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嶺南 完成版 With Reference  By Vince Cheung

嶺南 完成版 With Reference By Vince Cheung






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    嶺南 完成版 With Reference  By Vince Cheung 嶺南 完成版 With Reference By Vince Cheung Presentation Transcript

    • Lingnan Culture Alex Vince Karen Kylie
    • Brief Introductin to Lingnan culture
    • About Lingnan Lingnan ( 嶺南 ) is a geographic area referring to lands in the south of China's "Five Ranges" which are Qitian, Dayu, Dupang, Mengzhu, Yuecheng. Nowadays, on the administrative aspect, the region covers the Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, provinces of southern China and northern Vietnam. Hunan and Jiangxi are not included.
      • Sub Tropical areas
        • Summer: Hot and Humid
        • Winter: Cold but no snow
    • About Lingnan Hainan Guangxi Guangdong
    • About Lingnan culture
      • Divided into three subcultures
      • - Guangdong culture
      • - Chaozhou culture
      • - Hakka culture
      • High-context culture
      • - Long lasting relationship
      • - Communicate by shared code
      • - Agreements tend to be spoken then written
    • About Lingnan culture
      • Collectivism vs Individualism
      • Individualism Lingnan Culture Collectivism
        • Contain both collectivism and individualism element, but more focus on collectivism
    • About Lingnan culture
        • Depend upon subcultures
      • High uncertainty avoidance
      • Concept of space
        • Both private and public activities are utilized
        • Encourage more public space
      About Lingnan culture About Lingnan culture
    • History's Impact on Lingnan Culture
    • History's Impact on Lingnan Culture Lingnan culture is a regional culture, with local characteristics, formed in a certain stage of historical development. It is scarcely impacted by historical events of Central Plain of Classical China. The impact form the history of mondern China is important to Lingnan culture.
    • History's Impact on Lingnan Culture Roots of Lingnan culture Lingnan region developed late in history. It was regarded as "completely apart from the land". In Han and Tang period Lingnan become an important gateway for foreigners. Buddhist culture and Arab culture is introduced to Lingnan. Origional South Yue culture is formed Modern Lingnan culture Guangzhou was developed as the trade center, a port city and "Marine Silk Road". The feature of paying attention to the interests was formed while people were willing to open, to accept new things, to learn and to take risks. In late Ming Dynasty, Lingnan was most active commercial region, so Lingnan people became anti-traditional spirit and innovative. In late Qing Dynasty, introducing of modern western culture has great impact on Lingnan culture
    • Historical Events' Impact on Lingnan Culture Signing Treaty of Nanking (1842) In terms of the Treaty of Nanking or Treaty of Nanjing, signed 29 August 1842, Guangzhou was one of five cities which are opened for trade as a commercial port. An Influx of westerners, western culture, religous and thought made a great impact on every aspect of the culture of local pople.
    • Historical Events' Impact on Lingnan Culture Modern Lingnan cultural dissemination and development, are mainly driven by college education. The establishment of of Colleges in Qing After the mid-Qing, There has been impacts of Western thought in Lingnan region. There is also concern among scholars. In order to cope with the situation, 『 Guoxue the body, Western learning for use 』 is promoted by Qing government in Guangxu fifteen years (1889). Many colleges were established, such Xuehai Hall. These colleges foster many academics that has great impacts to the society and to the thought of many Chinese. For example, Liang Qichao, Kang Youwei who hold Reform Movement.
    • Historical Events' Impact on Lingnan Culture Chinese Economic Reform In this big programme, Guangzhou is defined as one of the “Economic Spcial Region” . Centrol government of China put great effort on developing Guangzhou. Whole city is commerce - oriented. The fast development lead to modernization of the culture. Pragmatism, Utilitarianism and Individualism has became the leading philosophy of Contonese.
    • Lingnan Dining Culture
    • Lingnan Dining Culture Due to the geographical features of the living environment, Lingnan people have their distinctive dining culture when comparing to the people living in Central Plain (Zhōngyuán) of China. Lingnan borders "Five Ranges" in the north and face to South China Sea. Lingnan has the Tropic of Cancer traversing, so the temperate climate and abundant rainfall is advantageous to the agriculture and the fishery.The products and food materials are rich and various. Moreover, with the introduction of Western diet characteristic, it accomplishes Lingnan's diverse and the bright diet culture.
