Steam engine

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This presentation contains all the slides related to a steam engine. I will recommend to download and view it because then only the hyperlinks and other additional effects will work. The whole ppt. is automatic....No need to use the "enter key" or "mouse click". just use the hyperlinks. Also there are three videos embedded in the ppt. They all will not be played as in powerpoint, videos are linked not embedded. So if you need the videos contact me at : alfu.zahedi@gmail.com or alfuonthenet@gmail.com. Also there are some sound effects, keep your volume up while viewing it. Enjoy viewing.

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Steam engine

  1. 1. HOW DOES A STEAM ENGINE WORKS? CREATED BY: ALFARHAN ZAHEDI(06)
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMEN TI want to express my special thanks of gratitude to my computer teacher Mr. Manoj Shah and school principal Mrs. Swagata Banarjee for giving me the golden opportunity to do this project on the topic “HOW DOES A STEAM ENGINEWORKS” which forced me to do a lot of research and thus we come to know about new things and thus increased our treasury of knowledge. Secondly , we would like to thank our parents who had helped us in completing the project within the limited period of time. THANKSAGAINTO ALLTHOSEWHO HELPED ME!!!!
  3. 3. WORKING OF A STEAM ENGINE IS RELATED TO THESE THREE TERMS: • WORK •ENERGY
  4. 4. WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
  5. 5. “THUS, WORK,ENERGY & POWER ARE RELATED TO EACH OTHER” WORK • WORK IS SAID TO BE DONE BY A FORCE ON AN OBJECT WHEN THE FORCE APPLIED CAUSES A DISPLACEMENT IN THE OBJECT IN ITS OWN DIRECTION. •WORK DONE = FORCE X DISPLACEMENT ENERGY •THE CAPACITY OF DOING WORK IS KNOWN AS ENERGY POWER •RATE OF DOING WORK IS KNOWN AS POWER. •POWER =WORK DONE /TIME TAKEN
  6. 6. WORKING OF A STEAM ENGINE
  7. 7. WHAT IS A STEAM ENGINE ? A STEAM ENGINE is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. Steam engines are external combustion engines, where the working fluid is separate from the combustion products. Non-combustion heat sources such as solar power, nuclear power or geothermal energy may be used.Water is heated into steam in a boiler until it reaches a high pressure. When expanded through pistons or turbines, mechanical work is done.The reduced-pressure steam is then released into the atmosphere or condensed and pumped back into the boiler.The ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle.
  8. 8. A BRIEF INTROSteam engines were the first engine type to see widespread use. They were first invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1705, and James Watt (who we remember each time we talk about "60-watt light bulbs" and the such) made big improvements to steam engines in 1769. Steam engines -powered all early locomotives, steam boats and factories, and therefore acted as the foundation of the Industrial Revolution. This “POWERPOINT PRESENTATION”, will show exactly how steam engines work! THOMAS NEWCOMEN JAMES WATT  CONT.(click here)
  9. 9. Animation of a schematic Newcomen steam engine. – Steam is shown pink and water is blue. – Valves move from open (green) to closed (red) The way the Newcomen engine work what with a piston in a cylinder connected to a rocker arm attached to a pump. First the cylinder was filled with steam from a boiler. This pushed the piston up. Then water was sprayed into the cylinder creating a vacuum. This pushed the piston down pulling the pump rod on the other side of the rocker arm up, thus lifting the water. The opening and closing of valves for the alternating injection of steam and water was self- actuating so the engine and pump could operate continuously. The Newcomen engine solved the problem of pumping water from the deep mines. Despite a high cost of £1000 about 1500 were put into operation. NEWCOMEN’S STEAM ENGINE -THE FIRST STEAM ENGINE (IT’S WORKING PRINCIPLE) CYLINDER WATER TUB CONT.(click here)
