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Historical Monuments    of Uzbekistan Tashkent-Samarkand-Bukhara-Khiva-Shahrisabz
In memory of fatherWe are born and learn to live in the architectural space, created by our ancestors. Then takingthe bato...
ALEXEY ARAPOVHistorical Monuments    of Uzbekistan Tashkent-Samarkand-Bukhara-Khiva-Shahrisabz               Tashkent • SM...
UZBEKISTANThe Republic of Uzbekistan is a young state in Central Asia          Middle East and Europe. The historical even...
TASHKENTTashkent (41°17’N., 69°16’E) is the biggest city of Central Asia. It       In the 18th century Tashkent became the...
CHACH, SHASH, BINKET, TASHKENT    Ancient Tashkent or Chach came into being in the 3rd–    2nd centuries B. C. as a tradin...
The Arabic name for the town was ash-Shash. Caliphstaxed Shash heavily; 2/3 of the taxes they received camefrom the riches...
MAUSOLEUM OF ZAYN ADDIN BOBOOne of the most esteemed Central            ad-Din Kulyal belonged to thisAsian Sufi monuments...
THE KAFFAlSHASHI MAUSOLEUMAbubekr Muhammad Kaffal Shashi          Shashi as a holy patron of the town.(903–976)—a famous s...
MADRASAH OF BARAKKHAN     In the early 16th century the Temurids conceded their authori-     ty to the Uzbek dynasty of Sh...
A powerful earthquake in Tashkent destroyed the “bluedome” in 1868. In the Soviet period the madrasah wasclosed and in 194...
HAST IMAMWhen the Kaffal-Shashi mausoleum         In the early 21st century the Hazretiand the madrasah of Barak-khan     ...
THE MADRASAH OF ABULKASYMIn the southern part of the Old           28×22 m. A part of the architecturalTashkent near the B...
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SHEYHANTAHUROne of the most historical places in Tashkent is situated to       To the north of the mausoleum of Sheikh Hov...
DJUMAMOSQUE     In the 15th–16th centuries when Tash­     Tashkent he gained fame as an out-     kent gained the status of...
KUKELDASH MADRASAHThe Kukeldash madrasah was built in     over the mosque and the class-the center of Old Tashkent during ...
ZANGHIATA     To the southeast of Tashkent, in Zanghi-ata village, in the     grounds of an ancient cemetery, there is an ...
At the end of the 18th century a madrasah was erect-ed around the courtyard. After a powerful earthquake in1868 the monume...
SAMARKANDSamarkand is one of the most ancient cities of the world. It           When Marko Polo travelled there in the 13t...
ANCIENT SAMARKAND     The ancient part of Samarkand, with the area of more     than 200 hectares, is situated on a vast hi...
In the time of the Achaemenids the town became thecapital of Sogdiana. It was encircled with a massive wallwhich had insid...
SAMARKAND: 8 th –13 th CENTURIES Having conquered Central Asian Interfluves, the Arabs                 Ruins of the Samani...
GUREMIR MAUSOLEUM     In the 14th century Samarkand rose in its southern suburb     (rabad). Amir Temur (1336–1405), the r...
Due to the tragic events Temur’s successor died whilehis grandfather was the alive and the grieving ruler decid-ed to bury...
TEMURID’S NECROPOLISThe Gur-Emir underground crypt contains graves of threemore rulers along with Amir Temur and Muhammad-...
Ulugbek twice campaigned in Khurasan and finally tookHerat’s throne of his father. Then Shahruh’s remains werereburied in ...
THE RUHABAD MAUSOLEUMAccording to the words of Arabian          kand sheikh Basir, who during histraveler Ibn Battuta in t...
МADRASAH AND MAUSOLEUM OF BIBIKHANYM The big madrasah built near the          1740. On the central axis of madras- cathedr...
BIBIKHANYM MOSQUE     The Amir Temur Mosque also named Bibi-Khanym was     constructed as the cathedral mosque of Samarkan...
with marble stones. It was for the thousands of believerscoming for prayer.    In the center of the yard there was a pavil...
REGISTANRegistan became the central square      crossroad, on behalf of Temur’s wifeof Samarkand in the 14th century.     ...
ULUGBEK MADRASAHThe Ulugbek Madrasah was built          were among the outstanding gradu-between 1417 and 1420. Its huge  ...
SHERDOR MADRASAHThe Sher-Dor Madrasah was built          ed with anthropomorphic oval ofbetween 1619 and 1636 in the place...
TILLYAKARI MADRASAH In the middle of the 17th century the   is on the western side of the cathedral mosque of Bibi Khanym ...
AQSARAI MAUSOLEUMMausoleum Aq-Sarai (“White Palace”)      Said (1451–1468/9), who capturedis situated to the south-east of...
ISHRATKHANA MAUSOLEUMIshratkhana Mausoleum was built            decorate its interior. Ishratkhananear Abdi-Darun Mazar to...
HAZRETHYZR MOSQUEThe mosque, named after Hazret-         ing caravans from Tokharistan, IndiaHyzr, a mythical Islamic sain...
MAUSOLEUM OF KHADJA DANIYARMausoleum of Khadja Daniyar is situ-     Islam, Christianity and Judaism.ated on the northern s...
SHAHIZINDA     The rise of the Shahi-Zinda necropo-    That gave the name for the necrop-     lis is connected with Kusam ...
MAUSOLEUM OF KUSAM IBN ABBASThe base of Kusam ibn Abbas mau-          to the 11th–12th centuries. Nearbysoleum consists of...
NORTHERN GROUPAfter the Mongols conquered Samar-        mausoleum says: .”.. may Allah pro-kand, Shahi-Zinda memorial, whi...
CENTRAL GROUPA group of new mausoleums arose            Alim Nesefi is decorated with reliefin Shahi-Zinda in the 1380s–13...
TEMURID MAUSOLEUMSIn the time of Amir Temur, among the     decorated with inlaid sapphire-bluemausoleums of Shahi-Zinda th...
SOUTH GROUPWhen Temur’s grandson Mirzo Ulug-        bottom of the wall, Ulugbek builtbek was the ruler of Maverannahr,    ...
OBSERVATORY OF ULUGBEKThe biggest astronomical observato-     the publication of “Zidj” at Oxford. Inry of the time was bu...
DAKHMA OF SHEYBANIDSThe Chingizid dynasty of the Sheyba-       has survived. This elevated structure,nids reigned in Samar...
KHADJA AHRAR NECROPOLIS Sheikh Khadja Ahrar (1404–1490)          with Samarkand. The great sheikh headed the Central Asian...
MEMORIAL COMPLEX OF IMAM ALBUKHARIThe necropolis of outstanding Sunni       from the Prophet” At the end of histheologian ...
BUKHARA Sacred Bukhara is one of the most esteemed cities in                    Referring to the holiness of the land of B...
ANCIENT BUKHARA     The earliest layers of the urban cul-     The Hephthalites (5th–7th centuries)     ture of Bukhara hav...
ARKAn historian of the 10 th century Nar-    Manghit dynasty (1747–1920). At thatshahi states that Bukhara was origi-     ...
THE SAMANID MAUSOLEUM     The famous Samanid mausoleum                some traditions of Sogdian architec-     stands in t...
CHASHMAAYUBChashma-Ayub belongs to the               the city and Bukharian Jewish com-esteemed “places of trace” (“kadam-...
MAGOKIATTARI MOSQUEThe most ancient mosque of Magoki-         tions of the 10th century building. InAttari is situated in ...
KALYAN MINARETKalyan Minaret (Great Minaret) is the     with 16 arches. The minaret ismain symbol of sacred Bukhara. For  ...
VABKENT MINARETA minaret named after the spiritual    with an elegant arched structure,ruler of Bukhara, Sadr Burhan ad-Di...
GIJDUVANI MEMORIAL COMPLEX Bukhara land keeps the ashes of          burial of Sheikh the ruler of Maver- many great figure...
MAUSOLEUM OF SHEIKH BOHARZI      Sheikh Seif ad-Din Boharzi (died in    tury a mausoleum was built above      1261) was a ...
TRADING DOMESMedieval Bukhara was known as            the dome, “toki” stayed cool even ina large trading city, receiving ...
ULUGBEK MADRASAHUlugbek Madrasah is situated to the      Originally the madrasah had foureast of Poi-Kalyan. It is the fir...
MADRASAH OF ABD ALAZIZKHANOpposite to Ulugbek madrasah in         round towers at the corners. TheBukhara there stands a l...
KALYAN MOSQUEKalyan Mosque was constructed in the beginning of the15th century on the site of the old Qarakhanid Djuma-Mos...
On the crosswise axes of the courtyard there are twointernal aivans and four ways out of the mosque. The mainbuilding of K...
MIRIARAB MADRASAH     The active Miri-Arab Madrasah is situated opposite to     Kalyan Mosque. This is one of the most est...
It was Ubaidullah-khan who gave Miri-Arab funds forthe construction of the madrasah. Its majestic facade israised on a hig...
BAHA ADDIN NAQSHBAND NECROPOLIS The Necropolis of sheikh Baha ad-Din Naqshband—the patron of Bukhara (died in 1389) is sit...
Next to the burial place of Naqshband stands thenecropolis of the Sheybanids (16th century), who afterdeath wanted to be u...
NAMAZGOH MOSQUEThe ancient preserved mosque               and from the mosque of QuteibaNamazgoh stands to the south of th...
FAYZABAD AND KHADJA ZAIN ADDIN KHANAKASFayzabad khanaka was a large Sufi          there is the tomb of Khadja Zain ad-shri...
CHORBAQR      Chor-Baqr is a country necropolis for the Prophet’s descend-      ants from Djuibar Seyids’ family. It is si...
The son of Sheikh Khadja Abu-Baqr Saad was hissuccessor and like his father, was the head of the Mus-lims of Bukhara and o...
BOLOHAUZ MOSQUE     Many years ago Registan Square,         ganch stalactites. The most striking     opposite to Ark citad...
ZINDANTo the north-east of Ark citadel there    conditions were severe—criminalsis a building of medieval amir pris-      ...
KUKELDASH MADRASAHKukeldash madrasah is another           facades of the madrasah are deco-Bukhara building of the 16th ce...
CHORMINOR“Chor-Minor” (“Four minarets”) is the   scripts were preserved. A peculiar name of an unusual madrasah built     ...
LYABIHAUZLyabi-Hauz (literally—“brim of            wide and about 5 m. deep. It con-a pool”) is one of the most popular   ...
KHANAKA AND MADRASAH OF NADIR DIVANBEGHIThe khanaka was the first building of      Divan-Beghi for the building madeLyabi-...
SITORAIMOHIHOSA     The palace Sitorai-Mohi-Hosa (“Elegant Star of the Moon”)     was a country residence of the Bukhara a...
The new palace complex of Sitorai-Mohi-Hosa wasfinished in the time of amir Alim-khan. It had a grandentrance arch, yard w...
KHIVAKhiva is a historical city in the lower reaches of the Amu-          In the first century A. D. the Afrigid dynasty c...
ICHANQALAIchan-Qala (literary “internal fortress”) is the inner city,          Khiva, within Ichan-Kala became the capital...