    • Tea Culture
      • Gōongfu Chá Dào ( 工夫茶 )
      • known as "Kung Fu Tea Ceremony"
      • a famous tradition of Chaozhou
      • How to brew tea is considered to be an art
      • As a sign of respect eg. To welcome guests
      • Yum cha (Drinking tea)
      • Dinning in chálou--Guandong (Cantonese)
      • style teahouses
      • A lifestyle, an enjoyment
      • For family gathering
      • Can be breakfast, brunch or afternoon tea
      • An essential cultural element in social life
      • of Lingnan people
        • Dim sum
      • A traditional Chinese cuisine in which small portions of a variety of foods, including an assortment of steamed or fried dumplings, are served in succession.
      • Usually along with Chinese tea
      • Can be snacks or meal
      • Inclue different cooking skills
      • A Chinese cuisine signature
      • Wide variety
        • Main eg. Bau, Rice noodle rolls,Gao,Cakes
        • Sweets eg. Egg tart, Jin deui, Dou fu fa
        • Special eg. Phoenix talons, Lotus leaf rice
        • Famous Dim sum Dishes
        • An Dim sum menu
      Prawn Dumplings Prawn Dumplings Fresh Prawn Rice Flour Rolls Siew Mai Century Egg & Lean Meat Congee Chinese Herbal Jell y Beef Ball Horfun
        • Lingnan cuisine — Yue cài
      Yue cài ( 粵菜 ) is one of Chinese famous four main dishes. It consists of Guǎngdōng cài (Cantonese cuisine) 、 Cháozhou cài (Teochew cuisine) and Dongjiang cài (Hakka cuisine). Yue cài has high reputation in the world.
      • Guǎngdōng cài (Cantonese cuisine) — Main body of Yue cai
      • So-called " for food it's Guangzhou ", of all China's regional cuisines, that of Canton (Guangdong) province is recognized to be the best and has been considered so for centuries.
      • Freshness is the keyword in Guǎngdōng cài
      • Appearance is fine
      • Dverse food materials eg. game, insects, animals viscus
      • "Any animal, whose back faces sky, can be eaten."
      • “ Hé” (means harmony) is the spirit of Guǎngdōng cài, reflecting Chinese traditional moral outlook — harmony.
      • Innovation is emphasized
      • Twice-daily trips to the fresh vegetable and meat markets are still the custom for traditionalist housewives.
        • Lingnan cuisine — Guǎngdōng cài
      Seafood is cooked when it has just been caught Beef entrails Good appearance
    • Daily Double-boil Soup
        • Famous Guǎngdōng cài Dishes
      Dalang Double skin milk Roasted suckling pig Dung Gong - Salt baked chicken Steamed grouper fish Superior Stock
      • Cháozhou cài (Teochew cuisine)
      • Cháozhou cài has thousand years history in China.
      • It has unique flavor.
      • “ Cháozhou cài looks at the appetizers”
      • Cháozhou cài has various appetizers
      • Seasoning is important
      • Diverse cooking methords
      • Good at cooking seafood.Seafood, ducks and geese are much favored by the Chiu Chow people
      • Different dishes according to seasons
      • Usually for a late night dinner known as "da lang" ( 打冷 ) among the Cantonese.
        • Lingnan cuisine — Cháozhou cài
        • Famous Cháozhou cài dishes
      Spiced goose,Chaozhou style Braised sea cucumber in brown sauce Braised bird's nest with eggs Roast goose,Chaozhou style
        • Lingnan Music
        • Lingnan Music
      There are many different nations in Lingnan. Due to different nations and different languages, many different kinds of music are developed in Lingnan. They include Chaozhou opera( 潮劇 )﹑Yuèjù ( 粵劇 )﹑Hakka hill songs ( 客家山歌 )﹑Qiong Opera ( 瓊劇 ) ﹑Han Opera ( 漢劇 )﹑Yuedong fishmen's songs ( 粵東漁歌 ) and Guangdong Xiaoqu ( 廣東小曲 ) Here, Chaozhou opera ﹑Yuèjù and Hakka hill songs will be introduced briefly.
        • Lingnan Music - Chaozhou opera
      • Chaozhou opera ( 潮劇 ) is a traditional and regional art form which has a history of more than 430 years.
