● History of construction.
● Building constuction phases. (1-32)
History of construction
● The history of
construction is a
history of building
materials, the history of
engineering, the history
of building techniques,
economic and social
history of builders and
workmen, the history of
and temporary works etc
History of construction
Each of these has a complex literature devoted to it,
but it perhaps worth providing the briefest of
summaries here in the hope that others will start new
more detailed pages.
● Stone is a natural material we extract from quarries.
● Stone walls are a kind of masonry construction which
have been made for thousands of years. First they were
constructed by farmers and primitive people by piling
loose field stones in what is called a dry stone wall,
then later with the use of mortar and plaster especially
in the construction of city walls, castles, and other
fortifications prior to and during the Middle Ages.
● In the most
general sense of
the word, a
cement is a
sets and hardens
and can bind
● Cement is a construction material , a mix of pulverized
natural soil with small amount of portland cement and
water, usually processed in a tumble, compacted to high
density. Hard, semi-rigid durable material is formed by
hydration of the cement particles.
● Soil cement is frequently used as a construction material
for pipe bedding, slope protection, and road construction
as a subbase layer reinforcing and protecting the
subgrade. It has good compressive and shear strength,
but is brittle and has low tensile strength, so it is prone
to forming cracks.
● Concrete is a composite
construction material composed
of cement (commonly Portland
cement) and other cementitious
materials such as fly ash and
slag cement, aggregate
(generally a coarse aggregate
made of gravels or crushed
rocks such as limestone, or
granite, plus a fine aggregate
such as sand), water, and
● Concrete solidifies and hardens after mixing with
water and placement due to a chemical process
known as hydration. The water reacts with the
cement, which bonds the other components
together, eventually creating a robust stone-like
material. Concrete is used to make pavements,
pipe, architectural structures, foundations,
motorways/roads, bridges/overpasses, parking
structures, brick/block walls and footings for
gates, fences and poles.
● Plaster is a soft solid , that we
normally use for aesthetic
purposes, to cover brick walls
wich have a rough surface
● Plaster comes from gypsum.
We extract gypsum from the
quarry , and then grind it.
When ground gypsum is
mixed with water, it becomes
a paste and we can spread it
on interior walls .
● Advantages :
● Gives a smooth surface
and has a nice finish.
● It's easy to work with.
● It's a good sound and
● It's resitant to fire.
● It's weak.
● It absorbs water.
● Itś the oldest artificial
● Firstly it was used for pottery,
but now we use it in
construction, for example, for
making bricks to make walls.
● Bricks have the advantadge
of beign cheap and durable,
and they require very little
A ceramic is an inorganic, non-metallic solid
prepared by the action of heat and subsequent
cooling. Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or
partly crystalline structure, or may be amorphous .
Because most common ceramics are crystalline, the
definition of ceramic is often restricted to inorganic
crystalline materials, as opposed to the non-
Types of construction
● In general, there are three types of
● 1. Building construction
● 2. Heavy / civil construction
● 3. Industrial construction
● Each type of construction project
requires a unique team to plan,
design, construct, and maintain the
Building construction phases
In the fields of architecture and civil engineering,
construction is a process that consists of the
building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from
being a single activity, large scale construction is a
feat of human multitasking. Normally, the job is
managed by a project manager, and supervised by
a construction manager, design engineer,
construction engineer or project architect.
Building construction phases
For the successful execution of a project, effective
planning is essential. Those involved with the
design and execution of the infrastructure in
question must consider the environmental impact of
the job, the successful scheduling, budgeting,
construction site safety, availability of building
materials, logistics, inconvenience to the public
caused by construction delays, and bidding, etc.
● 1 Choose Your New
House Building Site
● When prospecting for
a building site to build
your new house
choose the site with
the assistance of a
real estate agent,
architect, or engineer.
● 2 Have Your Design
● Design your house
building plans for your
● The architectural team
will draw up your
home plans to meet
state and local
Phases 3 and 4
● 3 Review the House Plans
● The architect reviews the
home building plans and
schedules with the clients.
● 4 Obtain Permits
● The architect or home
builder applies for the
necessary building permits
Phases 5 and 6
● 5 Land Clearing
● The excavator uses heavy
equipment to clear the land of
trees, shrubbery, and brush and
a driveway access is created to
your home building site.
● 6 House Layout (trazado)
● A general contractor or engineer
layouts out the home location.
