ferdinand II
    • The XVIII networks:“republic of letters” …..a effective circulation of information trough correspondence and travellers: Data Instruments Experiences ..a graph of connected scientists. Francesco Algarotti tour: The XVIII star in scientific communicationInteresting Big Data approach tomap the early scientific socialnetworks trough corrispondences https://republicofletters.stanford.edu/humanities,communication design, and computer science joined forces
    • Observers in Tuscany during XVIII century Butori Matani 1777-1826 1756-1757 Vitoni G.S. Conti 1784-1811 1744-1791 Tilli 1775-1780 Various from Santi 1728 1780-1790 Taglini Albergotti 1721-1736 (XVIII cen.) Accademia Fisiocritics 1755-1765 Pizzetti 1771- 1787 Pietro LeopoldLorena: “need to know to decide anything” –”conoscere per deliberare”
    • Observers network in Florence during XVIII century Tartini 1785-1788 Martini 1756-1775 Grifoni 1751-1766 Botanical Garden Bicchierai 1775-1796 Ottaviano Targioni Tozzetti ca. 1800 - 1829 Ximenian Obs. Ximenes 1751-1753Georgofili Hospital S. Maria Nuova Hosp. S. M. Nuova 1776-1778 Institution Observer Location unknown Giovanni Targioni Tozzetti Obs. linked to 1737-1740 Georgofili R. Museo Fisica Obs. Are G. Raddi - 1797-1807 Cipriano Targioni 1728-1748 Physician D. De’Vecchi 1809-1810
    • XVII climate variability: strong fluctuations & no trendTakata K et al.PNAS 2009;106:9586-9589 Climate variations mainly linked to strong vulcanic events and solar minimum
    • 1700 the pre-industrial climatehttp://berkeleyearth.org/
    • First half XVII science advances… How Hot or how Cold: that was the question? Celsius 1701 -1744 Fahrenheit 1686–1736scalingTEMPERATURE Reaumur 1683 1757
    • Giovanni Targioni Tozzetti is a hub The Alimurgia Alimurgia as the: Famines risk mitigation to sustain vulnerable people Basic requirements for a good alimurgia for GTT are essentially multidisciplinary:. Medicine Fitopathology Epidemiology Climatology and Meteorology
    • The health risk is the point… Today in florence “Spedale di Santa Maria Nuova”preludes of biometeorology
    • L. Martini series by G. Targioni Tozzetti in Alimurgia Florence daily T (°R) & weather events 1765-1774 Via dei Ginori Florence
    • P. Grifoni‘s series by Carlo Alfonso Guadagni Florence daily T (°R) & weather events 1751-1767
    • P. Grifoni‘s series Florence monthly averages T (°R) 1751-1767 Excessive warm XVIII events Excessive cold XVIII eventsReference: http://booty.org.uk/booty.weather/climate/1750_1799.htm
    • P.Grifoni‘s series Data homogeneity testing T 1751-1767Data Homogeneity is generally good: no breakpoints detected in structural components ( linear+periodic) R bfast library : OLS –MOSUM technique http://bfast.r-forge.r-project.org/
    • XVIII century was a fruitful period ; the Cimento’s milestones are fully assimilated thanks to the activities of scientist network’s State-of-art meteorological observations in XVIII were carried regularly within a well designed aims where people healthcare is the main driver. Early florentine “meterologist” benefit of the open and multidisciplinary approach of XVIIIConclusions century where data and metodologies was shared and considered as real common goody. The spirit of XVIII was favourable for the applied meteorology and Florence could be considered the nursery of disciplines as agrometeorology and biometeorology also thanks to the work made by XVIII scientists.