  10. 10. HOW DOES A STEAM ENGINE WORK? Steam Engine Operation The following diagram shows the major components of a piston steam engine. This sort of engine would be typical in a steam locomotive. The engine shown is a double-acting steam engine because the valve allows high-pressure steam to act alternately on both faces of the piston. The following animation shows the engine in action. You can see that the slide valve is in charge of letting the high-pressure steam into either side of the cylinder. The control rod for the valve is usually hooked into a linkage attached to the cross-head, so that the motion of the cross-head slides the valve as well. (On a steam locomotive, this linkage also allows the engineer to put the train into reverse.) You can see in this diagram that the exhaust steam simply vents out into the air. This fact explains two things about steam locomotives: •It explains why they have to take on water at the station -- the water is constantly being lost through the steam exhaust. •It explains where the "choo-choo" sound comes from. When the valve opens the cylinder to release its steam exhaust, the steam escapes under a great deal of pressure and makes a "choo!" sound as it exits. When the train is first starting, the piston is moving very slowly, but then as the train starts rolling the piston gains speed. The effect of this is the "Choo..... choo.... choo... choo choo-choo-choo" that we hear when it starts moving. On a steam locomotive, the cross-head normally links to a drive rod, and from there to coupling rods that drive the locomotive's wheels CONT.(click here)
  11. 11. Boilers The high-pressure steam for a steam engine comes from aboiler. The boiler's job is to apply heat to water to create steam. There are two approaches: fire tube and water tube. A fire-tube boiler was more common in the 1800s. It consists of a tank of water perforated with pipes. The hot gases from a coal or wood fire run through the pipes to heat the water in the tank, as shown in the beside diagram. In a fire-tube boiler, the entire tank is under pressure, so if the tank bursts it creates a major explosion. CONT.(click here)
  12. 12. Boilers More common today are water-tube boilers, in which water runs through a rack of tubes that are positioned in the hot gases from the fire. The following simplified diagram shows you a typical layout for a water-tube boiler: In a real boiler, things would be much more complicated because the goal of the boiler is to extract every possible bit of heat from the burning fuel to improve efficiency. To see a video on the working of a Locomotive Steam Engine(without sound effects) ,click the blue “PLAY” button below, with sound effects click the orange “PLAY” button, or to see another video with sound effects on the working of the steam locomotive engine click the green “PLAY” button, else click the “ARROW”. CONT.(click here)
  13. 13. Click the arrow to skip the video SKIP VIDEO Click the arrow to a see another video NEXT VIDEO SEEAGAIN
  14. 14. Click the arrow to skip the video SKIP VIDEO Click the arrow to a see another video NEXT VIDEO SEEAGAIN
  15. 15. Click the arrow to skip the video SKIP VIDEO SEEAGAIN
  16. 16. HOW IS THE WORKING OF THE STEAM ENGINE RELATED TO WORK,ENERGY AND POWER The sun is the ultimate source of all forms of energy. Long ago, plants and animals which had derived the energy from the sun in the food were buried under the earth after their death. Due to high temperature and pressure under the surface of the earth, the biomass of dead animals and plants was converted into the fossil fuels like coal, petroleum and natural gas. These fuels store chemical energy which is converted into heat energy when the fuel burns. Thus the heat energy from the sun is converted into chemical energy, stored in coal, and is converted in to heat energy, when burnt . This heat energy in the boiler of a steam engine converts water into water vapour, which means that the heat energy gets converted into mechanical energy of water vapour. This mechanical energy is used to run machines like the steam locomotive as shown the video previously. Thus work is done and power is also generated. CLICK THE ARROW TO SEE THE FLOW CHART FLOW CHART
  17. 17. ENERGY FROM THE SUN FORMATIO N OF COAL CHEMICAL ENERGY GETS STORED IN COAL HEAT ENERGY CONVERTS WATER INTO WATER VAPOUR CHEMICAL ENERGY GETS CONVERTED INTO HEAT ENERGY COAL EXTRACTE D AND BURNT HEAT ENERGY GETS CONVERTED INTO MECHANICAL ENERGY IN THE WATER VAPOUR MECHANICAL ENRGY IS USED TO RUN STEAM LOCOMOTIVES OR OTHER MACHINES WORK IS DONE AND POWER IS GENERATED CONT.(clickhere)
  18. 18. BIBLIOGRAPHY We have taken help from the flowing sources: •Internet— www.wipepedia.org www.howstuffworks.com www.google.co.in www.youtube.com • Books— Dinesh SUPER SIMPLIFIED SCIENCE (PHYSICS) CONT.(click here)
  19. 19. CONT.(click here)
  20. 20. PRESENTED BY: • ALFARHAN ZAHEDI(06) • AKASH PAUL(05) CLASS – IX CLICK THE ARROW TO SEE THE PRESENTATION AGAIN OR PRESS “ESCAPE” BUTTON SEE AGAIN

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