PSIKOLOGI KAUNSELING teori teori klasik dalam kaunseling - frued, jung adler
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PSIKOLOGI KAUNSELING teori teori klasik dalam kaunseling - frued, jung adler

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  • Mirrors Darwin’s theory of natural selection: selection by reproduction and selection by survival. <br /> Although he initially believed that the life and death instincts worked to oppose one another, he later argued that they could combine in various ways. He believed that from these instincts comes the energy that powers all human behaviors. <br />
  • According to Freud the mind is made up of 3 parts: the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. The latter is the largest part of the mind and manifests itself in the dreams, “slips of the tongue”, irrational feelings, physical symptoms, or inexplicable anxiety. <br />
  • Free Association: Speaking whatever comes into your mind without censoring your thoughts. Psychoanalysts must be able to recognize the subtle signs that something important has just been mentioned. <br /> Dream Analysis: Uncovering unconscious material in a dream by interpreting the content of a dream. Consists of manifest content (what the dream actually contains) and latent content (what the elements of the dream actually represent) <br /> Projective Techniques: Uses the idea that what a person sees in an ambiguous figure reflects his or her personality. <br />
  • Psychoanalytic theory concerns how people cope with their sexual and aggressive instincts within the constraints of a civilized society. One part of the mind creates urges, another has a sense of what civilized society expects, and another part of the mind tries to satisfy the urges within the bounds of reality and society. These parts of the mind are in constant interaction. They have different goals, provoking internal conflicts within an individual. <br />
  • The pleasure principle is the desire for immediate gratification. <br /> Primary process thinking is thinking without logical rules of conscious thought or an anchor in reality. <br />
  • The ego recognizes under the reality principle that the urges of the id are often in conflict with social and physical reality. <br /> The ego engages in secondary process thinking which refers to the development and devising of strategies for problem solving and obtaining satisfaction. <br />
  • The superego determines what is right and what is wrong, and enforces this through the emotion of guilt. It sets the moral goals and ideals of perfection. <br />
  • Repression was the forerunner of all other forms of defense mechanisms. Freud believed that people often tend to remember the pleasant circumstances surrounding some event , and that unpleasant memories are often repressed. <br />
  • Repression was the forerunner of all other forms of defense mechanisms. Freud believed that people often tend to remember the pleasant circumstances surrounding some event , and that unpleasant memories are often repressed. <br />
  • Freud believed that the presence of anxiety is evidence that repression is starting to fail, so other defense mechanisms may be brought into play. <br /> Denial: insisting that things are not what they seem. <br /> Displacement: a threatening impulse is channeled to a non-threatening target. <br /> Rationalization: generating acceptable reasons for outcomes that might otherwise appear socially unacceptable. <br /> Reaction Formation: in an attempt to stifle an unacceptable urge, displaying a flurry of behavior that indicates the opposite impulse. <br /> Projection: seeing in others those traits and desires that we find most upsetting in ourselves. <br /> Sublimation: channeling unacceptable sexual or aggressive instincts into socially desired activities. <br />
  • Freud believed that the presence of anxiety is evidence that repression is starting to fail, so other defense mechanisms may be brought into play. <br /> Denial: insisting that things are not what they seem. <br /> Displacement: a threatening impulse is channeled to a non-threatening target. <br /> Rationalization: generating acceptable reasons for outcomes that might otherwise appear socially unacceptable. <br /> Reaction Formation: in an attempt to stifle an unacceptable urge, displaying a flurry of behavior that indicates the opposite impulse. <br /> Projection: seeing in others those traits and desires that we find most upsetting in ourselves. <br /> Sublimation: channeling unacceptable sexual or aggressive instincts into socially desired activities. <br />
  • Freud believed that the presence of anxiety is evidence that repression is starting to fail, so other defense mechanisms may be brought into play. <br /> Denial: insisting that things are not what they seem. <br /> Displacement: a threatening impulse is channeled to a non-threatening target. <br /> Rationalization: generating acceptable reasons for outcomes that might otherwise appear socially unacceptable. <br /> Reaction Formation: in an attempt to stifle an unacceptable urge, displaying a flurry of behavior that indicates the opposite impulse. <br /> Projection: seeing in others those traits and desires that we find most upsetting in ourselves. <br /> Sublimation: channeling unacceptable sexual or aggressive instincts into socially desired activities. <br />
  • Defense mechanisms can help us deal with stress; however, when a behavior inhibits the ability to be productive or to maintain relationships, there may be problems. <br />
