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What is nutrition? Why it is important?
• TYPES OF NUTRTION
• TYPES OF NUTRITION IN PLANTS
• AUTOTROPHIC MODE OF NUTRITION
• PHOTOAUTOTROPHIC MODE OF NUTRITION
• CHEMOAUTROPHIC MODE OF NUTRITION
• HETEROTROPHIC MODE OF NUTRITION
• TYPES OF NUTRITION IN ANIMALS
• HETEROTROPHIC MODE OF NUTRITION
• HOLOZOIC MODE OF NUTRITION
• SAPROZOIC MODE OF NUTRITION
• FRUGIVORIC MODE OF NUTRITION
• INSECTIVOROUS MODE OF NUTRITION
• PARASITIC MODE OF NUTRITION
• BIBLIOGRAPY AND SOURES
What is nutrition and why it is important ?
Nutrition (also called nourishment or aliment) is the provision, to cells and
organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life.
•Give us vitality and energy for life.
•Boost our immune system.
•Delays the effects of aging.
•Keeps us active and fit in old age.
•Help beat tiredness and fatigue.
•Ward off serious illnesses like heart disease, certain cancers, mature-age
onset, diabetes, and gallbladder disease.
Plant nutrition is of two types – Autotrophic plant nutrition and heterotrophic plant
AUTOTROPHIC MODE OF NUTRITION – The mode of nutrition in which plants which
possess chlorophyll prepare their own food from CO2 and H2O in the presence of
sunlight is called autotrophic mode of nutrition.
HETEROTROPHIC MODE OF NUTRITION – The mode of nutrition in which plants
depend on others host plant or decaying organic matter for nutrition as they are
devoid of chlorophyll is called heterotrophic mode of nutrition.
AUTOTROPHIC MODE OF NUTRITION IN
AUTOTROPHIC MODE OF
NUTRITION IN PLANTS
The term autotroph has been derived from
two Greek wards-’auto’ means self and ‘troph’
means nutrition. In this mode of nutrition, the
organisms prepare their own food from
simple raw materials like water, carbon
dioxide and mineral salts in the presence of
sunlight. Chlorophylls present in the
chloroplast or green plants are the site of food
production. Accordingly all green plants are
the examples of this category. The process by
which they synthesize food is known as
photosynthesis. Some non-green bacteria like
sulphur bacteria can use energy which they
derive from some chemical reactions
occurring in them. With this energy they
manufacture their food. This process is called
chemosynthesis. Thus the autotrophs include
both the photosynthetic and chemosynthetic
PHOTOAUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION : It is the type
of nutrition in which the organism prepare their
food by their own in presence of sunlight,
carbon dioxide and water. It is called as
photoautotrophic to indicate the involvement of
sunlight as energy source.
Ex: Cyanobacteria (blue -green bacteria,
prokaryotes), algae and green plants etc.
CHEMOAUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION : In this
type of nutrition, the organism can produce
their food by the help of chemical energy
and they do not require for sunlight. This
nutrition can be possible in night time too.
The common examples are: nitrifying
bacteria as nitrobactor, nitrosomonas,
sulphur bacteria and iron bacteria.
HETEROTROPHIC MODE OF NUTRITION IN
The process of nutrition by means of which plants
unable to synthesize food matters, depend upon other
living host plants or dead decaying organic matters for
nutrition, is called heterotrophic mode of nutrition. The
plants are called heterotrophic plants.
AN INSECTIVOROUS PLANT
PARASITIC NUTRITION : The process by which the plant obtain their necessary
nutrition from any other living plants or animals is called parasitic nutrition.
Plants drawing in nourishment are called parasites and from which nutrients
are drawn in are called hosts. Parasites generally
suck in the nutrients by haustoria of
their adventitious roots.
Ex- Cuscuta reflexa, Rafflesia arnoldi .
SAPROPHYTIC NUTRITION : The nutrition of certain
non-green plants which draw their nourishment from the dead and
decomposed organic substance formed as a result of decay of plants
and animals is termed saprophytic nutrition .
Ex- Mucor, Agaricus.
SYMBIOTIC NUTRITION : When two organisms live in close association with each
other for their mutual benefit in nutrition, the type of nutrition is called symbiotic
nutrition. Each of the pair is called symbiont and the mode of their association is
Examples : (i) Lichen – an association between an alga and fungus.
Alga obtains water, Co2, minerals from the fungus
whereas fungus draws in carbohydrate type of food matters
and oxygen from alga and protects the alga from drying up.
INSECTIVOROUS NUTRITION : Some non-green plants which are unable of drawing
nitrogenous nutrients from soil secure the same from insects. These plants are called
insectivorous plants. The process of nutrition by which these plants take in insects and
digest the protein part within the body with the help of certain plants is called
Ex : (i) Pitcher plant, (ii) Bladderwort.
NUTRITION IN ANIMALS :
Heterotrophic mode of nutrition – Animals do
not have the capability of trapping the energy
from the sun. Hence, they cannot prepare
organic food from inorganic substances. They
depend on readymade food that is plants,
animals and obtain the energy by burning the
organic molecules of the food in their body.
This mode of nutrition is known as
MODE OF NUTRITION.
THEY ARE HOLOZOIC
HOLOZOIC NUTRITION : It is a method of nutrition that involves the ingestion
of liquid or solid organic material, digestion, absorption and assimilation of it
to utilize it. It includes taking in the complex substances and converting them
into simpler forms.
LIONS ARE HOLOZOIC
This consists of 5 stages –
Ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion.
Ex – Humans, Amoeba.
SAPROZOIC NUTRITION : Some unicellular organism absorb liquid organic
substances from their environment and use them as food for their body. They
are term as saprozoic feeders and the mode of nutrition is called saprozoic
FRUGIVORIC NUTRITION : Some animals such as parrot and squirrel are
depend on fruit and seeds. They are called Frugivores. And the nutrition is
named as frugivoric nutrition.
PARROTS ARE FRUGIVORIC
An insectivore is a type of carnivoreNUTRITION
with a diet that consists
chiefly of insects and similar small creatures. Thus, their mode of
nutrition is called insectivorous nutrition.
Examples of insectivores include different species
of Chameleons, nightingales, aardwolves, echidnas,
swallows, anteaters, carp, frogs, lizards, bats, and spiders.
some animals obtain their food from a living host. They are called parasites
and the mode of nutrition is called parasitic nutrition. It is of two types.
(i) Ectoparasitic (ii)Endoparasitic
Ectoparasites are those, which acquire their food by living on the body
surface of their host and obtain nourishment by sucking blood.
This mode of nutrition is called Ectoparasitic nutrition.
For example head lice, dog fleas and leeches etc.
Endoparasites are those, which obtain their food by living inside the bodies
of their hosts. They obtain food from blood or directly. This mode of
nutrition is called Endoparasitic nutrition. Hookworms, tape worms and
blood fluke are the example of endoparasites.
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