Designing a Cancer Fighting Diet:Over the last few years, cancer fighting diets have received a lot of attention due to th...
amount of ABC transporters such as breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP) and muti-drugresistance protein 2 (MDRP2).Phase ...
specializes in using the most current peer reviewed scientific research on cancer diagnostics,treatments, nutraceuticals, ...
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Designing a Cancer Fighting Diet

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Over the last few years, cancer fighting diets have received a lot of attention due to the findings that certain plant phytochemicals (also known as: Nutraceuticals), can provide an additional means of regulating the genes and processes that drive the initiation and progression of cancer. In this article, we will show you how you can utilize combinations of nutraceuticals to greatly improve their performance.

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Designing a Cancer Fighting Diet

  1. 1. Designing a Cancer Fighting Diet:Over the last few years, cancer fighting diets have received a lot of attention due to the findingsthat certain plant phytochemicals (also known as: Nutraceuticals), can provide an additionalmeans of regulating the genes and processes that drive the initiation and progression of cancer.Unfortunately, in order for nutraceuticals to inhibit cancer cells, they must be able to reachcertain blood (plasma) concentrations, typically in the uM (micromolar) range. However, due tometabolic processes, the plasma concentration never naturally reaches higher than the nM(nanomolar) range. The amount and length of time a neutraceutical remains in the body isreferred to as its bioavailability. The limited bioavailability of most nutraceuticals has been asignificant roadblock to their clinical application.However, there are approaches that can be used to increase the bioavailability of a nutraceuticaland lower the plasma concentrations required for cancer fighting properties. In this article, wewill show you how you can utilize combinations of nutraceuticals to greatly improve theirperformance. We will use the example of resveratrol, which is found in the skin of red grapesand other fruits, as it’s a commonly used nutraceutical that has been shown to have a proven rolein inhibiting many cancers.Although 70% of the resveratrol dose taken orally is absorbed by the body, the bioavailability ofresveratrol is low because it is rapidly metabolized in the intestines and liver into conjugatedforms (glucuronate and sulfonate). For example, with a 25 mg oral dose, only trace amounts(below 5 ng/mL) of free resveratrol can be detected in the blood. This is far below the amountrequired for its anti-cancer benefits to be realized. Furthermore, oral administration of doseshigher than 3000 mg per kg of body weight can be dangerous.Clearly, the low bioavailability of resveratrol limits its therapeutic use. However, it is possible togreatly improve resveratrol bioavailability by simultaneously incorporating other nutraceuticalsthat inhibit its metabolic break down.There is a synergistic effect typically found when combining certain nutraceuticals that is mostlikely explained by an over-saturation of the metabolic enzymes and pathways that degrade thesenutraceuticals individually. We can use this knowledge to improve the bioavailability ofresveratrol in two ways: • Through the use of combinations of nutraceuticals that specifically target the metabolic enzymes; and • By over-saturating the metabolic enzymes, using phytochemicals that compete to bind to them.The Metabolic Processes That Limit Resveratrol Bioavailability:There are three processes that inhibit the bioavailability of most nutraceuticals and drugs.This occurs when they attempt to cross the barrier from the intestines into the blood vessels thatgo to the liver. Here they are removed by ABC transporters and phase 1/II enzymes, referred toas metabolic enzymes. If they do reach the liver, they are attacked by a higher concentration ofthese enzymes, in addition to monoamine oxidase enzymes (MAOs).ABC Transporters:These transporters pump nutraceuticals (and drugs) out of the barrier that exists between theintestines and the blood vessels (enterocytes), back into the intestines. Cancer cells increase the
  2. 2. amount of ABC transporters such as breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP) and muti-drugresistance protein 2 (MDRP2).Phase 1 Enzymes:These enzymes target nutraceuticals and drugs with biochemical tags that allow them to beexcreted. One phase 1 enzyme, CYP3A4, is responsible for metabolizing the majority ofnutraceuticals and drugs.Phase II Enzymes:Phase II enzymes work by adding a sulfo-moiety (SULTs) or a B-glucuronide group (UGTs) tothe target nutraceutical or drug. The tagged nutraceutical is then recognized by the ABCtransporters and excreted back into the intestines.MAO Enzymes:These gut enzymes break down and inactivate nutraceuticals by removing functionalcomponents.The following section outlines the metabolic processes involved in the breakdown ofresveratrol and includes a selection of nutraceuticals that inhibit these processes. When thefollowing nutraceuticals are combined in specific amounts, they greatly improve thebioavailability of resveratrol by inhibiting its breakdown and excretion.ABC Transporters:MRP2 – Inhibited by EGCG (green tea), Quercetin (Red onion), Apigenin (Parsley)BCRP - Inhibited by Apigenin, Hesperetin (Peppermint), Naringenin (Rosemary)Phase 1 Enzymes:CYP3A4 – Inhibited by Naringenin, Kaempferol (Basil, Fennel), Grapefruit juicePhase II Enzymes:SULTs – Inhibited by Kaempferol, Apigenin, Genistein, CurcuminUGTs – Inhibited by EGCG/Quercetin/BiochaninA, Curcumin (Tumeric), Piperine (Pepper)MAO Enzymes:MAOA - Inhibited by Quercetin, Harmine, Harmaline (grapes, avocados, blackcurrants)Conclusion:Including all types of nutraceuticals based on their characterized mechanism can maximize thesynergistic effect and therefore lead to more of the cancer fighting properties of these substancesgetting through to your cells and therefore, directly influencing your cancer. Please visit ourwebsite or contact us directly if you are interested in learning more about CTOAM’spersonalized gene-targeted nutraceutical diets.Alex Rolland is a cancer researcher, educator, and CEO of Cancer treatment Options andManagement (www.CTOAM.com). CTOAM is a personalized cancer research company that
  3. 3. specializes in using the most current peer reviewed scientific research on cancer diagnostics,treatments, nutraceuticals, and clinical trials to educate patients on the treatments and diets thatprovide the best statistical chances for success.

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