Arapov Alexey. Historical Monuments of Uzbekistan Tashkent-Samarkand-Bukhara-Khiva-Shahrisabz
Arapov Alexey. Historical Monuments of Uzbekistan Tashkent-Samarkand-Bukhara-Khiva-Shahrisabz
Arapov Alexey. Historical Monuments of Uzbekistan Tashkent-Samarkand-Bukhara-Khiva-Shahrisabz
Arapov Alexey. Historical Monuments of Uzbekistan Tashkent-Samarkand-Bukhara-Khiva-Shahrisabz
Arapov Alexey. Historical Monuments of Uzbekistan Tashkent-Samarkand-Bukhara-Khiva-Shahrisabz
Arapov Alexey. Historical Monuments of Uzbekistan Tashkent-Samarkand-Bukhara-Khiva-Shahrisabz
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Arapov Alexey. Historical Monuments of Uzbekistan Tashkent-Samarkand-Bukhara-Khiva-Shahrisabz
Arapov Alexey. Historical Monuments of Uzbekistan Tashkent-Samarkand-Bukhara-Khiva-Shahrisabz
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Arapov Alexey. Historical Monuments of Uzbekistan Tashkent-Samarkand-Bukhara-Khiva-Shahrisabz
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Arapov Alexey. Historical Monuments of Uzbekistan Tashkent-Samarkand-Bukhara-Khiva-Shahrisabz
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Arapov Alexey. Historical Monuments of Uzbekistan Tashkent-Samarkand-Bukhara-Khiva-Shahrisabz
Arapov Alexey. Historical Monuments of Uzbekistan Tashkent-Samarkand-Bukhara-Khiva-Shahrisabz
Arapov Alexey. Historical Monuments of Uzbekistan Tashkent-Samarkand-Bukhara-Khiva-Shahrisabz
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Arapov Alexey. Historical Monuments of Uzbekistan Tashkent-Samarkand-Bukhara-Khiva-Shahrisabz

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The goal of this book is to help you to get oriented in the huge space of the culture of the historical monuments of Uzbekistan. We hope that our readers will remember the images, appreciate high art of their creators and understand why they are so dear to us.

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  1. 1. Historical Monuments of Uzbekistan Tashkent-Samarkand-Bukhara-Khiva-Shahrisabz
  2. 2. In memory of fatherWe are born and learn to live in the architectural space, created by our ancestors. Then takingthe baton of generations we try to master and rebuild this world, leaving it renewed to the nextgeneration. Something from the  past has to  be  destroyed... But  the  most important, perfectand  precious to  our memory stay untouched. We  cherish it  as  our fathers’ heritageand hand it down to our children. This is the “heart” of our culture. We are all different and livefar  away from each other; we  have little chance to  know other peoples’ values and  see theirhidden worlds. That is  why we  travel. The  goal of  this book is  to  help you to  get orientedin the huge space of the culture of the historical monuments of Uzbekistan. We hope that ourreaders will remember the images, appreciate high art of their creators and understand whythey are so dear to us. As people use to say in the East: “If your heart is awake to Beauty’s delight,you will acquire the goods that everybody needs. The whole world will become your buyer.”УДК 904 (575.1)ББК 85.11 (5У) А 792Арапов А. В. Исторические памятники Узбекистана: Ташкент, Самар-канд, Бухара, Хива, Шахрисябз. 6-e издание. — Ташкент: SMI-ASIA,2011. — 136 с.Иллюстрированный каталог архитектурных памятников главных истори-ческих центров Узбекистана: Ташкента, Самарканда, Бухары, Хивы и Шах-рисябза. Содержит современные цветные и старые черно-белые фотогра-фии, карты городов, схемы архитектурных ансамблей.ISBN 978-9943-17-041-4© Арапов А.В.© SMI-ASIA, MultiMedia-Asia, 2011
  3. 3. ALEXEY ARAPOVHistorical Monuments of Uzbekistan Tashkent-Samarkand-Bukhara-Khiva-Shahrisabz Tashkent • SMI-ASIA • 2012
  4. 4. UZBEKISTANThe Republic of Uzbekistan is a young state in Central Asia Middle East and Europe. The historical events in the territoryproclaimed its independence in 1991. The nulk of the coun- of Uzbekistan had a crucial meaning for such world reli-try lies between the Amu-Darya and the Syr-Darya rivers, gions as Zoroastrianism, Buddhism (Mahayana), Christianitywhich flow into the dried out remains of the Aral Sea. In the (Nestorian) and Islam. Beginning from the 8th century the6th–7th millennium B. C. people of an ancient European com- area becomes one of the main historical and cultural cent-munity settled in this land and in the 3rd millennium B. C. ers of the Islamic East. Those great states, existed on theparts of a eastern European community (Tohars and Turans). land of Uzbekistan in the middle ages such as the SamanidsIn the 2nd millennium B. C. core tribes of the Indian-Iranian and Qarakhanids, Khorezm-shah and Chagatay, Temuridscommunity. An original civilization of farmers and nomads and Sheybanids, Bukhara, Khiva and Kokand khanates leftsettled down in the river oases, steppe and foothill pastures an important trace in the history. The Memory of millenniathat grew there in the Bronze Age. In the first millennium has been kept up to now in the unique architectural monu-B. C. the first big cities arose in these territories owing to the ments of the main historical cities of Uzbekistan: Tashkent,development of caravan trade between China, India, the Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva and Shahrisabz.
  5. 5. TASHKENTTashkent (41°17’N., 69°16’E) is the biggest city of Central Asia. It In the 18th century Tashkent became the center ofis situated on western slopes of the Tien Shan in the valley of trade with the Kokand, Bukhara and Khiva khanates. Forthe Chirchik River. The age of the City, which in the past had few decades after Djungars had been defeated by Manjurnames Shash, Chach and Binket, is around 2200 years. Origi- army in 1756–1759, Tashkent fell under formal submissionnally the city arose on the Salar Canal where today there is to China, but under the ruler Yunus-Khadja (1784–1801)a railway station. Later the site of the ancient settlement regained its independence. In the beginning of themoved to the area of the present Old City. In the 9th century 19th century after intensive military activity, the Kokanda citadel was built there, and the city was protected with khanate annexed Tashkent. After the Russian conquest ina wall. In the Middle Ages Tashkent became one of the most the 1860s Tashkent gained the status of administrativeimportant centers of Muslim culture in Maverannahr. In the center of Turkistan General-Governorship, in 1918 the capi-middle of the 16th century it was the capital of an independ- tal of Turkistan Republic and in 1930 the capital of theent province in the state of Sheybanids. In the early 17th – late Uzbek Soviet Republic in the structure of the USSR. Since18th centuries it was controlled by Kazakh Sultans and then for 1991 Tashkent has been the capital of the Independentshort time by Djungar khanate. Republic of Uzbekistan.
  6. 6. CHACH, SHASH, BINKET, TASHKENT Ancient Tashkent or Chach came into being in the 3rd– 2nd centuries B. C. as a trading and craft center at the cross- roads of the caravan routes. From the end of the 1st millen- nium Chach was a part of the Kanghuy Confederation of Princedoms. The city was ruled by a dynasty of governors who started to coin money with the name of “Chach” and a very characteristic tamga in the 3rd–4th centuries. In the late 6th and early 7th centuries the local dynasties lost their power and Chach became a Turkic city. Areas in the middle reaches of the Syr-Darya including Ilak, where silver, gold, copper and iron mines were developed, submitted to Turks. As the Turks grew weaker Chach became a dependency of the Chinese Tang emperors, and in the 7th–8th centuries new conquerors, the Arabs, came. When a Chinese expedi- tion invaded Chach in the middle of the 8th century, the townspeople applied for help to the Muslims and the town became a part of Arabic Caliphate.6
  7. 7. The Arabic name for the town was ash-Shash. Caliphstaxed Shash heavily; 2/3 of the taxes they received camefrom the richest silver mines in Ilak. Under the Samanids thecity was named Binket, and in the 11th century under theQarakhanids it was given the name Tashkent. The town wasalmost completely destroyed by Khorezm-shah Muham-mad in 1210 and it had to be rebuilt. The defensive wallswith 12 gates were reconstructed under Amir Temur. Themedieval image of Tashkent was mainly completed underthe Temurids and Sheybanids when the most importantmosques, madrasah and mausoleums were erected. In the19th century there were more than 20 thousands mud brickhouses with small courtyards inside the city wall. The wholetown was divided into 4 large districts (daha). Their nameshave been preserved even until today. The eastern district,Shayhantaur, the western, Kukcha, the northern, Sibzar, andthe southern, Beshagach. 7
  8. 8. MAUSOLEUM OF ZAYN ADDIN BOBOOne of the most esteemed Central ad-Din Kulyal belonged to thisAsian Sufi monuments—the mauso- school. Close to the mausoleumleum of Zayn ad-Din Bobo is situated there is a construction that is solelyon a flat hill, deep in the Tashkent for prayer during fasting time,cemetery of Vilayat. It was construct- a chillyakhana, built in the 12th centu-ed in the first half of the 16th century. ry. It consists of underground andIt is the burial place of sheikh Zayn elevated domed rooms with thead-Din Kui Arifani, the son of sheikh holes on the top arranged in suchShihab ad-Din as-Sukhravardi who a way that the sun rays can reach thewas a head of Baghdad Sufis in the cellar room only at the time of theearly 13th century. Zayn ad-Din found- solstice. Probably that was the placeed in Tashkent the first khanaka of of school itself, Zayn ad-Din bobothe Sufi school “Sukhravardiya” which khanaka. The Sufis of that school hadsoon extended all over Central Asia. a profound knowledge of astronomyAmir Temur’s religious teacher Shams and studied the sky.