  • Anxiety is a signal that the control of the ego is being threatened by reality, by impulses from the id, or by harsh controls exerted by the superego. <br /> Objective: Fear. Occurs in response to some real, external threat to the person. <br /> Neurotic: Occurs when there is a direct conflict between the id and the ego. <br /> Moral: Caused by a conflict between the ego and the superego. <br /> In all 3 types of anxiety, the function of the ego is to cope with threats and to defend against the dangers they pose in order to reduce anxiety. This is done through the use of various defense mechanisms. <br />

PSIKOLOGI KAUNSELING teori teori klasik dalam kaunseling - frued, jung adler PSIKOLOGI KAUNSELING teori teori klasik dalam kaunseling - frued, jung adler Presentation Transcript

  • TEORI KLASIK DALAM KAUNSELING – FREUD, ADLER, JUNG MINGGU 5
  • Psychoanalytic Theory Basic Freudian Propositions
  • Clinical Experiences • Anna O. (Breuer) –Unexpressed emotion -> pathology –Unaware of emotion (unconscious) –Emotion expression reduces pathology
  • Fundamental Assumptions ofFundamental Assumptions of Psychoanalytic TheoryPsychoanalytic Theory  The Basic Instincts  Unconscious Motivation  Psychic Determinism  Energy Model
  • Fundamental Assumptions ofFundamental Assumptions of Psychoanalytic TheoryPsychoanalytic Theory The Basic Instincts: Sex and Aggression  Closely follows Darwin’s theory  Freud believed that everything humans do can be understood as manifestations of the life and death instincts  Later termed libido (life) and thanatos (death)
  • Fundamental Assumptions ofFundamental Assumptions of Psychoanalytic TheoryPsychoanalytic Theory Unconscious Motivation  Individuals control their sexual and aggressive urges by placing them in the unconscious  These take on a life of their own and become the motivated unconscious
  • Fundamental Assumptions ofFundamental Assumptions of Psychoanalytic TheoryPsychoanalytic Theory Psychic Determinism  Nothing happens by chance or accident  Everything we do, think, say, and feel is an expression of our mind
  • Fundamental Assumptions ofFundamental Assumptions of Psychoanalytic TheoryPsychoanalytic Theory Energy Model  Humans are viewed as energy systems  Hydraulic model. Energy transformed but not destroyed
  • Levels of ConsciousnessLevels of Consciousness Conscious - current awareness Preconscious - not aware of material but it’s retrievable (via ordinary retrieval) Unconscious - not aware of material but it’s not retrievable (via ordinary retrieval)
  • Issues Regarding the Unconscious • How can the existence of the unconscious be demonstrated? • Why do humans have an unconscious?
  • Personality and PsychoanalysisPersonality and Psychoanalysis Techniques for Revealing the Unconscious  Free Association  Dream Analysis  Projective Techniques  Recovered Memories
  • The Structure of PersonalityThe Structure of Personality ID EGO SUPEREGO
  • The Structure of PersonalityThe Structure of Personality The Id – Reservoir of Psychic Energy Most primitive part of the mind; what we are born with Source of all drives and urges Operates according to the pleasure principle and primary process thinking
  • The Structure of PersonalityThe Structure of Personality The Ego- Executive of Personality The part of the mind that constrains the id to reality Develops around 2-3 years of age Operates according to the reality principle and secondary process thinking Mediates between id, superego, and environment
  • The Structure of PersonalityThe Structure of Personality The Superego- Upholder of Values and Ideals The part of the mind that internalizes the values, morals, and ideals of society Develops around age 5 Not bound by reality
  • Psychodynamics • Conflict model – Id vs. superego; Individual vs. society – Restrain expression of all drives – Surplus energy results in anxiety
  • Defense Mechanisms • Unconscious psychological processes designed to avoid or reduce the conscious experience of anxiety
  • Anxiety and theAnxiety and the Mechanisms of DefenseMechanisms of Defense Repression  Unconscious  Motivated  Forgetting The process of preventing unacceptable thoughts, feelings, or urges from reaching conscious awareness
  • Anxiety and theAnxiety and the Mechanisms of DefenseMechanisms of Defense Denial  Unconscious  Motivated  Not Perceiving Perceptual Defense Research
  • Anxiety and theAnxiety and the Mechanisms of DefenseMechanisms of Defense Other Defense Mechanisms  Reaction Formation Act opposite of impulse  Projection Make impulse external
  • Anxiety and theAnxiety and the Mechanisms of DefenseMechanisms of Defense Other Defense Mechanisms  Isolation/Intellectualization Isolate emotional reaction Process abstractly
  • Anxiety and theAnxiety and the Mechanisms of DefenseMechanisms of Defense Other Defense Mechanisms Displacement Channel impulse to non-threatening target Sublimation Channel impulse into socially desired activity
  • Anxiety and theAnxiety and the Mechanisms of DefenseMechanisms of Defense Defense Mechanisms in Everyday Life Useful in coping with unexpected or disappointing events Can also make circumstances worse
  • Personality and PsychoanalysisPersonality and Psychoanalysis  Making the Unconscious Conscious  Techniques for Revealing the Unconscious  The Process of Psychoanalysis
  • Personality and PsychoanalysisPersonality and Psychoanalysis The goal of psychoanalysis is to make the unconscious conscious Identify unconscious thoughts and feelings Enable the person to deal with the unconscious urges realistically and maturely But how to penetrate the unconscious mind?