Phases 7 and 8
● 7 Installation of Septic, Well and
other Utilities Begins
● Utility installation often begins
now although your project
coordinator may leave these
items toward the end of the home
● 8 Excavation
● Excavators and heavy equipment
begin the excavation preparing
the land for the footings.
Phases 9 (1 and 2)
● 9 House Footings
● The general contractor or the mason contractor
pours the footings. In heavy populated areas your
footing contractor may be a subcontractor for the
foundation wall contractor.
● 9 Foundation Walls
● Two common foundation wall types are block
foundation and poured concrete foundation walls.
Your concrete floor is commonly poured after the
forms are stripped for the foundation walls.
Phases 10 and 11
● 10 Back-fill
● The excavator back-fills after the
foundation walls are poured. Some
contractors prefer to have the floor
joists set prior to this back-fill to tie
the walls together.
● 11 House Floor Framing
● Carpenters or a framing crew frame
the floor joists and apply decking
material to the floor joists.
Phases 12 and 13
12 Wall Framing
Carpenters or framers build exterior walls. Interior
walls are often constructed at this stage although the
interior partition walls may also be built after the roof
13 Roof Framing
The carpenter now frames the roof complete with
sheathing. The walls may also be sheathed at this point
if they were not sheathed during the wall framing
stage. Decorative rakes and fascia boards may be
added at this stage if adding a little extra style to your
home is desired.
Phases 14 and 15
● 14 Framing Inspection
● Your building inspector inspects all phrases of
construction at this point. Be sure to review the
inspection schedule with your local building inspector as
there may be many additional inspections required prior
● 15 Roofing
● When the home is ready for the roofing, the general
contractor or the roofing contractor apply the shingles.
Asphalt, fiberglass, cedar, and slate shingles are options
with metal shingles and metal panels becoming
● 16 Window and Exterior
● Carpenters now install
your windows and exterior
doors. If you choose to go
with an exterior (rigid)
insulation to increase the
R-value of your home this
will be installed after the
window and exterior door
● 17 Siding Installation
● The builder or siding
contractor now applies the
siding for your new home.
Popular options include vinyl,
aluminum, and cedar siding.
When incorporating vinyl and
cedar siding adding a
decorative shake style siding
for the gables is becoming
Phases 18 and 19
● 18 HVAC Work
● HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air
Conditioning) is now installed. In some areas the
HVAC contractor may be the same as the
● 19 Plumbing Installation
● At this point in the construction process the
plumber installs the rough plumbing.
Phases 20 and 21
● 20 Electrical
● The electrical contractor now installs the rough electrical
work including the breaker panel, wiring and boxes.
● 21 Insulation
● The insulation contractor or the general contractor
insulates the walls. The ceiling is also insulated in vaulted
areas if there is no attic access to this area. The ceiling is
more commonly insulated after the drywall stage with
blown in insulation.
● 22 Drywall
● A drywall contractor
which may be your
now installs your
drywall. Drywall is
referred to as
Sheetrock or gypsum
● 23 Drywall Finishing
● The drywallers tape the
joints with drywall
compound after the
drywall is installed.
They then apply up to
2 additional coats of
over the tape and
Phases 24 and 25
● 24 Painting
● Wall painting may be accomplished at this stage,
or be completed after the finish trim installation.
● 25 Cabinet and Finish Trim Installation
● The finish carpenter now installs the cabinets and
trim boards including the baseboard and window
casing. Decorative crown moldings remain
popular in kitchen and dining rooms.
● 26 Flooring
● There are many
popular flooring styles
to choose from. Having
a variety of finished
floor styles is very
common with the
vinyl, hardwood, and
Phases 27 and 28
● 27 Finish Plumbing
● The finish plumbing
includes setting the
sink, bath fixtures,
showers, tubs, and
● 28 Finish Electrical
● The electrician
completes the finish
electrical work at this
installing the outlets,
switches, and light
Phases 29 and 30
● 29 Finish HVAC
● The cover plates are
now installed over the
registers and air returns
for the HVAC system.
If a fireplace is desired
in your home your
HVAC contractor often
installs fireplaces with
the quote for the
● 30 Final Concrete
● The driveway and final
concrete work include
the sidewalks, optional
concrete front porch,
garage floor, and pads
for hot tubs.
● 31 Deck
● Deck construction now takes
place by the general
contractor. Hot tubs are often
incorporated into deck
designs. Be sure to discuss the
potential placement of a hot
tub onto your deck with your
contractor as the immense
weight requires additional
● 32 Landscaping
and trees with
the grass or sod
for your new
lawn to add a