      • Popular in Guangdong 、 Fujian 、 HongKong and Taiwan
      • Developed from “Nanxi Opera of Song Yuan Dynasty ”( 宋元南戲 )
      • Clowns and females are the most distinctive characters
      • Sang( 生 ) 、 Daan( 旦 ) and Cau( 醜 ) have most local color in Chaozhou opera
        • Lingnan Music - Yuèjù
      Yuèjù - Cantonese opera ( 粵劇 ) Yueju opera combines Mandarin operatic traditions and Cantonese dialect. Rooted in the Cantonese-speaking provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi, Yueju opera is characterized by a combination of string and percussion instruments, with elaborate costumes and face painting. It also incorporates stunts and fights using real weapons and drawing on the Shaolin martial arts, as illustrated by the central Wenwusheng role that demands proficiency in both singing and fighting. It has developed a rich repertoire of stories ranging from historical epics to more realistic descriptions of daily life.
        • Lingnan Music - Yuèjù
      • Features of Yuèjù Opera
      • Writers put words into this pool of melodies and tunes. Singers add own personal variation and style to the melody when they sing it.
      • Six major roles: Wenwusheng (man of both letters and martial arts) Xiaosheng (Personated young man)
      • Wu sheng (cavalier)
      • Chousheng (clown)
      • Zhengyinhuadan (female characters)
      • Erbanghuadan (young woman)
      • Two types — "Mun"﹕intellectual, polite, and cultured.Characters are either scholars, royalty.
      • — "Mo"﹕martial arts. Characters are generals or warriors.
      • Absorption of Western music composition eg. musical instruments absorbed violin, guitar, etc.
        • Lingnan Music - Hakka hill songs
      • Hakka hill songs
      • Hakka hill songs is a unique regional muisc. It is the art that Hakka people expressing their lives.
      • Used as a form of communication at a distance.
      • Usually are love songs for young men to express
      • their love to the girls
      Hakka hill song festival Famous hill song singerXu Qiuju
      • The melody have higher pitch so that can the sound can travel far
      • Contains “ fu bi xing” (賦比興) — a writing way in Chinese literature
    • Religious in Lingnan Region
    • Religious in Lingnan Region
      • Buddhism
      • Taoism
      • Christianity
      • Catholicism
      • Islam
      • Lingnan was a business center in China
        • Foreigners arrive Guangzhou as their first stop in China few hundred years ago
        • Brings foreign culture, including religious into Lingnan region as well as China
        • Great influence to traditional Lingnan Culture
      History of Lingnan Religious
      • “ Mid-point” between Chinese and Foreign Religious
        • Chinese monks go to India
        • Foreign Christians come to China
        • Guangzhou act as their departure/arrival port
        • Enhance the diversity of religion
      History of Lingnan Religious
    • Most Popular Religion in Lingnan – Taoism and Buddhism Guang Xiao Temple
      • Buddhism
        • Religion from India, but popular in Lingnan
        • Same as Taoism, Principle of Buddhism base on agriculture  Similar principle with Taoism
        • Many Lingnan people treat Taoism and Buddhism the same
    • Most Popular Religion in Lingnan – Taoism and Buddhism San Yuan Temple
      • Taoism
        • Chinese Traditional Region
        • Fit lifestyle and thought of Chinese People
      • Do not want to know the principal of religion
      • Hope religious can bless them and give them goodluck
      • Lingnan people will worship any kind of spirit, or even an Ancient Person
      • e.g. worship Buddha and Lu DongBin Together
      Lingnan people’s attitude to religious
      • Popular in worshiping Guan Yu (represent loyalty and wealth)
      • Hope he can bless the business and earn a lot from it
      Effect of religious to Lingnan Hospitality Industry Worshiping Guan Yu in restaurants
        • Lingnan Festivals
        • Chinese New Year
      • Date: The first day of a year in lunar calendar
      • Activities: fireworks display, visiting and greeting, lion and dragon dancingand many other great folklore-inspection events.
      • Of all the traditional Chinese festivals, the new Year was perhaps the most colorful and important.
      • A time for the Chinese to congratulate each other and themselves on having passed through another year.
        • Lantern Festival
      • Date: 15th of the first lunar month
      • Activities: Lanterns expositions, garden parties and firework displays
      • The New Year celebrations ended on the 15th of the First Moon with the Lantern Festival .
      • a day to celebrate the anniversary of their deliverance by the Jade Emperor as people were accused of killing his favorite goose.
        • Qingming Festival
      • Date: 12th of the 3rd lunar month
      • Activities: Cleaning ancestors' graves and holding memorial ceremonies, spring outing, and flying kites
      • A time for respect to ancestors.
      • The graves of deceased relatives are swept and tended, the memory of the dead cherished and offering of food may be made.
        • Dragon Boat Festival
      • Date: Date: 5th day of the 5th lunar month
      • Activities: Dragon Boat races and eating rice dumplings
      • Originally a religious practice, it is now purely recreational.
