Business english lesson 2
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  • 1. English for Effective CommunicationIt is not only what you say that matter, itis how you say it.
  • 2. Verbs and Prepositions Incorrect use of prepositions in English isvery common for non-native speakers. Andthis has two main reasons: 1. Non-native speakers focus more on themain parts of a sentence, i.e. the verb, thenouns, the adjectives etc.. rather than on thesmaller parts of a sentence, like prepositions. 2. Non-native speakers translate the verb andpreposition from their own language toEnglish, and frequently the preposition isdifferent or there isnt a preposition with theverb in their language.
  • 3. Verbs and PrepositionsBelow are a number of examples of verbs andtheir prepositions which are often different inother languages: to thank somebodyWhen we use this in English and give thereason, the preposition is for:I thank you for your understanding in thismatter.
  • 4. Verbs and Prepositions to attendLike many verbs in English, to attend hasdifferent meanings. It can mean to go tosomething, e.g. Im going to a party. Unlikein other languages, it doesnt use apreposition before the object/noun:I attended a meeting in Scotland last week.the receptionist about something he was nothappy about in the hotel.In the second sentence, the receptionist wasthe thing he wasnt happy about and he toldanother person.
  • 5. Verbs and Prepositions to complainIn some cases, the use of different prepositionsafter a verb changes the meaning of the sentence.For example, think about the difference in meaningbetween the following two uses of the verb tocomplain:He complained to the receptionist in the hotel.He complained about the receptionist in the hotel.In the first sentence, he told the receptionist aboutsomething he was not happy about in the hotel.In the second sentence, the receptionist was thething he wasnt happy about and he told anotherperson.
  • 6. Phrasal VerbsWhat is a phrasal verb? A phrasal verb is a verb followed by a preposition or an adverb;the combination creates a meaning different from the originalverb alone. Example :To get = to obtainI need to get a new battery for my camera.To get together = to meetWhy don’t we all get together for lunch one day?
  • 7. VerbsHow to use “prevent”The Lease does not provide for a period of timeduring which the Tenant is prevented to use thePremises.The Lease does not provide for a period of timeduring which the Tenant is prevented from usingthe Premises.
  • 8. Verbs WRONGThe Lease does not provide for a period of timeduring which the Tenant is prevented to use thePremises. RIGHTThe Lease does not provide for a period of timeduring which the Tenant is prevented from usingthe Premises.
  • 9. VerbsHow to use “prevent”The crew should be provided with training onhow to prevent sea contamination.The crew should be provided with training onhow to prevent from sea contamination.
  • 10. Verbs RIGHTThe crew should be provided with training onhow to prevent sea contamination. WRONGThe crew should be provided with training onhow to prevent from sea contamination.
  • 11.  Although the verb “prevent” takes the preposition“from”, it can also be used with no preposition.The rules are as follows: “prevent” + somethingThe soldiers prevented the evacuation.The automatic breathalyser prevents driving underthe influence of alcohol. “prevent” somebody from + -ingThe soldiers prevented the refugees fromevacuating.The automatic breathalyser prevents drivers fromdriving under the influence of alcohol.
  • 12. VerbsThe word “prohibit” works in exactly the same way: “prohibit” + something The law prohibits the construction of publicbuildings without adequate fire exits.The school rules prohibit smoking. “prohibit” somebody from + -ingThere are no specific provisions in the law thatwould prohibit an employer from summarilydismissing an employee due to his/hermisconduct.
  • 13. The verb “ban” also works in the same way: The government banned the advertising oftobacco products in 2002. The court convicted him of hooliganism andbanned him from attending football matches.
  • 14. VerbsAttached or enclosed?Please find the template agreement enclosedto this email.Please find the template agreement attachedto this email.
  • 15. VerbsAttached or enclosed? WRONGPlease find the template agreement enclosedto this email. RIGHTPlease find the template agreement attachedto this email.
  • 16. Verbs Emails have attachments – an attachment isattached to an email. Letters, or anything else sent by post orcourier, have enclosures – an enclosure isenclosed with a letter.For example:Please sign the POA enclosed with this letterand return it to us as soon as possible.
  • 17. The difference between “by” and “until”Write the report until 5 pm.Write the report by 5 pm.
  • 18. The difference between “by” and “until” WRONGWrite the report until 5 pm. RIGHTWrite the report by 5 pm.