  9. 9. THE KAFFAlSHASHI MAUSOLEUMAbubekr Muhammad Kaffal Shashi Shashi as a holy patron of the town.(903–976)—a famous scientist, expert Knowing the respect the Muslims ofon the Koran and hadiths, and one of Tashkent held for the memory of thethe most respected Imams in the great Imam, in 1541–1542, underMuslin world was born in the land of Sheybanids, there was erectedTashkent. According to historical a high-domed mausoleum over theinformation he was a disciple of the grave of Kaffal Shashi. The architect’sArabian historian at-Tabari. Kaffal name was Gulyam Huseyn. SomeShashi became well-known in Bagh- glazed bricks and majolica from thedad for his study of Islamic philoso- 16th century have been preserved inphy. At the end of his life he came the decoration. In the 20th centuryback to his hometown Shash and the first muftis of Central Asianwhen he died he was buried in Department of Muslims, Eshon anda northern part of Shash. Sometime Ziya ad-Din Babakhanovs were bur-later people started honoring Kaffal ied in this mausoleum. 9
  10. 10. MADRASAH OF BARAKKHAN In the early 16th century the Temurids conceded their authori- ty to the Uzbek dynasty of Sheybanids. The founder of the dynasty Sheybany-khan appointed his uncle Suyunich-khan governor of Tashkent. Suyunich-khan was the son of Mirzo Ulugbek’s daughter Rabiya Sultan-beghim. Later, one of Suy- unich’s sons, Navruz Ahmad became the ruler of Tashkent, known under the name Barak-khan. At the end of his life in 1551–1555/56 he became King of the Sheybanid Power. Suyu- nich-khan was buried in Tashkent near Kaffal-Shashi mausole- um. In the 1550s the domed mausoleum with khanaka was built above his grave, and one more mausoleum (which we do not have information about) was erected next to it. In the 1550s Barak-khan built there a madrasah, so the two mausole- ums became a part of its building. It was a proper monu- ment built by a son for his father. As the dome of Suyunich mausoleum was covered with blue glazed tiles they called it Kuk-Gumbaz (“blue dome”).10
  11. 11. A powerful earthquake in Tashkent destroyed the “bluedome” in 1868. In the Soviet period the madrasah wasclosed and in 1943 it was given to the Central Asian Reli-gious Department of Muslims. The madrasah was restoredbetween 1955 and 1963 with the participation of academi-cian Usto Shirin Muradov. It was restored again during2006–2007 as a part of general reconstruction of the HastImam ensemble. In the course of the restoration theglazed tiles from the 16th century were preserved. Some ofthe tiles of the past had verses by the first rector (mudar-ris) of the Barak-khan madrasah, an outstanding poet Zaynad-Din Vasifi (1485–1556), dedicated to Tashkent: “Oh, whata kingdom! None of the lawns of paradise can be com-pared with ancient Shash. And the one who settled herefor good will forever forget about paradise groves. Per-haps, to die in Tashkent is better than to live a dragginglife in another place.”
  12. 12. HAST IMAMWhen the Kaffal-Shashi mausoleum In the early 21st century the Hazretiand the madrasah of Barak-khan Imam ensemble got its new architec-were built in the middle of the tural decoration with the monumen-16th century in the northern part of tal east entrance complex with mina-Tashkent, the memorial ensemble rets. To the north of it a new buildingnamed Hazreti or Hast Imam arose. In for the Uzbekistan Religious Depart-the 19th century the Kokand khans ment of Muslims was constructed.gave a great gift to the development The world famous Koran of Caliphof the ensemble. Then Mirza Ahmed Osman is a priceless relic of theirKushbeghi built the Mui Muborak library. It contains the original text ofmadrasah and next to it the Djuma- the Koran, written down in theMosque of Tillya-sheikh to the east of 7th century. It was kept in the treasurethe madrasah Barak-khan. Near the houses of Caliphs in Medina, DamaskKaffal-Shashi mausoleum, the and Baghdad. Amir Temur brought itNamazgoh mosque was constructed. to Maverannahr.12
  13. 13. THE MADRASAH OF ABULKASYMIn the southern part of the Old 28×22 m. A part of the architecturalTashkent near the Beshagach gate complex of the madrasah is Muithe madrasah of Abu-l-Kasym- Muborak khanaka. The constructionsheikh is situated. Today it is located of the madrasah was initiated by thebetween Navoiy National park and famous public figure ishan Abu-l-the building of the Parliament (Oliy Kasym-sheikh (died in 1892). MoreMajlis) of Uzbekistan. This madrasah than 150 students studied at theof a traditional type was built in the madrasah annually. The famousmiddle of the 19 th century when Uzbek writer Abdulla Kadyri studiedTashkent was under the authority of at the madrasah at the beginning ofthe Kokand khanate. Originally the the 20 th century. The monumentmadrasah was single-storied, the was restored in 1983. Presently thesecond floor was added in the madrasah cells are workshops forcourtyard area. Its dimensions are as popular folk crafts.follows: 65×43 m, and the courtyard 13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. SHEYHANTAHUROne of the most historical places in Tashkent is situated to To the north of the mausoleum of Sheikh Hovendithe north of Navoiy Street. In the second half of the Tahur stands the mausoleum of Kaldirgach-biy. The name15th century there was a memorial, blessed by Khadja Ahrar, Kaldirgach (“a swallow”) refers to a respected judge fromthe powerful leader of Sufi brotherhood “Nakshbandiya.” duglat kin, Tole-biy (1663–1756). There is information thatIn this place they erected the mausoleum of Khadja in the place of Tole-biy’s grave there was an earlier burialAhrar’s uncle, sheikh Hovendi Tahur or Sheyhantahur. The of Mongolian prince from the Kipchak tribe. In thelegend tells about an ancient grove in this place which 19th century the ensemble Sheyhantahur, besides the mau-Iskander, the two-horned (Alexander the Great) once soleums of the ancient cemetery, included four mosques,blessed with a visit. Inside the Sheyhantahur mausoleum two madrasah, a minaret and chillyakhana. It is known thatthere is the dry trunk of the last tree from that grove. In two mosques were built with the donations of twothe late 15th century, beside the mausoleum of the sheikh Tashkent merchants—Saidazim-bai and Garib-bai. Sincethere was constructed the mausoleum of Yunus-khan, the 1925 “Uzbekfilm”, the movie company occupied the areagrandfather of Zakhr ad-Din Babur. Yunus-khan became and that was where the first Uzbek films were produced.famous as a conqueror of the vast territories of Mongolia Sheyhantahur suffered seriously during the Tashkentand East Turkistan. Tashkent was his place of residence. earthquake of 1966. In the late 20th – early 21st centuriesA short time before his death he settled in Sheyhantahur the territory of Sheyhantahur became home to theas a simple dervish. Tashkent Islamic University. 15
  16. 16. DJUMAMOSQUE In the 15th–16th centuries when Tash­ Tashkent he gained fame as an out- kent gained the status of a great Cen- standing Sufi sheikh. After that he tral Asian city and a new architectural moved to Samarkand and became ensemble arose in its center. It is the a spiritual teacher for Temurid rulers. area of present-day Chorsu Square The Djuma-mosque of Khadja Ahrar and the Old City market. A monumen- was the main mosque in Tashkent for tal Friday mosque (the Djuma-mos­ centuries. It is rectangular in shape que) and the Khadja Ahrar madrasah with a large dome building at the were originally built here in the mid- edge of the longitudinal axis, east- dle of the 15th century. The construc- west. The mosque was repeatedly tion of these two buildings as well as reconstructed between the 16th and the Sheyhantahur mausoleum are 20th centuries. The madrasah of Khadja attributed to the activity of Khadja Ahrar does not exist now. In the Soviet Ahrar who came from a mountain vil- period its bricks were used to repair lage called Bogustan near Tashkent. In the Djuma-mosque.16
  17. 17. KUKELDASH MADRASAHThe Kukeldash madrasah was built in over the mosque and the class-the center of Old Tashkent during rooms were taken apart for bricks inthe 1560s. It was constructed on 1830–1831. In the 19 th cen­ ury the ta high hill by a Vizier (minister) of madrasah was used by Kokandthe Sheybanid Sultans of Tashkent khans as a fortress and it is a knownnamed Kukeldash (the foster brother fact that in 1860 Tash­ ent rebels kof a khan). The construction was were fired on from it. The top para-built at the edge of the medieval pet of the mosque was also used asshahristan and that is why it was an execution place; crimi­ als were nconsiderably raised above the street thrown from it. The portal was seri-which was at the same level with ously destroyed by the earthquakesthe ancient moat. The madrasah has in 1866, 1868 and 1886. The portal ofa large yard which is surrounded by the madrasah was restored in thehudjras with a classroom and 1950s–1960s and still has somea mosque in the corners. The domes details of 16th century tile work.
  18. 18. ZANGHIATA To the southeast of Tashkent, in Zanghi-ata village, in the grounds of an ancient cemetery, there is an architectural ensemble named Zanghi-ata. It was built in commemo- ration of sheikh Ai-Khadja (died in 1258)—who was from an Arabian clan who had dark complection—that gave his nickname Zanghi-ata (from “zanghi”—dark skinned). Owing to his father, Sheikh Tadj-Khadja, Zanghi-ata was the successor of Sufi tradition “Yassaviya” formed by Khadja Ahmad Yassavi. The sheikh lived and preached during the difficult years of the Mongolian domination when Islam lost its status as the state religion and Zang- hi-ata had to act as a defender of Muslim culture. The Zanghi-ata Mausoleum was erected under Amir Temur in the end of the 14th century. Then a refined gravestone was produced for it. A mourning mosque ziaratkhana with a festive portal was constructed under Mirzo Ulug- bek in the early 15th century.18
  19. 19. At the end of the 18th century a madrasah was erect-ed around the courtyard. After a powerful earthquake in1868 the monument was badly damaged and later wasreconstructed. At that time a memorial mosque witha wooden avian was built. In the early 20 th century a min-aret with octahedral base was constructed in the center.The minaret has a tile with a very rare (for Muslin archi-tectural tradition) symbol of a “labyrinth.” Near the graveof the Sheikh there is the mausoleum of his wife Ambar-bibi. She was previously the wife of a poet mystic Suley-man Khakim-ata Bakyrgani, who was the teacher ofZanghi-ata. When Sheikh Suleyman died, Ambar-bibimarried Zanghi-ata and they moved to Tashkent. In localtradition the Holy Ambar-bibi is worshiped as a patron-ess of fertility and motherhood. The grave tomb ofAmbar-bibi consists of two prismatic stones, incrustedwith majolica. 19
  20. 20. SAMARKANDSamarkand is one of the most ancient cities of the world. It When Marko Polo travelled there in the 13th century, theis situated deep in Central Asian interfluves (39°40’N age of the town was already over 2000 years. The destiny of67°00’E), in the oasis of the Zarafshan River. This is the only many outstanding figures of culture was connected withlarge city of the world that history’s three greatest gener- Samarkand: Omar Hayam and Mirzo Ulugbek, Khadja Ahrarals: Alexander the Great, Chingiz-khan and Temur person- and Abdurrahman Djami, Alisher Navoiy and Zahir ad-Dinally fought to make it their own. The name of the city Babur. Samarkand was the first capital of the state of Sama-makes it relative to the ancient Israeli capital Samaria (9th– nids and in the 11th–13th centuries it was the capital of West-1st centuries B. C.) and the capital of Abbasid Caliphate ern Qarakhanids. Under Amir Temur Samarkand was hon-Samarra (836–892). In Sanskrit language “Samara”, as well ored to be the capital of a world kingdom, and under hisas “hamar” in Persian, mean “a meeting place.” In the past grandson Ulugbek, it was a site for astronomical observato-Samarkand might have been a special place where priests, ry, known around the world. In 1924–1930 Samarkand washeads and chiefs of the local tribes gathered for perform- the capital of Uzbek Republic in the structure of the USSR.ing sacred rituals, taking decisions on peace and war. Later Due to its architectural masterpieces “the town of bluethe town was founded and got that name. domes” entered in UNESCO’s list of the World Heritage.
