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- 1. Defense University College Of Engineering Post graduate programs and Research Office M-Tech Thesis Project Proposal Thesis Title: Hardware Acceleration of ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography): Algorithm Design and Simulation By Alemayehu Tilahun Supervisor: Manoj V.N.V (Dr.) Department: Computer and Information Technology Specialization: Computer Engineering December, 2013 Bishoftu 1
- 2. Abstract Because of the increase and complexity of information processing and telecommunications revolutions, there is an increasing demand for techniques to keep information secret, to determine that information has not been forged and to determine who authored pieces of information. Cryptographic techniques are currently being utilized for these purposes. Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) has been receiving a lot of attention in the last years because of the beneﬁts it offers. ECC is an alternative to traditional public key cryptographic systems. Even though, RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) was the most prominent cryptographic scheme, it is being replaced by ECC in many systems. This is due to the fact that ECC gives higher security with shorter bit length than RSA. In Elliptic curve based algorithms elliptic curve point multiplication is the most computationally intensive operation. To this extent implementing point multiplication using hardware makes ECC more attractive for high performance servers and small devices. Therefore I am very interested to present and conduct final thesis paper for my postgraduate studies focusing on the title “Hardware Acceleration of Elliptic Curve Based Cryptographic Algorithms: Design and Simulation”. Keywords: Cryptographic Algorithms, ECC Cryptographic Algorithm, FPGA, Scalar Multiplications and Hardware implementation. 2
- 3. Acronyms ASIC Application Specific Integrated Circuits ECC Elliptic Curve Cryptography FPGA Field Programmable Gate Array GF Galois Field HDL Hardware Definition Language MoND Ministry of National Defense RSA Riverst-Shamir-Adleman VHDL Very high speed integrated circuits HDL 3
- 4. List of tables Table No. Description page No. Table 6.1 Time budgeting 9 Table 6.2 Cost breakdowns 10 4
- 5. Table of contents Contents I. Page No. Introduction 1 Literature Survey 2 III. Statement of the Problem 4 IV. General Objective 5 V. Specific Objectives 5 VI. Scope of the Study 5 Limitation of the Thesis 6 Methodology 6 Expected Outcome 7 II. VII. VIII. IX. X. Importance of the Proposed Project in the Context of the Current status XI. XII. XIII. 8 Work Plan or Time Schedule 9 Material and Financial Requirements 10 References 11 5
- 6. I) Introduction In the past traditional communications were based on letters, payments were done using checks or cash, and secret documents were saved in sealed boxes. Today everything is changed, and is changing quickly. (Jamshid, 2006) As the Internet technology expands, it will encompass not only server and desktop systems, but also large numbers of small devices such as cell phones. Communications among these systems are usually conducted in an accessible environment such as Internet and wireless networks. These trends are going to make the life easier but at the same time produce security risks and expose them to potential attackers that could tamper with them, eavesdrop communications, alter transmitted data, or attach unauthorized devices to the network. These risks can be mitigated by employing strong cryptography to ensure authentication, authorization, data confidentiality, and data integrity. (Mubarek and Manoj, 2008) There are two popular kinds of cryptographic protocols, namely public key and private key protocols. In private key protocols, a common key is used by both communication partners and for both encryption and decryption. Among them AES is one example. These systems provide high speed but have the drawback that a common key must be established for each pair of participants. In public key protocols we have two keys, one is kept private and used either for decryption (confidentiality) or encryption (signature) of messages. (M. Joye and J.J, 2004) The public key, is published to be used for the reverse operation. ECC, and RSA are examples of public key systems. These systems are slower than the symmetric ones, but they provide arbitrarily high levels of security and do not require an initial private key exchange. 6
