About Lingnan Lingnan ( 嶺南 ) is a geographic area referring to lands in the south of China's "Five Ranges" which are Qitian, Dayu, Dupang, Mengzhu, Yuecheng. Nowadays, on the administrative aspect, the region covers the Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, provinces of southern China and northern Vietnam. Hunan and Jiangxi are not included.
History's Impact on Lingnan Culture Lingnan culture is a regional culture, with local characteristics, formed in a certain stage of historical development. It is scarcely impacted by historical events of Central Plain of Classical China. The impact form the history of mondern China is important to Lingnan culture.
History's Impact on Lingnan Culture Roots of Lingnan culture Lingnan region developed late in history. It was regarded as "completely apart from the land". In Han and Tang period Lingnan become an important gateway for foreigners. Buddhist culture and Arab culture is introduced to Lingnan. Origional South Yue culture is formed Modern Lingnan culture Guangzhou was developed as the trade center, a port city and "Marine Silk Road". The feature of paying attention to the interests was formed while people were willing to open, to accept new things, to learn and to take risks. In late Ming Dynasty, Lingnan was most active commercial region, so Lingnan people became anti-traditional spirit and innovative. In late Qing Dynasty, introducing of modern western culture has great impact on Lingnan culture
Historical Events' Impact on Lingnan Culture Signing Treaty of Nanking (1842) In terms of the Treaty of Nanking or Treaty of Nanjing, signed 29 August 1842, Guangzhou was one of five cities which are opened for trade as a commercial port. An Influx of westerners, western culture, religous and thought made a great impact on every aspect of the culture of local pople.
Historical Events' Impact on Lingnan Culture Modern Lingnan cultural dissemination and development, are mainly driven by college education. The establishment of of Colleges in Qing After the mid-Qing, There has been impacts of Western thought in Lingnan region. There is also concern among scholars. In order to cope with the situation, 『 Guoxue the body, Western learning for use 』 is promoted by Qing government in Guangxu fifteen years (1889). Many colleges were established, such Xuehai Hall. These colleges foster many academics that has great impacts to the society and to the thought of many Chinese. For example, Liang Qichao, Kang Youwei who hold Reform Movement.
Historical Events' Impact on Lingnan Culture Chinese Economic Reform In this big programme, Guangzhou is defined as one of the “Economic Spcial Region” . Centrol government of China put great effort on developing Guangzhou. Whole city is commerce - oriented. The fast development lead to modernization of the culture. Pragmatism, Utilitarianism and Individualism has became the leading philosophy of Contonese.
Lingnan Dining Culture Due to the geographical features of the living environment, Lingnan people have their distinctive dining culture when comparing to the people living in Central Plain (Zhōngyuán) of China. Lingnan borders "Five Ranges" in the north and face to South China Sea. Lingnan has the Tropic of Cancer traversing, so the temperate climate and abundant rainfall is advantageous to the agriculture and the fishery.The products and food materials are rich and various. Moreover, with the introduction of Western diet characteristic, it accomplishes Lingnan's diverse and the bright diet culture.
Yue cài ( 粵菜 ) is one of Chinese famous four main dishes. It consists of Guǎngdōng cài (Cantonese cuisine) 、 Cháozhou cài (Teochew cuisine) and Dongjiang cài (Hakka cuisine). Yue cài has high reputation in the world.
There are many different nations in Lingnan. Due to different nations and different languages, many different kinds of music are developed in Lingnan. They include Chaozhou opera( 潮劇 )﹑Yuèjù ( 粵劇 )﹑Hakka hill songs ( 客家山歌 )﹑Qiong Opera ( 瓊劇 ) ﹑Han Opera ( 漢劇 )﹑Yuedong fishmen's songs ( 粵東漁歌 ) and Guangdong Xiaoqu ( 廣東小曲 ) Here, Chaozhou opera ﹑Yuèjù and Hakka hill songs will be introduced briefly.
Yuèjù - Cantonese opera ( 粵劇 ) Yueju opera combines Mandarin operatic traditions and Cantonese dialect. Rooted in the Cantonese-speaking provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi, Yueju opera is characterized by a combination of string and percussion instruments, with elaborate costumes and face painting. It also incorporates stunts and fights using real weapons and drawing on the Shaolin martial arts, as illustrated by the central Wenwusheng role that demands proficiency in both singing and fighting. It has developed a rich repertoire of stories ranging from historical epics to more realistic descriptions of daily life.
Activities: enjoying moonlight and eating moon cakes with families.
Probably the second most important festival in the Chinese calendar)
It celebrates the moon
In Chinese symbolism the moon symbolizes unity and wholeness and is a time for reunion of families. Abundant meals are eaten during the festival and moon cakes, round pastries filled with nuts, dried fruits, preserved flowers, sesame and/or marinated beef or bacon are eaten.
Impact of Chinese Festivals on Hospitality industry
Higher potential business opportunity
e.g. 1 In Mid Autumn Festival, different type of moon cakes are emerged in the market as the producer want to make use of the festival to earn more profit
e.g 2 Abundant meals on Chinese New Year and Mid-Autumn Festival will be promoted by Food & Beverage Industry to fit the demand of festivals
Impact of Chinese Festivals on Hospitality industry
Commercialization of Festival
e.g. Travel company may introduce particular cultural tour by combining the theme of traditional festivals
“ Get the trend first” and “started the trend of the first” Pragmatism, Utilitarianism, focus on practicability Creative, innovative Still keeping traditional value in minds Pursue natural beauty Pursue mordern life Modern? Traditional?
Tang Xiang, (1996), Lingnan culture and modern spirit and Future Development Strategies, Retrieved from http://www.gdass.gov.cn/CIC/llzt1097.htm
Yang D. C. (2003), About Lingnan People, Guangxi Caipiao Online, Retrieved from http://www.gxcaipiao.com/news/htmlnews/4248.htm
Guangzhou Culture Information Online (2007), Lingnan School, Overseas Chinese Language and Culture Education Online , Retrieved from http://big5.hwjyw.com/zhwh/regional_culture/lnwh/msgy/200705/t20070521_1065.shtml
Guangzhou Daily Post (2007), Overview of Lingnan Diet Culture, Overseas Chinese Language and Culture Education Online , Retrieved from http://big5.hwjyw.com/zhwh/regional_culture/lnwh/yswh/200705/t20070521_1179.shtml
China Culture. Org (No date), Yueju Opera, China Culture. Org, Retrieved from http://www.chinaculture.org/gb/en_artqa/2005-11/03/content_75445.htm
Department of Culture Guangdong Province (2007), Lingnan Religious Outlined, People's Government of Guangdong Province portal site , Retrieved from http://big5.gd.gov.cn/gate/big5/www.gd.gov.cn/gdgk/lnwh/lnzj/200709/t20070927_21236.htm
Yum Cha Restaurant (No date), Menu, Retrieved from http://www.yumcha.com.sg/Menu.html