  21. 21. ANCIENT SAMARKAND The ancient part of Samarkand, with the area of more than 200 hectares, is situated on a vast hilly plate, named after legendary Turanian king Afrasiab. It was protected by river canal in the north and east and deep ravines in the south. A town settlement arose here in the 8th – early 7th centuries B. C. So Samarkand has a 2750 years history substantiated by archeology and is a coeval of ancient Rome. The ancient citadel of Samarkand which domi- nates Afrasiab hills was probably that very sacred fortress Kangdiz. According to the Book of Kings “Shah-name” and ancient Iranian tales it was built by the legendary Siyavush. The Persian chronicles say that in Samarkand the son of Siyavush king Kay-Hosrov created a miracu- lous fire alter and built a holy temple around it. Later the founder of Zoroastrianism, Zaratushtra, handed there his 1200 chapters of a holy book of “Avesta” written down on gold plates.22
  22. 22. In the time of the Achaemenids the town became thecapital of Sogdiana. It was encircled with a massive wallwhich had inside a corridor and towers. In the ancient chroni-cles the town was mentioned as Marakanda, destroyed byAlexander the Great. Zoroastrianists blamed Alexander forruining the ancient temples and holy books. Samarkand roseagain in the 4th–8th centuries when the Great Silk Roadbecame an important trade route. The Chinese chronicles ofthe 1st millennium call Samarkand “The Kang Kingdom”,which was the strongest princedom in Sogd. In the 5th–7th centuries Samarkand recognized the supremacy of Heph-thalites and Turks, in the 7th–8th centuries it was under theChinese Tang dynasty. Four lines of new walls were builtaround Samarkand in that period. There were built Zoroastri-an, Buddhist and Christian temples. The wall paintings in theroyal palace are still safe. In the 8th century Arabian troopsheaded by Quteiba conquered Samarkand.
  23. 23. SAMARKAND: 8 th –13 th CENTURIES Having conquered Central Asian Interfluves, the Arabs Ruins of the Samanids’ palace with carved panels were called it Maverannahr—“The land beyond the river” that is found by archeologists in the western sector of Afrasiab.“behind the Amu-Darya.” In the middle of the 8th century Large scale manufacturing of Chinese paper was develop- Omayyad’s yielded the Arabic Caliphate throne to the ing and along the Siab river there were built lots of work- Abbasids—to the descendants of the Prophet’s uncle al- shops using water mill energy. In the 11th–13th centuries Abbas. The first Abbasids’ deputy was Abu Muslim. He mar- Samarkand became the capital of the western Qarakhanid ried a sister of a noble Samarkand citizen and made the state. The rulers’ palace was erected in the citadel. The town his stronghold in Maverannahr. In 751–753 Abu Mus- tomb of Kusam-ibn-Abbas became a cultic place where lim built a new wall for Samarkand with loopholes and there was built a mausoleum. At the beginning of the 360 towers. It embraced an area 30 times larger than the 13th century Khorezm-shah Muhammad captured Samar- inner town (shahristan) on Afrasiab and included its south- kand and built a new palace, decorated with wall paintings ern suburbs (rabad) with bazaars, mosques, bathhouses instead of the Qarakhanids’. However the state of Khorezm- and caravanserais. About 12 thousands households and cas- shahs was soon conquered by the Mongols. Chingiz-khan tles came under protection of that wall.12 new gates were took Samarkand after a short siege. The city suffered much built in the places where the roads cut the walls. In the 9th– due to Chingizids’ internal wars in the second half of the 10th centuries Samarkand became a cultural center of the 13th century. The ancient settlement of Afrasiab was finally Islamic East and the first capital of the Samanids. deserted. 25
  24. 24. GUREMIR MAUSOLEUM In the 14th century Samarkand rose in its southern suburb (rabad). Amir Temur (1336–1405), the ruler of Western Chagatay Ulus, made it his capital. The Great Temur formed a huge empire from India to the Mediterranean. Samarkand became a symbol of his new empire, where he started unprecedented construction works. New architecture with huge portals, high blue domes and refined majolica must have competed against Eurasian capitals and meant the birth of the Central Asian imperi- al style. Amir Temur died before his grandiose Chinese campaign and was buried in Gur-Emir Mausoleum. The mausoleum was built for Temur’s grandson Muhammad- Sultan (1376–1403). The mother of the young prince came from Chingizid kin and was a granddaughter of Uzbek-khan. At an early age Muhammad-Sultan showed himself as a bright personality and was officially appoint- ed Amir Temur’s successor.26
  25. 25. Due to the tragic events Temur’s successor died whilehis grandfather was the alive and the grieving ruler decid-ed to bury him in the center of Samarkand. For a burialplace he chose a complex with a madrasah and a khanaka,named after Muhammad-Sultan (only parts of the founda-tions are still there). At the southern wall an undergroundstone crypt was built where the young prince’s body wasburied. Very soon Amir Temur himself was laid there torest. Later the remains of Seyid Berke, Amir Temur’s spiritu-al teacher were also reburied there. The octahedral mau-soleum with a ribbed dome was finished in the time ofthe rule of another of Temur’s grandsons, Mirzo Ulugbek.At that time there were built the eastern gallery andthe southern funeral premises. It is still a mystery exactlywhen another remarkable cleric—who is considered tobe Seyid Omar, son of Bukhara sheikh Amir Kulyal—wasburied in Gur-Emir. 27
  26. 26. TEMURID’S NECROPOLISThe Gur-Emir underground crypt contains graves of threemore rulers along with Amir Temur and Muhammad-Sultan.They are Temur’s son Miranshah (1366–1408) and Shahruh(1377–1447), and his grandson Mirzo Ulugbek (1396–1449).Miranshah was Temur’s third son who at the age of 14 wasappointed by his father the governor of Khurasan. In the1390s Miranshah received “the throne of Hulagu”, i.e.became the governor of the southwestern Mongolian terri-tories annexed by Temur’s empire. In 1408 Miranshah waskilled in a battle. Several years later his remains werebrought to Maverannahr and buried in Gur-Emir. AmirTemur’s youngest son Shahruh was enthroned in Khurasanand after his father’s death he became the supreme ruler ofthe empire. He gave Maverannahr to his son Mirzo Ulugbekwho reigned there for over forty years being supported byhis father’s power. Shahruh died during a military campaignand was buried in Herat.
  27. 27. Ulugbek twice campaigned in Khurasan and finally tookHerat’s throne of his father. Then Shahruh’s remains werereburied in Samarkand. In 1449 Ulugbek’s son Abdullatifrose against his father, dethroned and killed him. Abdullatifwas soon dethroned and the remains of Ulugbek were bur-ied in Gur-Emir. The arrangement of the Temurid kings’ bur-ials can be clearly seen in the top room where the symbolictombs stand. The tomb of Sayid Berke occupies an honoredupper place, Amir Temur’s tomb is at his “feet” and itis made of precious dark green jade. To the east of it standsMuhammad Sultan’s tomb with stalactite infringements. Tothe west of Temur’s tomb lie the tombs of his sons Shahruhand Miranshah and to the south—his grandson Mirzo Ulug-bek. Right under these decorative tombs, in the under-ground crypt there are the burials and the grave tombs ofthese people. Amir Temur’s remains lie in wooden coffininside the marble sarcophagus. 29
  28. 28. THE RUHABAD MAUSOLEUMAccording to the words of Arabian kand sheikh Basir, who during histraveler Ibn Battuta in the 1340s the lifetime had the highest status ofhead of Muslims in Peking, which “kutb” (“the pole”) in the Sufi hierar-was the capital of Mongolian Chi- chy. Abu Said stayed in Samarkandnese empire, was Central Asian and became one of the chief reli-sheikh Byrhan ad-Din Sagarji. It gious tutors of Amir Temur. By theis known that the sheikh belonged will of Sahibkiran there was erectedto “Suhravardiya” Sufi tradition and a mausoleum over the grave offor some time preached Islam in sheikh Burhan ad-Din Sagarji whichEastern Turkistan. Before Battuta met got the name Ruhabad—“the househim in Sufi khanakas in India. When of spirit.” The existing dome of thesheikh Sagarji died his son Abu Said mausoleum is an inner dome. Therebrought his body to Samarkand, was very likely an outside dome,obeying his father’s last will. He bur- which might have been ruined oried him close to the grave of Samar- never constructed.30
  29. 29. МADRASAH AND MAUSOLEUM OF BIBIKHANYM The big madrasah built near the 1740. On the central axis of madras- cathedral mosque stood there till ah there is the only preserved struc- the middle of the 18th century. It was ture of a mausoleum which is the named Bibi-Khanym. That was the tomb of Sarai-Mulk-Khanym’s moth- name of Sarai-Mulk-Khanym, the er and two other women from her daughter of Kazan-khan from Ching- family. This is a high octahedral izids (1343–1346). When Amir Temur structure with a cylindrical drum married this woman he received the and Kufi inscriptions. The interior is honorable title of “Guragan”— decorated with mosaics and vegeta-“khan’s son-in-law.” Originally the tive ornaments including landscapes madrasah’s portal was so large that of the Paradise garden. By the it could compete with the cathedral 20 th century the dome of the mauso- mosque. So Temur ordered it to be leum had been crushed so it had to reconstructed. The madrasah was be fully restored. destroyed by Nodir-shah’s troops in 31
  30. 30. BIBIKHANYM MOSQUE The Amir Temur Mosque also named Bibi-Khanym was constructed as the cathedral mosque of Samarkand—i.e. the main mosque of Temurid Power—in the early 15th century. The best architects, artists and craftsmen from conquered countries were involved in the construc- tion of this grandiose complex and continued working for five years. Indian elephants were used for heavy lift- ing and transporting. When Temur returned after his western campaign he was disappointed with the scale of construction and ordered the reconstruction of the por- tal. They made it 45 m. high with big pylons and mina- rets flanking the arch up to 60 m. The bronze gates installed at the front entrance produced a long musical sound. Those unique gates were taken as trophies by the Iranian Nodir-shah who invaded Samarkand in 1740. Then they were returned and later melted down for coins. The large yard of the mosque (129×99 m) was laid32
  31. 31. with marble stones. It was for the thousands of believerscoming for prayer. In the center of the yard there was a pavilion for ritualablutions. Now a marble lectern for the huge Koran standsthere. It was made in the time of Ulugbek and decorated theinterior of the main building. The yard was fringed by an archand dome gallery placed on four hundred marble columns.There are three constructions with domes on its axis—themain mosque with a rostrum (minbar) for the imam in frontof the entrance portal and two small mosques on both sides.The mosque was so gigantic that the brick design could notbear its own weight and during the first decades the mosquewas collapsing little by little. The mosque of the 15th centurycame down to us in the ruins of a powerful entrance portal,three dome buildings and a minaret in the corner. Conserva-tion and partial restoration of the mosque was completed inthe late 19th – early to early 21st centuries.