      • A day to celebrate the death of the poet Qu Yuan, who drowned himself in the 3rd Century BC as a protest against a corrupt government.
        • Mid-Autumn Festival
      • Date: 15th of the 8th lunar month
      • Activities: enjoying moonlight and eating moon cakes with families.
      • Probably the second most important festival in the Chinese calendar)
      • It celebrates the moon
      • In Chinese symbolism the moon symbolizes unity and wholeness and is a time for reunion of families. Abundant meals are eaten during the festival and moon cakes, round pastries filled with nuts, dried fruits, preserved flowers, sesame and/or marinated beef or bacon are eaten.
      Moon cakes
    • Impact of Chinese Festivals on Hospitality industry
      • Higher potential business opportunity
      • e.g. 1 In Mid Autumn Festival, different type of moon cakes are emerged in the market as the producer want to make use of the festival to earn more profit
      • e.g 2 Abundant meals on Chinese New Year and Mid-Autumn Festival will be promoted by Food & Beverage Industry to fit the demand of festivals
    • Impact of Chinese Festivals on Hospitality industry
      • Commercialization of Festival
      • e.g. Travel company may introduce particular cultural tour by combining the theme of traditional festivals
        • Lingnan Art
        • Chinese Painting
      • There are mainly two techniques in Chinese painting, which are
      • Meticulous - Gong-bi ( 工筆 ) often referred to as "court-style" painting
      • Freehand - Shui-mo ( 水墨 ) loosely termed watercolour or brush painting. The Chinese character "mo" means ink and "shui" means water.
      • one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world.
      • The earliest paintings were not representational but ornamental
      • They consisted of patterns or designs rather than pictures.
      • same techniques as calligraphy
      • done with a brush dipped in black or colored ink .
        • Lingnan School in painting
      • Innovation
      • Mainly painting views of Lingnan
      • Introducing Western painting skills
      • Integrating many different traditional skills
      The revolutionaries of traditional Chinese painting
        • Lingnan People
        • Nowadays Lingnan People
      • Practise orientation
      • With an open mind to gather, accept good advice
      • Influenced by Western culture, combined with traditional Chinese culture
      • Tend to perceptually understand problems and scientifically analysis problems
      • Pursue fresh and lively, pro-nature aesthetic ideals
      modern Lingnan culture has "practise", "new", "live", "change" four characteristics.
        • Modern Lingnan People
      “ Get the trend first” and “started the trend of the first” Pragmatism, Utilitarianism, focus on practicability Creative, innovative Still keeping traditional value in minds Pursue natural beauty Pursue mordern life Modern? Traditional?
    • The End
    • Reference
      • Tang Xiang, (1996), Lingnan culture and modern spirit and Future Development Strategies, Retrieved from http://www.gdass.gov.cn/CIC/llzt1097.htm
      • Yang D. C. (2003), About Lingnan People, Guangxi Caipiao Online, Retrieved from http://www.gxcaipiao.com/news/htmlnews/4248.htm
      • Guangzhou Culture Information Online (2007), Lingnan School, Overseas Chinese Language and Culture Education Online , Retrieved from http://big5.hwjyw.com/zhwh/regional_culture/lnwh/msgy/200705/t20070521_1065.shtml
      • Guangzhou Daily Post (2007), Overview of Lingnan Diet Culture, Overseas Chinese Language and Culture Education Online , Retrieved from http://big5.hwjyw.com/zhwh/regional_culture/lnwh/yswh/200705/t20070521_1179.shtml
      • China Culture. Org (No date), Yueju Opera, China Culture. Org, Retrieved from http://www.chinaculture.org/gb/en_artqa/2005-11/03/content_75445.htm
    • Reference
      • The Global Glourment (2007), Global Destination – Hong Kong, Retrieved from http://www.globalgourmet.com/destinations/hongkong/hkcuisine.html
      • Xinhua Net (2007), Guanghu Culture, Overseas Chinese Language and Culture Education Online , Retrieved from
      • http://big5.hwjyw.com/zhwh/regional_culture/lnwh/whjy/200705/t20070521_1035.shtml
      • Department of Culture Guangdong Province (2007), Lingnan Religious Outlined, People's Government of Guangdong Province portal site , Retrieved from http://big5.gd.gov.cn/gate/big5/www.gd.gov.cn/gdgk/lnwh/lnzj/200709/t20070927_21236.htm
      • Yum Cha Restaurant (No date), Menu, Retrieved from http://www.yumcha.com.sg/Menu.html