  • Personality and PsychoanalysisPersonality and Psychoanalysis The Process of Psychoanalysis The psychoanalyst offers the patient interpretations of the psychodynamic causes of the problems The interpretations bring insight Resistance may occur as a defense Transference of feelings
  • Evaluating Freud’s ContributionsEvaluating Freud’s Contributions  Proponents argue it is the first and perhaps only comprehensive theory of human nature  Psychoanalysis has had a major impact on Western thought  Critics maintain it is not contemporary  The nature of evidence upon which it was built can be criticized  Emphasis on sexual drives is inappropriate
  • SummarySummary There are 3 main forces in the psyche that constantly interact to tame the 2 motives Defense mechanisms help keep urges, thoughts, and memories that cause anxiety in the unconscious Psychoanalysis is a therapy used for making the patient's unconscious conscious
  • Anxiety and theAnxiety and the Mechanisms of DefenseMechanisms of Defense  Types of Anxiety  Repression  Other Defense Mechanisms  Defense Mechanisms in Everyday Life
  • Anxiety and theAnxiety and the Mechanisms of DefenseMechanisms of Defense Types of Anxiety  Objective Anxiety  Neurotic Anxiety  Moral Anxiety  Defense Mechanisms
  • Adlerian Psychotherapy Prioritizing relationships
  • Adlerian Theory History of Adlerian Theory – Inspired by Freudian psychoanalysis – Some overlap with other neo-Freudians (e.g., Horney) – Anticipated elements of humanistic, cognitive, and systemic approaches – Championed in U.S. by Rudolf Dreikurs – Dissemination throughout U.S. elementary schools during the guidance movement by Don Dinkmeyer
  • Alfred Adler 1870-1937 • Born in Vienna • Raised by middle class, Jewish family • 2nd of six children • Felt in shadow of his older brother • Invalid as child (rickets, pneumonia) • Very close to his father (no oedipal need) • Converted and became a Christian After World War I – Gemeinshaftsgefuhl – deep-seated concern for others and need to associate with them • 1921-1934: 30 mental health clinics in schools- closed by Nazis - drop in delinquency at time • Came to USA in 1934 (lived in U.S. until his death)
  • Nature of maladjustment • A person has a mistaken opinion of self and world – Inferiority complex: Individual overwhelmed by inadequacy, hopelessness – Superiority Complex: Individual’s very high opinion of self lead him/her to insist that personal solutions to problems are best • A person engages in abnormal behavior to protect own opinion of self (e.g., when threatened with failure and insecurity)  The person becomes self-centered rather than other-centered  Conflict: “one step forward and one step backward movement” which has the net effect of maintaining an individual at a “dead center” point  People experience themselves as “stuck” but actually create the antagonistic feelings, ideas, and values, because they are unwilling to change (if-only…)  Safeguarding: Symptoms developed to safeguard the fictional goal  Family constellation: birth order mediates genetic and constitutional factors  The individual may be unconscious of these events
  • Adlerian Therapy Focus • Importance of the feelings of self (ego) that arise form interactions & conflicts • Sense of self (ego) central core of personality • Start from Psychoanalysis • Emphasis on lifestyle (5 life tasks) – Social interaction – Work – Sex – Spirituality – Coping with ourselves • Courage
  • Alfred Adler’s Individual Psychology • A phenomenological approach • Social interest is stressed • Birth order and sibling relationships emphasized • Therapy as teaching, informing and encouraging • Basic mistakes in the client’s private logic • The therapeutic relationship as a collaborative partnership
  • The Phenomenological Approach • Adlerians attempt to view the world from the client’s subjective frame of reference – Reality is less important than how the individual perceives and believes life to be – It is not the childhood experiences that are crucial ~ It is our present interpretation of these events • Unconscious instincts and our past do not determine our behavior – It is not genes – It is not environment – It is not genes and environment – It is how we choose to respond to our genes and
  • Social Interest • Adler’s most significant and distinctive concept • Refers to an individual’s attitude toward and awareness of being a part of the human community • Mental health is measured by the degree to which we successfully share with others and are concerned with their welfare • Happiness and success are largely related to social connectedness