  32. 32. REGISTANRegistan became the central square crossroad, on behalf of Temur’s wifeof Samarkand in the 14th century. Tuman-aga. Under Mirzo Ulugbek,The word “Registan” can be translat- Registan became the main officialed as “a sandy place.” Earlier there city square where military paradesflowed a canal forming sand and silt were held and the ruler’s decreesdeposits. The sacred Mausoleum of announced. Ulugbek constructedImam Muhammad ibn Djafar (9 th– a majestic madrasah and Sufi khana-10 th century) was built here in the ka with a huge dome. By thetime of Samanids, which explains 17th century the old buildings ofthe choice of the place. Six streets Registan were collapsing andcrossed at Registan. In the time of the governor of Samarkand, Yalang-Temur, Registan was connected with tush-biy, built Sher-Dor madrasahthe citadel of Samarkand by a “Silver instead of Ulugbek’s khanaka androws” street. A dome shopping mall, later the Tillya-Kari Madrasah.tim Tilpak-Furushon, was built at the34
  33. 33. ULUGBEK MADRASAHThe Ulugbek Madrasah was built were among the outstanding gradu-between 1417 and 1420. Its huge ates of the madrasah. In the 18th cen-entrance portal is decorated with tury the second floor anda 15 m arch. A mosaic panel above the domes on the sides were dis-the arch depicts a symbolic sky with mantled. By the 20 th century most offive and ten-pointed stars. The mosaic decoration on the facadesMadrasah’s size is 56×81 m. Inside had been lost, so the outstandingthere is an open yard (30×40 m) monument needed extensive resto-with an octagonal hauz in the cent- ration work. In the 20 th century theer. The madrasah had a platform for northeastern and southeastern min-astronomical observations made arets were repaired, new domesbefore Ulugbek’s observatory. The installed, the portal arch and tym-madrasah had fifty cells for one hun- pan restored.dred students. Sheikh Khadja Ahrarand the poet Abdurrahman Djami 35
  34. 34. SHERDOR MADRASAHThe Sher-Dor Madrasah was built ed with anthropomorphic oval ofbetween 1619 and 1636 in the place the sun and a tiger with lion’s maneof Ulugbek’s khanaka which after attacking a fallow deer. That gave ittwo hundred years had collapsed. It the name “Sher-Dor”—”havingstands like a mirror reflection of tigers.” The picture had been nearlyUlugbek’s madrasah. Ribbed domes lost by the middle of the 20 th centu-on high drums, placed on opposite ry but was restored again. The sig-sides of the front portal tower over nificant importance of Sher-Dora two-story façade. Probably the Madrasah (former Ulugbek khanaka)Ulugbek madrasah had the same is the burial of Imam Muhammaddomes, but time did not spare them. ibn Djafar Sadyk, which is in theIslamic inscriptions and vegetative southeastern corner of the façadeornaments decorate the interior. The (there is no evidence of a connec-tympans of the portal arch are espe- tion between this person and Shiitecially interesting. They were decorat- Imam Djafar as-Sadyk).36
  35. 35. TILLYAKARI MADRASAH In the middle of the 17th century the is on the western side of the cathedral mosque of Bibi Khanym madrasah’s yard. It is a large domed lay in ruins and Samarkand needed hall, decorated with a high entrance a new mosque in its center. Yalang- portal. Inside, opposite to the tush-biy ordered its construction in entrance, the huge arch of the Registan. The mosque was expected mihrab is located. A sign of a “mysti- to serve as a madrasah too. It was cal square”, surrounded by Koranic under construction for almost twen- sayings focused the prayers’ concen- ty years and was finished in 1660. tration. To its right there is a minbar The gilding mass on the dome, walls decorated with marble steps. The and mihrab was more than on every dome of the mosque was destroyed other famous buildings in Central by an earthquake in the early Asia. Owing to that the madrasah 19 th century and reconstructed in was called Tillya-Kari which means the 20 th century.“gilt.” The Mosque of Yalangtush-biy 37
  36. 36. AQSARAI MAUSOLEUMMausoleum Aq-Sarai (“White Palace”) Said (1451–1468/9), who capturedis situated to the south-east of the Khurasan and moved the capital toGur-Emir surrounded by apartment Herat in 1457.He was not buried there,houses. It got its name after the pal- as he was killed in a battle in Azerbai-ace of Temur’s grandson and succes- jan. The mausoleum has an under-sor Muhammad Sultan. In the Turkic ground octahedral crypt. In its easterntradition the main palace was called wall there is a special niche containingBlue (Kuk), and the second—White a decapitated person. According to(Aq). It is believed to be the last one version it is the grave of Ulug-Samarkand Temurids’ male family bek’s son Abdullatif (1449–1450). Therecrypt built in 1460–1470 years, when is a proposal that the tomb was builtGur-Emir exhausted its spaceplace for in the beginning of the 15th centurydynastic members’ burials. Most likely and Muhammad-Sultan was tempo-the person who ordered the mausole- rary buried there while Gur-Emir wasum to be built was Temurid ruler Abu under construction.38
  37. 37. ISHRATKHANA MAUSOLEUMIshratkhana Mausoleum was built decorate its interior. Ishratkhananear Abdi-Darun Mazar to the south- means “house of enjoyment” whicheast of Samarkand’s Firuza gates, in expresses the idea of an eternalthe place of the famous Temurid Gar- home for heavenly life. Some scien-den Bagi-Firuza This building has tists suggest that Ishratkhana wascomplex architecture, dating back to originally one of Temurids’ countrythe second half of the 15th century. It palaces. The mausoleum is a necrop-suffered greatly in its history, and was olis for Temurid women and children.not restored. The building has a big A possible patron for Ishratkhanaportal and a high central hall, the might be Habiba Sultan-begim—dome of which existed till the begin- Abu Sa’id’s wife, who constructed thening of the 20th century. It contains mausoleum for her daughter Hav-a crypt with twenty three female and end-Sultan-bika.children’s tombs under the floor.Mosaics, wall painting and plafonds
  38. 38. HAZRETHYZR MOSQUEThe mosque, named after Hazret- ing caravans from Tokharistan, IndiaHyzr, a mythical Islamic saint and and Iran. Over that place thereeternal wanderer stands on the passed an ancient aqueduct, bring-southern slope of Afrasiab hill, at ing water to the town. Perhaps duea crossroad behind the central to the aqueduct there appearedbazaar. A legend says that Hazret- a cult associated with Hazret-Hyzr,Hyzr helped the patron of Samar- who according to a legend becamekand Kusam-ibn-Abbas to avoid immortal after drinking water ofdeath and become immortal. Once, eternal life. Hazret-Hyzr is respectedthere was a Zoroastrian temple here as a saint who can grant wealth andwith sculptures of gods broken in good luck in trade and travelling.the first years of Islam. The temple The present building was erected onwas converted into a mosque. In the the medieval foundations in 1854.heyday of Afrasiab there were dou- Carved ganch and colored paintingsble fortified southern gates, receiv- on the ceiling decorate the interior.40
  39. 39. MAUSOLEUM OF KHADJA DANIYARMausoleum of Khadja Daniyar is situ- Islam, Christianity and Judaism.ated on the northern slope of Afrasi- Since the Prophet Daniyar was bur-ab hill near the old Samarkand wall. ied in the Middle East, it is assumedNearby, above the Siab river, there is that the remains of the holy personan underground curative source, were brought here by Amir Temur.coming out of the rock. According A peculiar feature of Khadja Daniyarto legends, Khadja Daniyar was cult is that the saint continues toa companion of Kusam-ibn-Abbas grow in his tomb. Owing to this thewho was considered a relative of the tomb was periodically extended.Prophet and one of the first Islamic The dome mausoleum above thepreachers. The other legends associ- long gravestone was built at theate Khadja Daniyar with Koranic and beginning of the 20 th century.Biblical prophet Daniyar (Daniel). So,the Mazar is worshipped as a holyplace in the three world religions:
  40. 40. SHAHIZINDA The rise of the Shahi-Zinda necropo- That gave the name for the necrop- lis is connected with Kusam ibn olis—Shahi-Zinda—“alive king.” It Abbas, the Prophet’s cousin who is likely that the cult of “eternally liv- had a strong resemblance with him. ing king”—the patron saint of There has survived a quotation (hab- Samarkand, has a more ancient pre- it), over a carved door of Shahi-Zin- Islamic origin, subsumed about da: “Said the Prophet..: Al-Kusam ibn a thousand years ago under the al-Abbas, more than others resem- worshiping of Kusam ibn Abbas. By bles me in face and character.” the 10 th–11th centuries Kusam was Kusam ibn Abbas took part in the considered a martyr and gained the first Arab campaigns to Maveran- status of an Islamic saint. In the 12th– nahr. According to a legend, Kusam 15th centuries there was constructed was mortally wounded at the a complex of mausoleums and Samarkand walls and hid under- mosques along the path leading to ground where he continues to live. his supposed grave.42
  41. 41. MAUSOLEUM OF KUSAM IBN ABBASThe base of Kusam ibn Abbas mau- to the 11th–12th centuries. Nearbysoleum consists of constructions there are the remains of burials fromdated to the 11th century. First of all the 10 th–11th centuries. At least a fewit is a small dome tomb. The ceramic centuries separate the time of thesestepped gravestone which was burials with the time of Kusam ibninstalled during Amir Temur’s time Abbas’s death. The names of thein the 1480s, occupies almost half of persons and reasons for their burialits area. The third step was decorat- in such an honored place remained with citation from the Koran a secret. Near the tomb there isexplaining the name of the necrop- a big memorial room with a mihrabolis: “Never consider dead those in the western wall. There is a roomwho were killed on the way of Allah. for forty-day sole prayer made underNo, they are alive.” Scientific surveys its floor. A small minaret of theof the tombs have revealed a grave 11th century is situated at theof a man of mature age, dating back entrance. 43
