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  • 1. The Biosphere -Alexis Folmer
  • 2. What is it?
    • It extends from about 5 miles above the earths surface to as far as 7 miles below the ocean .
    • The biosphere consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere.
  • 3. -Ecology-
    • Ecology is when organisms in the biosphere interact with each other and their surroundings or environment.
  • 4. Biotic/Abiotic Factors
    • A biotic factor is any living part of the environment with which an organism might interact. These are the biological influences on organisms.
    • An abiotic factor is any nonliving part of the environment like heat, precipitation, wind currents, etc. These are the physical components of an ecosystem.
  • 5. Ecological Methods
    • Ecologists use 3 methods in their work:
    • Observation
    • Experimentation
    • Modeling
  • 6. Where Does Energy in Living Systems Come From?
    • Organisms get energy from other sources.
    • Sunlight is the ultimate energy source.
    • Certain algae, bacteria, and plants can capture energy and convert it into forms that living cells can use.
    • These organisms are called primary producers/Autotrophs.
  • 7. Photosynthesis
    • It captures light and uses it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates like sugar and starches.
  • 8. Chemosynthesis
    • What deep-sea ecosystems rely on that harness chemical energy from inorganic molecules and produces carbohydrates.
  • 9. Consumers/Heterotrophs
    • Organisms that rely on other organisms for energy and nutrients by ingesting them in one way or another.
    • These consumers include carnivores, herbivores, omnivores, scavengers, decomposers, and detritivores.
  • 10. Food Chain
    • A food chain is a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.
    • This chain usually begins with a primary producer, then a herbivore, and finally a carnivore.
  • 11. Phytoplankton
    • These are primary producers which are a mixture of floating algae and attached algae and may be eaten by small fish who will be eaten by large fish who are eaten by alligators.
  • 12. Food Web
    • Network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem.
  • 13. Zooplankton
    • Small free-floating animals that form part of plankton.
  • 14. Trophic Level
    • Each step in a food chain or a food web
  • 15. Ecological Pyramids
    • Show the relative amount of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a given food chain or food web. The types of these pyramids are pyramids of energy, biomass, and numbers.