  • 19.  Write the report until 5 pm means “Startwriting the report now, continue writing ituntil 5 pm, then stop writing it regardless ofwhether it is finished or not.” Write the report by 5 pm means “Make surethat at 5 pm the report is written andfinished”. As a preposition of time “by” means “on orbefore”.E.g. We will send you the documentsby Friday.
  • 20.  Use “by” when you refer to a deadline. “Until” means “up to a particular time”.E.g. We have until Friday to send out the documents. Use “until” when you refer to the period of time before adeadline. “By” is used to describe an action or event that happens on orbefore a particular moment.E.g. We expect to know the judgment by the end of November. “Until” is used to describe a state or situation in the period oftime up to a particular moment.E.g. The court proceedings are expected to last until November. You may think of “until” as referring to the moment a state orsituation changes.E.g. Comments on the draft may be submitted until 30 April2012.
  • 21.  Here’s a summary: 1. I can do it by 5 pm.Now → do it and finish it → 5 pm(it will be finished) 2. I can do it until 5 pm.Now → do it → 5 pm(I’ll stop even if I haven’t finished) 3. I can’t do it by 5 pm.Now → do it / not do it → 5 pm(either way it won’t be finished) 4. I can’t do it until 5 pm.Now → can’t do it → 5 pm(I’ll start)
  • 22. Write “wait until” NOT “wait with”The company does not have to wait with theredundancies until the termination periodends.The company does not have to wait until thetermination period ends before making theredundancies.
  • 23. Write “wait until” NOT “wait with” WRONGThe company does not have to wait with theredundancies until the termination periodends. RIGHTThe company does not have to wait until thetermination period ends before making theredundancies.
  • 24.  This mistake is very common among speakers of Slaviclanguages. It results from applying Slavic-language sentencestructure to English sentences. Here is an example of Polish sentence structure:Musimy poczekać z ostateczną oceną do maja 2012 r. It is wrong to use the same sentence structure in English, i.e.:We must wait with a final assessment until May 2012. The correct English translation uses a different structure, i.e.:We must wait until May 2012 before making a final assessment.The rule is as follows:WRONG: “wait with X until Y”RIGHT: “wait until Y before –ing X”
  • 25. More examples:As we cannot exclude that the registry court willask for further amendments in this respect, wesuggest waiting until the registry court accepts theamended version of the Statute before making theappointments.As we cannot exclude that the registry court willask for further amendments in this respect, wesuggest waiting with the appointments until theregistry court accepts the amended version of theStatute.
  • 26. More examples: RIGHTAs we cannot exclude that the registry court willask for further amendments in this respect, wesuggest waiting until the registry court accepts theamended version of the Statute before making theappointments. WRONGAs we cannot exclude that the registry court willask for further amendments in this respect, wesuggest waiting with the appointments until theregistry court accepts the amended version of theStatute.
  • 27. As the case has not yet been finally resolved,it seems advisable to wait with the analysisuntil the court issues the judgment.As the case has not yet been finally resolved,it seems advisable to wait until the courtissues the judgment before conducting theanalysis.
  • 28.  WRONGAs the case has not yet been finally resolved,it seems advisable to wait with the analysisuntil the court issues the judgment. RIGHTAs the case has not yet been finally resolved,it seems advisable to wait until the courtissues the judgment before conducting theanalysis.
  • 29. We are already prepared to apply for atemporary residence permit for him, but wemust wait with filing this application until hearrives to Ukraine.We are already prepared to apply for atemporary residence permit for him, but wemust wait until he arrives in Ukraine beforefiling this application.
  • 30.  WRONGWe are already prepared to apply for atemporary residence permit for him, but wemust wait with filing this application until hearrives to Ukraine. RIGHTWe are already prepared to apply for atemporary residence permit for him, but wemust wait until he arrives in Ukraine beforefiling this application.
  • 31. Please instruct whether we should start theregistration proceedings of the threeSupervisory Board members now or wait withit until you have delivered the documents onthe appointment of the other two members.Please instruct whether we should start theregistration proceedings of the threeSupervisory Board members now or wait untilyou have delivered the documents on theappointment of the other two members[before starting it].
  • 32.  WRONGPlease instruct whether we should start theregistration proceedings of the threeSupervisory Board members now or wait withit until you have delivered the documents onthe appointment of the other two members. RIGHTPlease instruct whether we should start theregistration proceedings of the threeSupervisory Board members now or wait untilyou have delivered the documents on theappointment of the other two members[before starting it].