- 7. Due to this comparative slowness of the public key algorithms, dedicated hardware logic gates support is desirable as a result, performance of the algorithm can be maximized. FPGAs are an attractive choice for implementing cryptographic algorithms on hardware’s’, because of their low cost in prototyping relative to ASICs. FPGAs are ﬂexible when adopting security protocol upgrades, as they can be re-programmed in-place. FPGAs also allow rapid prototyping of designs. Therefore focus of this work will be about the design of Hardware acceleration of Elliptic Curve Cryptography and the study of different techniques which can be used to increase its performance. II) Literature Survey Different scholars and researchers at various time reported about Elliptic Curve cryptography (ECC) that may help and design of this thesis work in the coming platforms. These works mostly inculcate explaining hardware and software implementations in Elliptical Curve Cryptography using Galois field Arithmetic’s. Therefore this part infers and summarizes possible work in this area. 1. Hardware Implementations Hardware implementation of elliptical curve cryptographic Systems results in higher performance as compared with the software implementations but with relatively low flexibility. Existing hardware implementations vary in the following aspects: GF (2m), GF (P), key length (from 163233bits), platform (FPGA, and ASIC), for the good of this thesis work, we review some of the FPGA implementations of ECC over GF (2m). Martin Christopher made the first attempt to implement scalar multiplication using reprogrammable hardware namely FPGA. It was implemented on Vertex-II family device called Xilinx XC402XPG475-1 and point multiplication takes 5.65msce. The latency was almost the same as the recent software implementation. The second reconfigurable elliptic curve co-processor is designed over GF (2163). The design consists of main controller, arithmetic unit controller and arithmetic units. The prototype of the processor has been implemented on a Xilinx XCV2000E FPGA. The prototype runs at 66 MHZ 7
- 8. and performs an elliptic curve scalar multiplication in 0.233 msec on a generic curve and 0.075 msec on a Koblitz curve. This work was used encoding for the scalar multiplier. The encoding is not implemented on hardware. For experimentation, output of software implementation encoding is used. Another hardware accelerator is also implemented over GF (2163). The accelerator runs at 45 MHZ on Xilinx Vertex FPGA and takes 1.21 msec to perform a 163-bit elliptic scalar multiplication. In addition scalar multiplication is implemented using Montgomery Ladder method. The method is suitable for parallel implementation of the finite field units. The latter used several multipliers and squaring units in each component of the scalar multiplier. The resulting design is synthesized on Xilinx XCV2000E and a scalar multiplication takes 53µs. Its resource usage is higher than most works in this area. In addition to the hardware implementations discussed above, there exist other FPGA implementations for binary fields in the literature, such as [5, 6, 8, 12, 13 and 25]. 2. Software Implementation Software implementations of Elliptic curve cryptographic systems are many. To make the implementations efficient various algorithms are suggested for arithmetic and curve level operations. In this section, only those works relevant to this work are summarized. At the arithmetic level, multiplication and inversion are the two time consuming operations, inversion being many fold slower than multiplication. A lookup table based efficient multiplication is proposed in M. Joye and J.-J and implemented and reported in Chanho L. and Jeongho L. Inversion can be implemented using square and multiplication method and an efficient method is proposed by T. Itoh and S. Tsujii . An elliptic curve system is implemented for a key exchange protocol. The implementation is simplified by choosing the curve parameter equal to zero. The system architecture relies on arithmetic in GF (2155) using polynomial representation and an optimized inversion algorithm based on Euclidean division. The implementation performed multiplication of an elliptic curve point in 7.8 milliseconds on a DEC Alpha 3000 RISC machine (64bit, 450MHZ clock speed, 256Mbyte RAM). 8