  42. 42. NORTHERN GROUPAfter the Mongols conquered Samar- mausoleum says: .”.. may Allah pro-kand, Shahi-Zinda memorial, which long their eternity to make a tombarose around the mausoleum of a garden of happiness for Khadja-Kusam ibn Abbas, was abandoned. It Ahmad.” In 1361 a mausoleum wasbegan to revive in the second quar- built next to it for a highborn marriedter of the 14thcentury as a suburban woman. Both mausoleums were dec-Muslim shrine alongside of the new orated with carved glazed terracottacity, on the site of rabad. Then Shahi- of bluish-green, and ash-blue colors.Zinda ensemble developed chrono- At the beginning of the 15th centurylogically from north to south. Khadja- on the west side of the same plat-Ahmad mausoleum was erected in form, there was built a mausoleumthe 1340s at the top of the northern and a mosque on behalf of Tuman-part of the memorial. It blocked the aga, Temur’s younger wife. The portaltrack along the main axis of the of the mausoleum is covered withnecropolis. The inscription on the blue cashin mosaics.44
  43. 43. CENTRAL GROUPA group of new mausoleums arose Alim Nesefi is decorated with reliefin Shahi-Zinda in the 1380s–1390s. majolica. Expressive eight-pointedThey were built on the place of Qar- stars are a characteristic feature ofakhanids’ madrasah (11th century). its facade. The central star showsSome of them were saved. These are the names of twelve Shiite imams.two nameless mausoleums, Amir The lower one contains Koranic textBurunduk Mausoleum, a mausoleum “Throne.” Between the “stars” is thebuilt by usto (master) Alim Nesefi. text: “This world is joy for the peopleAmir Burunduk Mausoleum has only of sin, the future world is bitter foran internal dome on a 16-angled those who are committed to thisdrum. The first nameless mausole- world, and both of these worlds areum preserved a portal with a cita- a joy for Godly people.” Located ontion: “earthly life is a burden to peo- the south east of the main track, anple, and people are a burden to the octagonal mausoleum was built byearth.” The mausoleum made by Ulugbek in 1430–40s. 45
  44. 44. TEMURID MAUSOLEUMSIn the time of Amir Temur, among the decorated with inlaid sapphire-bluemausoleums of Shahi-Zinda there cashin mosaics. It also has quotationswas built a necropolis for the women from Socrates. Among other moralof his family. When in 1372 Shadi- teachings there is a quote: “IndeedMulk died (the daughter of Temur’s people in this world are like birdselder sister Kutlug-Turkan-aga) a mau- rejoicing).. and this world is likesoleum with a ridge dome and a snare with bait placed in it.” One ofa beautiful portal, trimmed with Amir Temur’s confidants Amir Husseincarved majolica was erected at the built a mausoleum for his motherold wall. Kutlug-Turkan-aga died in Tuglu-Tekin next to these mausole-1383 and was buried in the same ums. In that period there also wasmausoleum. When Temur’s younger erected the mausoleum of Amir-Zade.sister, Shirin-bek-aga, died in 1386 The portals of these mausoleumsthere was built for her the most were decorated with carved glazedrefined mausoleum. Its portal was terracotta and painted majolica.46
  45. 45. SOUTH GROUPWhen Temur’s grandson Mirzo Ulug- bottom of the wall, Ulugbek builtbek was the ruler of Maverannahr, a front entrance. It has the inscrip-Shahi-Zinda ensemble was construct- tion: .”.. founded by Abd al-Aziz..., soned downwards from the brink of the of Ulugbek... in 838(1434/1435).” Theold wall. The two-dome mausoleum mosque and auxiliary premises onwas built in that period. According to both sides of the chartak were builtsome sources, it belonged to Uldja- later. In the 19 th century the khakimInaga, Amir Temur’s nurse (before of Samarkand Davlet Kushbeghi con-the survey, researchers thought it structed a small madrasah at thewas the mausoleum of the astrono- entrance and a summer mosquemer Qazi-Zade Rumi). The mausole- opposite to it. The remains of a medi-um is famous for its legendary stair- eval bathhouse were found duringway. The number of its steps could restoration work in Shahi-Zinda atbe counted correctly only by a truly the beginning of the 21th century.believing person. In the 1430s, at the 47
  46. 46. OBSERVATORY OF ULUGBEKThe biggest astronomical observato- the publication of “Zidj” at Oxford. Inry of the time was built in Samarkand the late Middle Ages, the observatoryunder Mirzo Ulugbek in the 1420 s. was destroyed and deserted. TheHere, the great astronomers Qazi- observatory was discovered byZade Rumi, Djemshid Giyas al-Din archaeologist V. Vyatkin at the begin-Kashi and Ali Kushchi studied the ning of 20th century. The structureskies. For three decades high-preci- had the form of a cylinder withsion measurements of the motion of a diameter of about 46 m and wascelestial bodies were conducted. 30 m high. Under the ground theySamarkand observatory became excavated the remains of the basicfamous owing to the book “Zidj of instrument of the ob­ er­ a­ o­ y— s v t rUlugbek.” This work contains a theo- a giant (40 m radius and 63 m long)retical introduction and a catalog of quadrant arc. It was used for measu­1018 stars. European scientists knew ring the movement of the Sun, Moonabout the observatory in 1648 after and other bodies.48
  47. 47. DAKHMA OF SHEYBANIDSThe Chingizid dynasty of the Sheyba- has survived. This elevated structure,nids reigned in Samarkand in the faced with marble is situated between16th century. Trying to surpass the Tillya-Kari and Sher-Dor. In 1510 in theTemurids, Sheybanids built several dakhma of the Alia madrasah Sheyba-major madrasah in the centre of ni-khan was entombed. Then otherSamarkand. The first, Aliya madrasah Sheybanids were also buried there.was built to the north-east of Registan, Dakhma was moved several times andon the orders of the founder of the got to its present location in the twen-dynasty Sheybani-khan. Haniya tieth century. It preserved the tombsmadrasah was built opposite to it. of the Sheybanid sultans: MahmudUnder Kuchkunchi-khan, Abu-Said- (died in 1503–1504), Mahdi and Hamzakhan madrasah was constructed to (died in 1511) Kutlug Muhammad (diedthe south of Registan. Time did not in 1545) Abdulhair (died in 1517), Edgarspare the Sheybanid’s buildings. Only (died in 1523), Suyung Muhammadthe funeral dakhma of the Sheybanids (died in 1586). 49
  48. 48. KHADJA AHRAR NECROPOLIS Sheikh Khadja Ahrar (1404–1490) with Samarkand. The great sheikh headed the Central Asian branch of was buried in the south-eastern sub- the Sufi order “Naqshbandiyyah” in urb of Samarkand and a sacred cem- the middle of the 15th century. He etery was built in the 16th century. directly influenced the political life For the group of burials around of the Temurids due to his great spir- Khadja Ahrar’s there was construct- itual power. Samarkand ruler ed a special dakhma and nearby col- Ahmad-mirza, the ruler of Ferghana, umn aivans and halls of mosques Omar Sheikh, and the great poets built in different periods. In the Djami and Navoi were among 17th century Nadir Muhammad sheikh’s murids. Djami wrote that Divan-beghi— a rich Bukhara digni-“with his holy power, both externally tary constructed there a mosque and spiritually, he held people in and madrasah on the portal of subjugation.” Almost forty years of which there were pictured tigers like Khadja Ahrar‘s life was connected the ones in Sher-Dor.50
  49. 49. MEMORIAL COMPLEX OF IMAM ALBUKHARIThe necropolis of outstanding Sunni from the Prophet” At the end of histheologian Imam Muhammad al- life Al-Bukhari returned to his home-Bukhari was built near Samarkand. land, where he died in 870 in a villageWith his phenomenal memory, al- Hartang near Samarkand. His workBukhari spent his life studying resulted in a summa of hadiths—“Al-hadiths—the stories about the Proph- Djami as-Sahih”, which was canonizedet. Having performed the hajj in his in the 10th century as the main hadithyouth, al-Bukhari stayed in Hidjaz, anthology in the Sunni tradition. Inwhere he collected a set of biogra- the 16th century a small mausoleumphies of tellers of hadiths. While col- and mosque were built above thelecting the hadiths, the Imam was in tomb of Imam Al-Bukhari. In connec-Egypt, Iraq, Khurasan. One of the tion with 1225th anniversary of imamfamous sayings of Imam al-Bukhari Al-Bukhari the new memorial complexstates: “He who has received knowl- was built in 1998 at the site of the oldedge, has received an inheritance mausoleum. 51
  50. 50. BUKHARA Sacred Bukhara is one of the most esteemed cities in Referring to the holiness of the land of Bukhara there Islamic civilization. It is situated in the center of the ancient was a saying: “If anywhere in the world the light comes agricultural oasis in the lower reaches of the Zarafshan Riv- from above, in Bukhara, it streams out of the earth.” In the er (39°46’N, 64°25’E). It is clear that Bukhara gained the sta- Middle Ages Bukhara was the site of spiritual sermons of tus of a sacred town in pre-Arabian times. It was probably prominent religious figures such as Imam al-Bukhari, al- an ancient temple area, dating back to the 2nd millennium Gijduvani, Sayf al-Din Boharzi, Baha ad-Din Naqshband. In B. C. The name of the city is related to the Sanskrit the 10th–11th centuries Bukhara was the capital of the Sama-“vihara”—“shrine”, “monastery.” The same idea is rendered nid state and since the 16th century the capital of Bukhara by medieval sources that report that the Zoroastrian Magi khanate. The last amir of Bukhara was dethroned in 1920 and idolaters translated the name “Bukhara” as a “temple.” and Bukhara Republic was founded. In 1924 the land of“Bukhara”, as well as “vihara”, can be derived from the San- Bukhara became part of the Uzbek SSR, and in 1991—a part skrit “varahi”—“the land of boar (varaha)”, which means of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The Historical Centre of“holy land”, as the boar was revered as a symbol of the Bukhara is a unique “open air” museum and is included in priesthood. UNESCO’s list of the world heritage.