  • 33. As of“As of” is a little phrase but I have a lot to say about it. Although itis very common in business writing it can create ambiguity ifused incorrectly.Ambiguity is caused by the fact that “as of” has three differentmeanings: on, since or from, depending on the context.Have a look at these sentences: The contract enters into force as of 1 January 2013. = on The contract has been effective as of 1 August 2011. = since The contract is effective as of 1 January 2013. = from
  • 34. Consider this sentence: The Company purchased 7,000 m3of wood as of 16September 2011. Does this mean the Company purchased (Past Simple)the wood on 16 September 2011, or does it mean theCompany has purchased (Present Perfect) the woodsince 16 September 2011? The fact that the writer usedthe Present Simple might lead the reader to think that allthe wood was bought on 16 September. But was thewriter aware of his choice of tense use?
  • 35. Consider this sentence: The Company purchased 7,000 m3of wood as of 16September 2011. Does this mean the Company purchased (Past Simple)the wood on 16 September 2011, or does it mean theCompany has purchased (Present Perfect) the woodsince 16 September 2011? The fact that the writer usedthe Present Simple might lead the reader to think that allthe wood was bought on 16 September. But was thewriter aware of his choice of tense use?*the writer should have written “haspurchased”.
  • 36. “At” a meeting, NOT “on” a meeting Never say on a meeting. The correct way tosay it is at a meeting. This is a very commonmistake among speakers of Slavic languages. WRONGWe amended the documents according to theinstructions you gave us on the meeting. RIGHTWe amended the documents according to theinstructions you gave us at the meeting.
  • 37. When is it correct to use “to” plus –ing? (part 1)I look forward to talk to you on Friday afternoon.I look forward to talking to you on Friday afternoon.
  • 38. When is it correct to use “to” plus –ing? (part 1) WRONGI look forward to talk to you on Friday afternoon. RIGHTI look forward to talking to you on Friday afternoon.As the example above shows, sometimes it is correctto use “to” plus the –ing form of a verb.
  • 39. Many non-native English speakers are reluctantto use –ing after “to”. Maybe this is becauseyou learnt at school that after “to” a verbshould always be in the infinitive. This is only half true. “To” actually has twouses – EITHER as an infinitive marker (i.e. toshow that the next word is an infinitive verb– e.g. The Company wishes to purchase theshares), OR as a preposition (e.g. He hasgone to lunch).
  • 40. When “to” acts as a preposition it is usuallyfollowed by an –ing form (which in this caseis a gerund) or a noun/noun phrase, as inthese examples:There is no obstacle to register the company.There is no obstacle to registering the company.There is no obstacle to the registration of thecompany.
  • 41. When “to” acts as a preposition it is usuallyfollowed by an –ing form (which in this caseis a gerund) or a noun/noun phrase, as inthese examples: WRONGThere is no obstacle to register the company. RIGHT (-ing form)There is no obstacle to registering the company. RIGHT (noun phrase)There is no obstacle to the registration of thecompany.
  • 42. I do not recommend committing yourself to purchase the sharesyet.I do not recommend committing yourself to purchasing the sharesyet.I do not recommend committing yourself to the purchase of theshares yet.Public procurement legislation has undergone some major changesin recent years due to implement EU public procurementdirectives.
  • 43.  WRONGI do not recommend committing yourself to purchase the sharesyet. RIGHT (-ing form)I do not recommend committing yourself to purchasing the sharesyet. RIGHT (noun phrase)I do not recommend committing yourself to the purchase of theshares yet. WRONGPublic procurement legislation has undergone some major changesin recent years due to implement EU public procurementdirectives.
  • 44. Public procurement legislation has undergone some major changesin recent years due to implementing EU public procurementdirectives.Public procurement legislation has undergone some major changesin recent years due to the implementation of EU publicprocurement directives.I look forward to hear from you.I look forward to hearing from you.I look forward to your reply.
  • 45.  RIGHT (-ing form)Public procurement legislation has undergone some major changesin recent years due to implementing EU public procurementdirectives. RIGHT (noun phrase)Public procurement legislation has undergone some major changesin recent years due to the implementation of EU publicprocurement directives. WRONGI look forward to hear from you. RIGHT (-ing form)I look forward to hearing from you. RIGHT (noun phrase)I look forward to your reply.
  • 46. Thank YouPrepared by: Marie Rossett