  • Impact of Birth Order • Adler’s five psychological positions: Oldest child Second of two Middle Youngest Only favored, spoiled, center of attention, pseudo-parent, high achiever behaves as if in a race, often opposite to first child (rivalry) often feels squeezed out the baby (more pampered), creative, rebellious, revolutionary, avant-garde does not learn to share or cooperate with other children, learns to deal with adults
  • Encouragement • Encouragement is the most powerful method available for changing a person’s beliefs – Helps build self-confidence and stimulates courage – Discouragement is the basic condition that prevents people from functioning – Clients are encouraged to recognize that they have the power to choose and to act differently
  • Other Adlerian Concepts • Organ Inferiority: everyone is born with some physical weakness, which motivates life choices • Aggression Drive: reaction to perceived helplessness/inferiority lashing out against the inability to achieve or master
  • More Adlerian Concepts • Masculine protest: Kids work to become independent from and equal to adults & people in power • Perfection striving: people who are not neurotically bound to an inferiority complex spend their lives trying to meet their fictional goals. “The life or a human soul is not a ‘being’ but a ‘becoming’” – Elimination of their perceived flaws – Gives motivation and focus • Social Responsibility & Understanding – Occupational task-career-self-worth – Societal task-creating friendship-networks – Love task-life partner • Positive & Goal Oriented Humanity- people striving to overcome weaknesses to function productively-contributing to society
  • How an Adlerian does Therapy • Comprehensive Assessment using: – Family Constellation-questionnaire-social world assessment – Early Reflections-single incidents from childhood – Lifestyle Assessment-develop targets for therapy by identifying major successes and mistakes in the client’s life – “The Question” -- If I had a magic wand that would eliminate your symptom immediately, what would be different in your life?”
  • What Clients do in Therapy • Explore private logic-concepts about self, others, & life – philosophy lifestyle is based • Discover purposes of behavior or symptoms and basic mistakes associated with their coping • Learning how to correct faulty assumptions & conclusions
  • Therapeutic Techniques & Procedures • Establishing the relationship • Gathering Information • Encouraging development of self-understanding insight into purpose through clarification and correction (of faulty self-concept and reasoning) • Helping client make new choices: reorientation & reeducation away from previous lifestyle
  • Phases Stage # Stage Tasks to be accomplished Support 1 Empathy & Relationship Provide warmth, empathy, and acceptance. Generate hope, reassurance, and encouragement. Establish a cooperative, collaborative relationship. 2 Information Gather relevant information: Elicit details of presenting problem & life tasks. Explore early childhood influences and memories. Encouragement 3 Clarification Clarify vague thinking with Socratic questioning. Evaluate consequences of ideas and actions. Correct mistaken ideas about self and others. 4 Encouragement Help generate alternatives. Stimulate movement in a new direction, away from life style. Clarifying new feelings about effort and results.
  • 1. Establishing the relationship • Therapist gets to know the client as a person • Therapy is collaborative – Goals established together prior to start – Awareness of goal discrepancies during • Scripts (“Have you ever seen a patient like me before?”) • Games (“My previous therapist said the opposite…”) – Realignment of goals, when necessary • Supportive, caring human connection – Faith – Hope – Love
  • 2. Gathering information • Subjective interview – Client tells own story as expert on own life – Therapist listens for clues to client’s coping and approach to life – The Question: • Objective interview ~ Life Style Assessment – Family constellation – Early recollections – Personality priorities – Integration and summary
  • 3. Encouraging Self-Understanding & Insight • Insight = understanding of motivations (the whys) that operate in client’s life • Therapist offers open-ended interpretations to: – Bring conscious awareness to unconscious processes – Identify and confront resistance – Explore purposes of symptoms, feelings, behaviors or blocks • Types of interpretation – Of nonverbal behavior: to bring the client’s nonverbal behavior to the attention of the client and interpret it. – Of the therapeutic process: Dealing with what is in the here and now. – Active Wondering: Proposes an alternative to the presenting problem.