  51. 51. ANCIENT BUKHARA The earliest layers of the urban cul- The Hephthalites (5th–7th centuries) ture of Bukhara have an age of and then the Turks (6th–7th centuries) 2500 years. Its most ancient monu- who conquered Bukhara land, ments are the well of Job—Chash- patronized the trade and collected ma-Ayub, associated with the name taxes. In the 7th century the Bukhara of the prophet Job (Ayub), and cita- Union of Princedoms was headed by del Ark, which had a major Zoroastri- rulers with the title of Bukhar-Hudat. an temple. Local rulers struck their In the early eighth century the Arabi- own coins from the 2nd century B. C. an commander Quteiba conquered In the 3rd–4th centuries after a great Bukhara and constructed the first drought Bukhara’s oasis went mosque in the city. At the end of the through a period of decline. A recov- 9th century Bukhara became the capi- ery began in the middle of the tal of the Samanid Power. In the 9 th– 5th century and was associated with 11th centuries the city was protected the reviving of trade on the Silk Road. with new high walls.54
  52. 52. ARKAn historian of the 10 th century Nar- Manghit dynasty (1747–1920). At thatshahi states that Bukhara was origi- time Ark was the center of thenally called Numidjket. The core of Bukhara state. There was a palace ofthe town was Ark, erected at the the Bukhara Emir, mosques, anturn of the 1nd millennium on a hill exchequer, governmental adminis-with an area of about 3 hectares. tration and a prison. Its grandThere was a palace, ruler’s adminis- entrance faced Registan Square. Thetration, guard’s room and temple. massive gates were reinforced withAccording to a legend Ark was built two towers connected by a galleryby the epic hero Siyavush. Bukhara’s above. In the past there hung a lashpeople honored his grave at the above the gates. It symbolized theeastern gate, and every year on amir’s power. Ark was largelyNavruz, roosters were sacrificed destroyed in 1920 when the Redthere. Bukhara’s citadel of Ark got its Army subjected the city to an artil-modern shape in the period of the lery attack and air bombing. 55
  53. 53. THE SAMANID MAUSOLEUM The famous Samanid mausoleum some traditions of Sogdian architec- stands in the park to the west of the ture: archaic columns in the corners, Ark, dating from the 9 th–10 th centu- chains of “pearls” and the top arch ries. It is believed that the founder of gallery. The entrances of the mauso- the Samanid Power amir Ismail had leum, like temples of fire are open it built for his father Nasr I, and after on four sides. They are “protected” that the mausoleum became the with the signs of “magic square,” Samanids’ family tomb. There is which represents the symbolic plan a version saying that Ismail himself of the mausoleum, and embodies (died in 907) and his grandson a harmonious model of the world: Nasr II were buried in the tomb. Its the circle—the sky, the square—the geometry presents the classical earth, the wings—the symbols of shape of an Islamic mausoleum: angels, forty “pearls”—forty saints a cube, crowned by a dome. But in who protect the human race. the decoration we can also trace56
  54. 54. CHASHMAAYUBChashma-Ayub belongs to the the city and Bukharian Jewish com-esteemed “places of trace” (“kadam- munity. The water here still remainsjoy”) left by saintly persons. The leg- pure and is considered to be cura-end says that a holy righteous man tive. Legends inform us that a culticJob, called in the Koran the Prophet construction existed here in theAyub once visited this place. The 12th century. The inscription on theimpact of his staff made a healing portal says that today’s constructionwater well (“chashma”).The other was built in the time of Amir Temur.version states that it is the source, A characteristic feature of Chashma-bathing in which Ayub was saved Ayub is a conic dome typical forfrom suffering, mentioned in the Khorezm architecture of 13th–Old Testament book of Job. In any 14th centuries. Probably, Khorezmcase, the unknown events, associat- masters brought to Bukhara byed with the name of Ayub played its Temur were the builders of the mau-part in causing the emergence of soleum. 57
  55. 55. MAGOKIATTARI MOSQUEThe most ancient mosque of Magoki- tions of the 10th century building. InAttari is situated in the modern cent- 1930 archeologists dug out theer of Bukhara near Toki-Tilpak-Furush- southern portal of the mosque of theon. In the early Middle Ages in this 12th century with unique ornamentalplace there was a market called Moss bricklaying and archaic carved majol-(Lunar), and next to it, a cultic center ica. The ancient trace of pre-Islamicwith the Temple of the Moon. During architecture are double quarter-col-the spring festival of Navruz figurines umns on the sides of the portal.and scapular folk deities were sold Among the decoration of the façadesthere. After the capture of Bukhara, are five carved ganch panels withthe Arabs built one of their first exquisite compositions of wovenmosques on the site of the Moon ornament. In the late Middle AgesTemple. Excavations inside of the Magoki-Attari served as a small dis-mosque revealed the remains of trict mosque with the entrance fac-carved decoration, and the founda- ing Lyabi-Hauz.58
  56. 56. KALYAN MINARETKalyan Minaret (Great Minaret) is the with 16 arches. The minaret ismain symbol of sacred Bukhara. For 45.6 m high. Initially, it was evena thousand years this sacred tower higher as the upper link of the mina-has dominated Bukhara, declaring ret was above the lantern. For somethe greatness of the Islamic faith. At reason (possibly because ofthe foot of the minaret is the central an earthquake), it was lost andreligious ensemble of Bukhara—Poi- upgraded later. The cornice has anKalyan (literally—“Foot of the inscription testifying to the date ofGreat”). Kalyan is a round tower, construction—1127, and the archi-9 m in diameter at the foot and tect’s name—Bako. The upper part6 m at the top. One can get into the of Kalyan minaret was damaged dur-minaret though a passage from the ing Red Army’s artillery attack androof of the cathedral mosque. Inside air bombing of Bukhara in 1920. Itthe tower there is a spiral staircase was rebuilt during the restoration.with 104 steps, at the top is a lantern
  57. 57. VABKENT MINARETA minaret named after the spiritual with an elegant arched structure,ruler of Bukhara, Sadr Burhan ad-Din called a “lamp” by analogy withAbd al-Aziz was constructed at the a lighthouse (“minaret” is derivedend of the 12th century in Vabkent. from Arabian “manāra”—a place ofThe minaret was the second largest burning fire, lighthouse). The trunkin Bukhara oasis and became a part of the minaret is faced with dou-of the Friday mosque. The similarity bled brick work, has 8 narrow beltsof architectural solutions suggests of ornaments and Islamic epigraphicthat it could have been built by one texts. The base of the lamp is deco-of the students of Bako—the archi- rated with stalactites. For centuries,tect of the Kalyan minaret. It Kalyan minaret and Vabkent minaretis a more slender brick tower 39 m. remained unrivaled in scale, settinghigh, 6.2 m. in diameter at the base an elevated standard for sacredand 2.8 m. at the top. Vabkent mina- towers of Central Asian Islamicret, as well as Kalyan is crowned architecture.60
  58. 58. GIJDUVANI MEMORIAL COMPLEX Bukhara land keeps the ashes of burial of Sheikh the ruler of Maver- many great figures of Islamic culture. annahr Mirzo Ulugbek (1409–1449) One of these persons is a prominent built a small one-storey madrasah Sufi Abd al-Halik Gijduvani (died in with portal facing east. It is four 1220). He was born and died in times smaller than Ulugbek madras- Gijduvan village near Bukhara. Al- ah in Samarkand. A small minaret Gijduvani was a disciple of the similar to Kalyan stands at the famous Sheikh Yusuf al-Hamadani entrance of the madrasah The mod- and the founder of Central Asian ern complex was constructed at the Sufi school “Khadjagan”, that is “way beginning of the 21st century and of Khadjas (teachers).” Adherents of has an exquisite wooden aivan“Khadjagan” had to recognize free placed on ten columns, crowned will poverty, ascetics, and celibacy with a blue dome, under which is and abstain from contacts with the tomb of the great sheikh. authorities. In 1432–1433, next to the 61
  59. 59. MAUSOLEUM OF SHEIKH BOHARZI Sheikh Seif ad-Din Boharzi (died in tury a mausoleum was built above 1261) was a pupil of outstanding his tomb. A dome building of Khorezm Sufi Nadjm ad-Din Qubro khanaka with portal was attached (died in 1220). He chose Bukhara as to the mausoleum in the 14th centu- a place for his sermons, where he ry, which had been the place for founded the Sufi community Sufi meditations up to the end of “Qubroviya.” Sheikh Boharzi was the 18 th century. Near Sheikh Bohar- famous for converting the Golden zi memorial there is the mausoleum Horde’s khan Berke to Islam. In the of his pupil Buyan-Kuli-khan, who middle of the 13th century he head- was a nominal Khan of Chagatay ed Bukhara madrasah, established Ulus under amir Kazagan rule (1346– by Masud-beg, Mongolian Muslim 1358). In the past it was a refined minister. After death the sheikh was structure, decorated with carved buried in Fathabad district near glazed terracotta of blue, dark blue Bukhara. At the end of the 13th cen- and white tones.62
  60. 60. TRADING DOMESMedieval Bukhara was known as the dome, “toki” stayed cool even ina large trading city, receiving mer- extreme heat of summer. The sur-chants from Central Asia, Iran and viving Bukhara “toki” were built overIndia, Russia and China. There were four hundred years ago undera lot of shopping areas and caravan- Abdullah-khan II. Three of thoseserais there. The main streets in the structures are still safe. These are:center served as bazaars, each of Toki-Zargaron (dome of jewelers),which sold a certain type of prod- Toki-Sarrafon (dome of money-uct. So, domed buildings, support- changers) and Toki-Tilpak-Furushoned with arches and arched sails (dome of headwear sellers). Basedwere constructed in squares and on its architecture and functioncrossroads to make sale more com- Abdullah-khan’s Tim also belongs tofortable. That gave the name to “Toks.” It is a large multi-dome trad-domed bazaars—“toki”—arch, ing construction for silk sale.dome. Due to the vast space under 63
  61. 61. ULUGBEK MADRASAHUlugbek Madrasah is situated to the Originally the madrasah had foureast of Poi-Kalyan. It is the first of domes and four minarets in the cor-three madrasah, built by Amir ners. The construction was complet-Temur’s grandson Mirzo Ulugbek. ed in 1420, the name of the archi-The other two were built in Samar- tect—Ismail ibn Tahir Isfahani. Thekand and Gijduvan. Following his building has two floors of cells (hud-grandfather’s tradition Ulugbek jras) and a mosque. The facade ispatronized science and education. decorated with a portal, two-storeyHis name is glorified in the centuries loggias and corner turrets. At thefor his astronomical observatory corners of the mosque there areactivity in Samarkand in the 15th cen- classrooms (darskhana). In 1586 intury. The inscription on the front the time of Abdullah-khan II thedoor of the madrasahs reads: “Aspi- madrasah was restored and itsration to knowledge is a duty of façade was decorated with glazedeach Muslim man and woman.” bricks and majolica.64
  62. 62. MADRASAH OF ABD ALAZIZKHANOpposite to Ulugbek madrasah in round towers at the corners. TheBukhara there stands a large size of the madrasah is 60×48 m.madrasah, built in 1651–1652 by A darskhana is in its northeast cornerorder of Ashtarkhanid Abd al-Aziz- and a winter mosque is in the north-khan. This khan was famous for his west. The summer mosque withvictory over the Great Mughal Indian a mihrab is located in the southernarmy, which was expelled from aivan. The interior has stalactitesBalkh. Building a madrasah, Abd al- and complex sails. The decorAziz followed the Bukhara khans’ tra- presents a wide use of painting,dition of leaving a new Islamic mosaic and majolica panels withschool after their rule. The proto- pictures of flowering shrubs in vases,type for Abd al-Aziz-khan madrasah fantastic serpentine creatures, andwas Miri-Arab madrasah: with a high others. On the sides of the mainportal, two dome halls in the frontal portal there are fabulous pictures ofpart, four aivans in the yard and birds flying to the sun.
  63. 63. KALYAN MOSQUEKalyan Mosque was constructed in the beginning of the15th century on the site of the old Qarakhanid Djuma-Mosque built in the 12th century at the same time withKalyan Minaret. The construction of a new mosque wascompleted in the first decades of the Sheybanid Powerwhich is proved by the date on the facade of themosque—1514. Since then, for the past five centuries Kaly-an mosque has acted as the main mosque of Bukhara. Thescale of this Sheybanid mosque is comparable to theTemurid cathedral mosques in Samarkand and Herat. Itis inferior to Bibi Khanum mosque in Samarkand in struc-tural scale, but surpasses it in the area size (127×78 m). Themosque has a rectangular plan with a traditional fouraivans, decorated with portals. The entrance portal of themosque faces the Poi-Kalyan square. During the restora-tion works of the 1970s the facades of the mosque wererefaced with mosaic tiles and glazed bricks.