- 9. Summary Efficient hardware design comprises of two components. The first and obvious component is optimized (high speed with a given target device) hardware designed for the appropriate task. The second and highly important component is the underlying algorithm to be used in the hardware design. As for the algorithm, we studied many algorithms. Among them a digit serial multiplier which is proposed in L. Goubin and M. Matsui, efficient inversion algorithm due to Itoh and Tsujii and Montgomery scalar multiplication by Lopez and Dahab are the major ones. Hardware implementations of scalar multiplication revised in this chapter can generally be grouped into two. The first group is similar to the works in J. Riley and M.J. Shulte. Point multiplication acceleration is implemented by encoding the scalar multiplier and by using Montgomery scalar multiplication. The encoding is not implemented in hardware. It is good in resource utilization as well as latency. The second group which is similar to the works in uses Montgomery ladder method for scalar multiplication. The algorithm is ideal for parallel computations. This property of the algorithm is used extensively in the design. Both groups discussed have their own draw backs. The first one uses encoding for the scalar multiplier which complicates the hardware implementation. The second one uses multiple hardware units in the design hierarchy such as multipliers. Our work will alleviate these problems by using the Montgomery ladder method for scalar multiplication and using parallelism but utilizing the resource in an efficient manner. III) Statement of the problem Scalar multiplication is the most time consuming operation in Elliptic curve based cryptosystems. Efficient implementation of ECC algorithms using software is not fast enough on server computers which give service to many users. Implementing this multiplication on hardware makes ECC protocols more attractive. While the general purpose microprocessor is doing its routine task the time consuming operations can be executed using co-processor designed on a special 9
- 10. reprogrammable hardware’s such as FPGA. IV) General objective The General objective of this study is to design and simulate Hardware acceleration of elliptical curve cryptography (ECC). V) Specific objectives The Specific objectives of the Study are: To design and simulate finite arithmetic units for binary fields using Xilinx design suite V14.5 Software To implement and measure performance of scalar multiplication on Xilinx design suite V14.5 software To integrate the finite arithmetic units into an efficient hardware scalar multiplier. To compare the performance of the hardware multiplier with the software implementation and other related works. VI) Scope of the Study In this thesis, the performance of hardware units are designed for multiplication, inversion, squaring and addition for binary fields and compared with that of the software. These finite field arithmetic units are then integrated together to create an elliptic curve cryptographic Hardware capable of computing the scalar multiplication on elliptic curves. To measure the efficiency of the hardware, the design is translated into a hardware description language namely Verilog. Then simulation is done for functionality and timing analysis using Xilinx design suite V14.5 software. 10
- 11. VII) Limitation of the thesis In conducting this thesis work, the researcher may expect the following challenges. 1. As the Cryptographic technology is not yet introduced in other governmental and private Organizations in the county (Ethiopia) other than MoND, the scope of the thesis will only be bounded to MoND. 2. As the result of the above reason, lack enough secondary data may be expected. 3. As Information in Military institutions’ (MoND) are highly confidential, organization may be reluctant in giving relevant information. VIII) Methodology The following methodology is followed to design and simulate a hardware accelerator for Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC). Target Area The Target Area of the study will be mainly the Ministry of National Defense force of Ethiopia (MoND) particularly Military Information and Communication Main department. In addition to this some selected Governmental and Commercial firms will be some beneficiary stack holder of this thesis. Literature survey As both Elliptic curve cryptography and reconfigurable computing are relatively new areas of study, a lot of time will spent on understanding both of them. The following are some of study made and needs intensive reading. Abstract algebra especially finite field arithmetic Elliptic curve cryptography Reconfigurable computing using FPGA 11