  • 4. Reorientation & Reeducation • Encouragement process – “to build courage” personal growth is encouraged and reinforced • Change and search for new possibilities • Making a difference through change in behavior, attitude or perception
  • Adlerian Theory The Counseling Process – The Client-Counseling Relationship: Collaborative, egalitarian, respectful and cooperative. – Understanding the Client: How is the client behaving? What does the client gain from this behavior? Why does the client do this in this manner? – Assessment and Analysis: Family Atmosphere and Constellation, Birth Order, Early Recollections, Dreams, and Priorities. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • Adlerian Theory The Counseling Process (continued) – Insight and Interpretation: Helps the client see his or her priority and ask whether or not the price for achieving it is worth paying. – Reorientation: Counselor offers alternative ideas or beliefs for the client’s consideration. – Prescribing New Behavioral Rituals: The client is assigned “homework” that engages him or her in repetitive acts to reinforce the client’s new belief system, behaviors and rules of interaction. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • Adlerian Theory Strategies for Helping Clients – Restatement: Restating the client’s words to form clarity and convey understanding. – Reflection: Restating the client’s words to give deeper meaning regarding the underlying feeling. – Guesses, Hunches, Hypotheses: Making statements to explain what is happening. – Questioning: To get a better understanding but also reframe the symptoms for the client. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • Adlerian Theory Strategies for Helping Clients (continued) – Interpretation: Takes guesses, hunches and hypotheses one step further. Focuses on the “whys” of behavior. – Nonverbal Behavior: Adlerians bring the client’s nonverbal behavior to the attention of the client and interpret it. – Immediacy: Dealing with what is in the here and now. – Active Wondering: Proposes an alternative to the presenting problem. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • Adlerian Theory Strategies for Helping Clients (continued) – Confrontation: Pointing out discrepancies between what the client says and what the client does. – Paradoxical Intention: Asking the client to amplify target behavior to show the client how ridiculous it is. – Creating Images: Asks the client to imagine a ridiculous scene as he or she enters into a threatening situation. – Asking “The Question”: “If your problem were to disappear overnight, how would things be different?” “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • Adlerian Theory Strategies for Helping Clients (continued) – Catching Oneself: Having the client catch himself or herself when engaging in irrational behavior. – Acting As If: Acting out a role that the client thought impossible. – Spitting in the Soup: Spoiling the game of the client. – Encouragement: Promotes client self-awareness. Client’s aren’t sick but only discouraged. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • Adlerian Theory Strategies for Helping Clients (continued) – Midas Technique: Exaggerating the client’s neurotic demands. – Pleasing Someone: Helps put the client back into society. The client is instructed to go out and do something nice for someone else. – Avoiding the Tar Baby: Acting contrary to what the client expects. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • Adlerian Theory of Adlerian Theory – It can be used for numerous issues and disorders. – Uses encouragement. – It is phenomenological. – It does not consider people to be predisposed to anything. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” AdvantagesAdvantages
  • Adlerian Theory Disadvantages of Adlerian Theory – The amount of family and lifestyle information that is collected. – Sometimes difficult to do the interpretations, especially the dreams. – Adlerian therapy works best with highly verbal and intelligent clients. This might leave out many people who do not fit that category. – Might be too lengthy for managed care. – Adlerians do not like to make diagnoses as it labels people. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  • A Journey Into The Mind Of… Carl Jung "Everything that irritates us about others can lead us to an understanding of ourselves."
  • Who is Carl Jung? Carl Jung was born in Kesswill Switzerland (1875). As a child he was interested in history, archaeology, and philosophy. He studied medicine at the University of Basel and discovered he had a passion for psychiatry. He became a psychiatrist as it gave him the opportunity to study both the spiritual and factual sides of the world. For 9 years he was an assistant physician at a Psychiatric Hospital He studied Schizophrenia extensively.
  • His Early Career…  In 1907 Jung went to Vienna to meet Freud where they studied along side each other for a number of years. They developed their own theories and corresponded through letters.  They came to parting ways because Jung disagreed with Freud’s belief that the sexual component was the only part of the human personality. Jung also felt Freud was too narrow-minded about his views on the unconscious mind and dream interpretation. Freud’s main theories were that our sexual libido controlled our unconscious thoughts and when dreaming it was our sexual thoughts that controled the content of these dreams.
