What is matter ?• Matter is anything that has mass and• occupies space.• Matter has mass because its mass is acted upon by Earth’s gravity.• Matter has volume as it occupies space.• Almost everything around us is matter, whether it’s living things or non-living things.
Mass Weight A measure of Definition A measure of the the amount of (What is it?) gravitational matter in an force on an object object.Always constant, Does it change Depending on no matter the with location? where the object location. is in relation to the earth. A balance Measured A spring scale. with kilogram (kg) Unit used Newton (N)
PARTICLE MODELS Matter can exist in three physical states:SOLID LIQUID GAS
Solids Liquids Gases According to According to Shape Fixed the container the container Volume Definite Definite Not definite Space btw Closely packed Particles are Particles arethe particles together far apart very far apart Not as strong Forces of Very strong as particles in Very weak attraction solids
EXPERIMENT: To show space exists in between particles of solidsThe containers are mixed well into a measuring cylinder50 cm3 50 cm3 small smallstones pebbles
Result: A reading less than 100cm3 is obtained. 80 cm3 Conclusion: The small pebbles occupied the spaces in between the stones
Solids Liquids GasesMovement Vibrate in the Move freely Move free at aof particles fixed position and colliding very high with other speed particles Kinetic Low Higher than High energy the particles in solids
BROWNIAN MOVEMENT In 1827, a Scottish botanist, Robert Brown, used a microscope toobserve some pollen grains in water. Hefound that the pollen grains were moving about in the water haphazardly-Brownian movement.
About eight years later,Albert Einstein explained the random motion of the pollen grains in thewater was caused by tiny water particles whichwere moving in constant and random motion,hitting the pollen grains in different directions.
High concentration Low concentration The tiny particles (atom or molecules) of liquid and gases move randomly in no fixed direction.
DIFFUSION High concentration Low concentrationDiffusion is the movement of the molecules fromthe region of a higher concentration to the region of a lower concentration.
When there is no difference in concentration,molecules diffuse in all directions at the same rate.
DIFFUSION OF POTASSIUMMANGANATE (VII) IN WATER Water Potassium manganate (VII)
Do object of the same volume have the same mass? 100 cm3 of 100 cm3 of wooden block granite block
For the same volume, a granite block has moremass than a wooden block. Thus, having higher density than wood
densityThe density of a substance is the mass of the substance per unit volumeDensity (kg/m3)= Mass (kg) Choose the Volume (m3) formula depending onDensity (g/cm3)= Mass (g) the size of the Volume (cm3) object!!
1. Find The Mass Find the mass of an object by weighing it on a balance.
2. Find The Volume Find the volume of an object by measuring the volume of liquid displaced from the beaker
3. Find The Density Mass of a stone = 500 g Volume of a stone = 26 cm3Density (g/cm3) = Mass (g) Volume (cm3) = 500g 26cm3 = 19.2 g/cm3