- 12. Survey of related works Software Used in the thesis For the sake of making the thesis current and up-to-date I will be using the latest software’s like Xilinx ISE Design Suite 14.5 Software integrated with relevant tools and components As Xilinx ISE Design Suite 14.5 software is require additional application software’s mainly Mat lab I may also require MATLAB R2013b. Hardware acceleration on FPGA Hardware design and realization of FPGA for binary field arithmetic units and synthesis, timing and functional simulation using Xilinx ISE Design Suite 14.5 tool will be done on general purpose vertex 7 family namely XC7VX330T. Realization of scalar multiplier using Xilinx ISE Design Suite 14.5 on the selected FPGA board on the Software package on the specified device name. Comparison between the ECC based software implementation related works and hardware realization result from Xilinx ISE Design Suite 14.5 Software in this thesis. IX) Expected outcome of the thesis 1. Xilinx ISE Design Suite 14.5 Software should generate a synthesized result for Field Multiplier is synthesized for different digit size. 2. There should exist a synthesized result on Performance and resource Utilization for scalar Multiplication over GF(2163) using Xilinx ISE Design Suite 14.5 Software 3. There should exist a synthesized result on Performance and resource Utilization for inversion and squiring over GF(2163) using Xilinx ISE Design Suite 14.5 Software 4. The performance efficiency of Synthesized Scalar Multiplication output result using Xilinx ISE Design Suite 14.5 tool need to be much more efficient than the software implementations of other researchers work. 12
- 13. X) Importance of the Proposed Project in the Context of Current Status After completing the proposed thesis, the result obtained will have a direct application and importance to the target stakeholders (MoND). This can be exemplified inferring the Information and communication technology gaps used in MoND combat units these days. To win a war in any combat missions, the communication channels, secured and the timeliness of getting information as well as the process of dissemination to the target personnel is very critical. Therefore this thesis on Hardware acceleration of Elliptic Curve cryptography will deliver comparative importance in advancing the Security and performance of information communication and dissemination activities in the current MoND. 13
- 14. 14
- 15. XI) Work Plan or Time Schedule Month, YYY S.No Activities October November December January February March April May Weeks Weeks Weeks Weeks Weeks Weeks Weeks Weeks 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 1 Thesis Proposal Development 2 Thesis Proposal Approval by advisor 3 Thesis Proposal Presentation 4 Data Collection 5 Literature Survey 6 Design and coding on Xilinx Design Suit 8 Analyze Result based on the Experiment 9 Based on the Result Develop Conclusion and Recommendation 10 Writing the Draft thesis Proposal 11 Writing the Final thesis proposal 12 Thesis Defense 15 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
- 16. XII) Materials and Financial Requirements 16
- 17. XIII) References [1] A. Menezes and S. Vanstone, Elliptic curve cryptosystems and their implementation, Journal of Cryptography, Vol. 6, No. 4,1993, pp. 209-224. [2] Chanho L. and Jeongho L. , Design of an Elliptic Curve Cryptography Processor Using a Scalable Finite Field Multiplier in GF(2193), Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 44, No. 1, January 2004, pp. 39-45 [3] Darrel H. and etal , Guide to Elliptic Curve cryptography, SPRINGER ROFESSIONAL COMPUTING, 2004 [4] G. Harper, A. Menezes and S. Vanstone, Public-key Cryptosystems with Very Small Key Lengths, Advances in Cryptology-Eurocrypt '92, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 658, Springer-Verlag Berlin, Vol. 658/1993, 1993, pp. 163-173. [5] J. Deschamps and etal. , Synthesis of Arithmetic circuits: FPGA, ASIC and embedded Systems, John Willey & Sons, 2006 [6] J. Guajardo and Christof Paar, Efficient Algorithms for Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem, Advances in Cryptology — CRYPTO '97, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-E-ISSN: 2224- 266X87 M. B. I. Reaz, J. Jalil, H. Husian, F. H. Hashim Verlag Berlin, Vol. 1294/1997, 1997, pp. 342-356. [7] M. Joye and J.-J. Comparing Elliptic Curve Cryptography and RSA on 8-Bit CPUs Quisquater (Eds.): CHES 2004, LNCS 3156, pp. 119–132, 2004 [8] Mubarek K. and Manoj V.N.V, Hardwaere acceleration of elliptic curve based cryptographyic algotrithms, AAU, April, 2008, pp. 1-56 [9] N. Koblitz, Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems, Mathematics of Computation, 1987, Vol. 48, No. 177, pp.203-209. 17
- 18. [10] V. Miller, Use of Elliptic Curves in Cryptography, Advances in Cryptology - Crypto '85 proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag Berlin, Vol. 218/1986, 1986, pp. 417-426. [11] William Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security Principles and Practices, 4th edition, Prince Hall, 2005 18

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