  • His Early Career Cont.  His first ideas were published in Psychology of the Unconscious (it contained much about mythological content and listed parallels between myths and psychotic fantasies).  He went on to develop his own theory called analytic psychology, for half a century he wrote religiously about personality in regards to symbolic, mythological, and spiritual views.
  • His Early Career Cont. In his personal life he spent much of his time deep in self-discovery. In 1921 he published Psychological Types included his perspective of different personality types and the relationship between the conscious and unconscious.
  • His Major Theories…  ·Focused on the unconscious and conscious mind…he believed that the unconscious played more of a role in controlling our thought process (especially during dreaming)  ·The collective unconscious was also more dominant factor in the development of human personality
  • His Major Theories Cont… ··He believed in two personality types ·Introvert – someone who keeps to themselves and is emotionally self- sufficient Extrovert- someone who is outgoing and use their psychological power to draw people towards them
  • A Final Word on Carl Jung… · Jung’s theories and beliefs are still used amoung therapists today · Much of his work can be applied to dream interpretation · Due to poor health he retired and started teaching in 1947 He died in Zulrich 1961
  • The Theory Jung’s theory divided the human mind into three parts: – The Ego – The Personal Unconscious – The Collective Unconscious
  • Carl Jung • Ego: conscious level; carries out daily activities; like Freud’s Conscious • Personal Unconscious: individual’s thoughts, memories, wishes, impulses; like Freud’s Preconscious + Unconscious • Collective Unconscious: storehouse of memories inherited from the common ancestors of the whole human race; no counterpart in Freud’s theory 3 Levels of Consciousness:
  • Ego • Jung defines this as the unconscious mind
  • The Personal Unconscious • Anything that is not presently conscious, but can be. It includes both memories that are easily brought to mind and those that have been repressed for some reason.
  • The Collective Unconscious • This refers to our “Psychic Inheritance”: – The reservoir of our experiences as a species, a kind of knowledge we are all born with (the collective memories of the entire human race). We are not directly conscious of it but it influences all our experiences and behaviours. – According to Jung, this is who so many cultures have the same symbols recurring in their myths, religion, art, and dreams. The common symbols are referred to as archetypes.
  • Archetypes • The content of the collective unconscious are called "Archetypes" • Jung believed humans are not born "clean slates". He thought we came into this world with certain pre-dispositions that cause behaviour. • These behaviours were driven by archetypes or archetypal behaviour.
  • Additional Archetypes • Persona: your public personality, aspects of yourself that you reveal to others. • Shadow: prehistoric fear of wild animals, represents animal side of human nature. • Anima: feminine archetype in men. • Animus: masculine archetype in women. • Others: God, Hero, Nurturing Mother, Wise Old Man, Wicked Witch, Devil, Powerful Father.
  • Examples of Archetypes • Family Archetypes: – The Father – Stern, Powerful, Controlling – The Mother – Feeding, Nurturing, Soothing – The Child – Birth, Beginnings, Salvation • Story Archetypes: – The Hero – Rescuer, Champion – The Maiden – Purity, Desire – The Wise Old Man – Knowledge, Guidance – The Magician – Mysterious and Powerful – The Witch or Sorceress - Dangerous – The Trickster – Deceiving and Hidden • Animal Archetypes: – The Faithful Dog – Unquestioning Loyalty – The Enduring Horse – Never Giving Up – The Devious Cat – Self Serving
  • Examples of Archetypes
  • Examples of Archetypes
  • Examples of Archetypes
  • Examples of Archetypes
  • Introvert and Extrovert • Jung is most famous for his development of the personality types of INTROVERT and EXTROVERT. Introverts are people who prefer their internal world of thoughts, feelings, and dreams. Extroverts prefer the external world of things, other people, and activities.
  • Basic Personality Orientations • Introversion: focused inward; the person is cautious, shy, timid, reflective. • Extroversion: focused outward; the person is outgoing, sociable, assertive, energetic.
  • Mental Functions • Thinking: naming and interpreting experience. • Feeling: evaluating an experience for its emotional worth to us. • Sensing: experiencing the world through the senses without interpreting or evaluating it. • Intuiting: relating directly to the world without physical sensation, reasoning, or interpretation.