OPEN SOURCESOFTWARESarvesh MauryaLucky JainGuided By-Vikas Sir
What is Open Source Software?• The program must be freely distributed.• Source code must be included.• Anyone must be allowed to modify the source code.• Modified versions can be redistributed.• The license must not require the exclusion of other software or interfere with the operation of other software.
Open Source By 2015, 80% of all commercial software will contain open source code.
The “Open” Standard• To comply with the Open Standards Requirement, an "open standard" must satisfy the following criteria. If an "open standard" does not meet these criteria, it will be discriminating against open source developers. • No Intentional Secrets: The standard MUST NOT withhold any detail necessary for interoperable implementation. As flaws are inevitable, the standard MUST define a process for fixing flaws identified during implementation and interoperability testing and to incorporate said changes into a revised version or superseding version of the standard to be released under terms that do not violate the OSR. • Availability: The standard MUST be freely and publicly available (e.g., from a stable web site) under royalty-free terms at reasonable and non-discriminatory cost.
The “Open” Standard (continued)• Patents: All patents essential to implementation of the standard MUST: • be licensed under royalty-free terms for unrestricted use, or • be covered by a promise of non-assertion when practiced by open source software• No Agreements: There MUST NOT be any requirement for execution of a license agreement, NDA, grant, click-through, or any other form of paperwork to deploy conforming implementations of the standard.• No OSR-Incompatible Dependencies: Implementation of the standard MUST NOT require any other technology that fails to meet the criteria of this Requirement.
Features of Open Source• 1. Free Redistribution• 2. Source Code• 3. Derived Works• 4. Integrity of The Authors Source Code• 5. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups•
Features of Open Source (Continued)• 6. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor• 7. Distribution of License• 8. License Must Not Be Specific to a Product• 9. License Must Not Restrict Other Software• 10. License Must Be Technology-Neutral
History• The Free Software Movement was started in 1983 but was later called Open Source Software because its more appealing to the corporate world.• Software developers release OSS to allow users to see how their software works and build upon the software.• The ultimate goals of OSS is to let the finished product be more understandable, modifiable, and accessible while it is still valuable
Urban Myths• Open Source is just a way to publish – No• Open Source is Public Domain – No• Open Source is Viral – Not Necessarily• Open Source is Immune from Patent Rights – No
The GNU “General Public License” (GPL)No standard open source license, but GPL most widelyused (roughly 85% of open source software);Terms include: 1.User freedom to distribute and/or modify 2.Requirement that original and modified source code be always made available to the world under the terms of the original license 3.Must retain copyright notices and warranty disclaimers 4.Does not include grant of patent licenses
The Mozilla Public LicenseTerms include: 1. Very similar to the GPL but, Can charge royalties for modified versions 2. Can include source code within larger works licensed under different license types, thus license does not ‘infect’ all downstream projects 3. Must retain copyright notices and warranty disclaimers 4. May provide additional warranties to downstream users but may have to indemnify original developer for any claims arising as a result 5. Include grant of patent licenses
The IBM Public License • Terms include: • User freedom to distribute and/or modify; • No requirement for source code availability in downstream distribution • The program can be distributed in executable form thus allowing downstream users to develop, sell, and install customized software packages without having to make all customizations available to the world • Must retain all copyright notices and warranty disclaimers
More common License• BSD/MIT/Apache Style License: • More permissive licenses • Generally allow freer distribution, modifying, and license change; much like public domain software • No future open source requirement • May require attribution • Variants may include non-standard restrictions • E.g., no military use – but not OSI-compliant • Disclaims Warranties • Subject to third-party patent claims
Using a GNU License• In order to comply with GNU standards, an author must include some things with the source code • A Copyright statement, with the year the program was finished • A permissions statement saying the program is released under the GNU or Lesser GPL • A copy of the GPL License itself
Leading OSS Open Office Implementation of Microsoft’s Office Ubuntu An Operating system Gimp Implementation of Adobe Photoshop Apache Server Most popular HTTP web server used
Open Source vs. Other Types• Closed Source • The source is private and owned by someone. Usually you’d have to pay for the source code if its even for sale. • Freeware • Free software. It has nothing to do with the source code being available or not.• Source Available • The source is available to look at, but not modify or distribute. Allows users to understand how the software is working.
Open Source Pros○ Take control of your software○ Low cost Ownership○ Less marketing and overall cost goes into making OSS○ Greater Security & Quality○ Continuity
Open Source Cons• There aren’t really any rules or steps to follow when developing. The lack of stages in developing can lower productivity in the long run.• Larger projects can become overwhelming to an unorganized group of programmers trying to develop OSS.• Open source solutions may require additional development to enable integration with an existing proprietary environment. Some open source solutions may never work well with established proprietary products
SOURCES• Wikipedia.org• Opensource.org• Gnu.org• Howstuffworks.com/question438.htm• Book (Google books) V., Mikko. The Rise of Open Source Licensing : A Challenge to the Use of Intellectual Property in the Software Industry