  64. 64. On the crosswise axes of the courtyard there are twointernal aivans and four ways out of the mosque. The mainbuilding of Kalyan mosque with a high massive dome ison the eastern side of the yard. On top of the dome storksused to make their nests before they disappeared fromthe city after the 1920–1930s. when swamps had beendrained around Bukhara. Inside the mosque there isa mihrab faced with multicolored mosaics. An octagonaltent-rotunda, like the “Octahedron” mausoleum of Shahi-Zinda in Samarkand stands in front of the portal. It is usedas a pulpit for sermon reading. The internal architecture ofthe mosque presents impressive indoor arched galleriesaround the perimeter of the yard. They are covered by288 domes placed on 208 columns. From any observationpoint within the gallery there opens a rhythmically repeat-ed pattern of arcades and pillars, creating a colorful play oflight and shadow. 67
  65. 65. MIRIARAB MADRASAH The active Miri-Arab Madrasah is situated opposite to Kalyan Mosque. This is one of the most esteemed reli- gious Islamic universities in the post-Soviet period. It was built in 1535–1536 and has worked for five centuries. After a interruption of two decades during the Soviet era the madrasah was reopened in 1945. Classrooms are arranged at the three corners of the building. The fourth one contains a necropolis with a burial of Miri-Arab (“Prince of Arabs”), with a wooden tombstone. So was called Seyid Shams ad-Din Abdallah al-Arabi, who was originally from Yemen. In the 1480s Miri-Arab settled in Central Asia and became a murid of Khadja Ahrar. He was the head of the Muslims of Bukhara and enjoyed great authority at the court of Muhammad Sheybani and Ubaidullah-khan. The latter revered Miri-Arab as a spiritu- al guide. He wrote a commentary on the Koran and sev- eral Sufi treatises.68
  66. 66. It was Ubaidullah-khan who gave Miri-Arab funds forthe construction of the madrasah. Its majestic facade israised on a high platform above the Kalyan Mosque leveland completely covered with mosaics. It is flanked by mas-sive corner towers. In the center of the facade is theentrance portal with a high semi-octahedron arch, oneach side—two-story loggia. Corner rooms are toppedwith turquoise domes. Their high cylindrical drums aredecorated with tile mosaics with fringes and epigraphictexts. The external size of the madrasah is 73×55 m. Thecourtyard—37×33 m. It is circled by hudjras on two floors,111 in number. The internal layout of the building is verycomplex and has many steps, transitions, mezzanines andalleys. Inside, open portals on the axes of the court serveas summer classrooms. Carved cashin mosaics with plantornaments and intricate ligature of suls handwriting isused in the external decoration.
  67. 67. BAHA ADDIN NAQSHBAND NECROPOLIS The Necropolis of sheikh Baha ad-Din Naqshband—the patron of Bukhara (died in 1389) is situated near Bukhara. He was born in the village, later called after Qasr-i Orifan—“castle of those who have known divine truth.” It is believed that the sheikh received spiritual ordination from Khadja Gijduvani who appeared in his dream. His other teacher was Sultan-Halil, Sufi and governor from the Chingizid dynasty. The Naqshband Sufi community denied asceticism and was rather active in business. Baha ad-Din said: “Our way to God is communication, but not asceticism.” The memorial complex of Baha ad-Din Naqsh- band was formed over five centuries. Its center is a rectan- gular courtyard, where the sheikh was buried. Memorial mosques from the 19th century adjoin the yard. In the northwest corner there is the mosque of Bukhara Emir Muzaffar (1860–1885), on the north side—the mosque of Kushbegi.
  68. 68. Next to the burial place of Naqshband stands thenecropolis of the Sheybanids (16th century), who afterdeath wanted to be under the sheikh’s patronage. Thebasis of the necropolis is two dakhmas. The first burialsbelong to the first half of the 16th century (supposedlyUbaidullah-khan was buried there), the second is the buri-al of Iskandar-khan (died in 1583) and his son Abdullah-khan II (died in 1598). To the west there is another dakhmawith the burial of Amir Imam Kuli-khan (18th century). Thelargest building of the memorial is a Sufi khanaka, whichbears the name of Sheybanid Abd al-Aziz-khan (died in1550), and was built on his orders. The outer dome of thekhanaka is visible at a distance of a few kilometers fromthe memorial. Divided by arches, it consists of nine parts:a small central dome, four side “petals” and the four cornerones. It makes it look like a closed flower bud, the imageof “stopped time.” 71
  69. 69. NAMAZGOH MOSQUEThe ancient preserved mosque and from the mosque of QuteibaNamazgoh stands to the south of the only the sacred Western Wall, facingwalls of the medieval city. It is a spe- Mecca was left. Over time, at thecial type of mosque used for only northern boundary of Quteibatwo Muslim holidays—Kurban-hait Namazgoh there emerged a ceme-and Ramazan-hait. Holiday sermons tery where famous preachers of Islamwere made with the participation of were buried. The last mosque wascity leaders. That was the third established at the beginning of theNamazgoh mosque built in Bukhara. 12th century under Qarakhanid rulerThe first mosque of that type was Arslan-khan III (1102–1130). During thebuilt at the beginning of the 8th cen- reconstruction in the 16th century,thetury by Arab commander Quteiba in arch-domed gallery with high portalthe north of the city. In 970 Samanid and the pulpit were built. There isAmir Mansur ibn Nuh transferred a mihrab in the center decoratedNamazgoh to the west of the city with bricks and carved terracotta.72
  70. 70. FAYZABAD AND KHADJA ZAIN ADDIN KHANAKASFayzabad khanaka was a large Sufi there is the tomb of Khadja Zain ad-shrine. It was built in 1598–1599 to Din marked with a special pole. Onthe northeast of medieval Bukhara. both sides the kanaka is surroundedIt stands far from the cramped by aivans with columns having sta-streets of the city and has the basic lactite capitals and marble bases.attributes of a Sufi house—a large The pool in the yard has stone stepsdome hall for group meditations and a carved stone outlet. By theand hudjras for living. Its central hall middle of the 19 th-early 20 th centuryis surrounded by arch-dome gallery Sufi traditions had been largely lost,on three sides. Another Sufi khanaka and their bearers were mostly wan-is close to Kalyan mosque in the dering dervishes. For this reason, themiddle of a residential area. It was kanakas of Bukhara began to carrybuilt in the first half of the 16th cen- out the role of district mosques.tury and was named after KhadjaZain ad-Din. Outside the khanaka 73
  71. 71. CHORBAQR Chor-Baqr is a country necropolis for the Prophet’s descend- ants from Djuibar Seyids’ family. It is situated in Sumitan vil- lage—8 km to the west of Bukhara. Djuibar Seyids had occupied the major state posts in Bukhara since the Sama- nids. The oldest part of the memorial is the burial of Abu- Baqr Saad, the founder of the dynasty. A modest village cemetery gained the status of a state necropolis in the sec- ond half of the 16th century. Then Sheybanid Abdullah- khan II reconstructed Chor-Baqr and erected a memorial architectural complex in memory of Sheikh Khadja Muham- mad Islam (died in 1563) and his son Khadja Abu-Baqr Saad (died in 1589). Abdullah-khan II and his father Iskandar-khan, considered themselves the spiritual pupils of Khadja Muhammad Islam. In the middle of the 16th century, under Sheikh Muhammad Khadja, Djuibar Seyids headed the “Naqshbandiyya” Sufi brotherhood and became mentors for the Sheybanid sultans.74
  72. 72. The son of Sheikh Khadja Abu-Baqr Saad was hissuccessor and like his father, was the head of the Mus-lims of Bukhara and one of the largest feudal landown-ers in the khanate. He owned land and other propertyin Bukhara, Samarkand, Termez, Balkh, Herat, Merv,Meshed and Chardzhui and had an annual incomeequal to the one of Samarkand regions. Chor-Baqrnecropolis is like a “city of the dead” with streets, yards,gates and family dakhmas with numerous gravestones.The central part is occupied by a mosque, khanaka andmadrasah. The front facades of the mosque and khana-ka have portals with large arches, and the side facadesare formed by two circles of loggia. Their halls havedomes on well-balanced drums and interiors decoratedwith crossed arches and a “web” of netted “sails” andstalactites. In the 20 th century a small minaret, imitatingKalyan Minaret was built on its central axis.
  73. 73. BOLOHAUZ MOSQUE Many years ago Registan Square, ganch stalactites. The most striking opposite to Ark citadel was occu- feature of the mosque is the decora- pied by numerous beautiful build- tion of the aivan with 20 columns ings. Today there is only one monu- made of walnut, elm and poplar ment of medieval Bukhara—Bolo- wood. To seem higher in impression Hauz ensemble. It is a classic exam- the columns are each made of two ple of a Central Asian mosque: win- joined trunks. Their mushroom- ter building of 1712, summer aivan shaped stalactite capitals are deco- of the early 20 th century with orna- rated with bright colored paintings. mented ceiling and wooden col- The transverse beams divide the umns, small pool and small minaret ceiling into multi-colored rectangu- constructed in 1917 by usto Shirin. lar sections which are masterpieces Under a wide dome there is the of Bukhara craftsmen with a distinc- main hall of the mosque and mihrab tive stalactite groove in the middle niche which is richly decorated with of a star-shaped figure.76
  74. 74. ZINDANTo the north-east of Ark citadel there conditions were severe—criminalsis a building of medieval amir pris- were kept in a deep hole. They wereon—“zindan.” This high construction lowered there with special ropes aslooks like a well-fortified castle and well as their food. The word “zindan”,is a state museum today. Archaeo- in Persian means “underground,logical research has proved that darkness.” Twice a month prisonersa millennium ago, this small fortress in chains, were taken from the dun-was the northwestern tower, part of geon to Registan square and werethe wall of Bukhara internal city— presented to the Amir of Bukhara,shakhristan. This dungeon obtained after which he decided who was toits modern look in the time of last be killed and who to pardon.Bukhara Amirs. The prison consistsof two parts. In the first part prison-ers were held in cells, located in sev-eral yards. In the second part the 77
  75. 75. KUKELDASH MADRASAHKukeldash madrasah is another facades of the madrasah are deco-Bukhara building of the 16th century rated with majolica. The front façadeconstructed in the period of Abdul- with entrance hall, mosque and dar-lah-khan II. It bears the name of skhana faces Lyabi-Hauz. Star-Khan’s dignitary Kulbaba Kukeldash shaped plafonds made of burnt(“foster brother of Khan”) who car- brick or ganch form the originalried out the construction of this interiors of the madrasah. In thebuilding in 1568–1569. The madras- Soviet period the madrasah wasah’s size is 86×69 m. which makes it closed and for some time used asone of the biggest in Bukhara. It has a hotel. There are interesting pic-160 hudjras in two stories around tures of the 1930s (in socialist real-a 2-aivan courtyard. One of the most ism style) in the corners of the dar-famous Central Asian writers of the skhana depicting work scenes from20 th century Sadr ad-Din Aini (1878– the life of an Uzbek village.1954) studied there. The traditional78
  76. 76. CHORMINOR“Chor-Minor” (“Four minarets”) is the scripts were preserved. A peculiar name of an unusual madrasah built image of Chor-Minor is unique in in 1807 from the money of a rich the Islamic architecture of Central Turkmen merchant Haliph Niyazkul. Asia. Its possible prototype could be The madrasah includes a small yard the grand Char-Minor mosque in surrounded by hudjras, summer Hyderabad (India), built at the end of mosque in form of a column aivan the 16th century by Akbar-shah. The and a stoned pool. A special image height of the minarets of Hyderabad of the madrasah is produced by Char-Minor exceeds that of the Kaly- an original entrance and a four-arch an minaret. It is assumed that Haliph dome construction with four tower- Niyazkul saw this Indian “World minarets. In one of the towers there Wonder” during business trips and is a staircase leading to the second ordered Bukhara architects to repeat floor of the domed hall. It housed it in miniature. a library, where precious manu- 79
  77. 77. LYABIHAUZLyabi-Hauz (literally—“brim of wide and about 5 m. deep. It con-a pool”) is one of the most popular tains more than four thousand cubicholiday destinations for Bukhara resi- meters of water, which comes by thedents and tourists. It is a broad area ancient canal Shahrud. The banks ofaround an ancient artificial reservoir. Lyabi-Hauz have stone steps. SoThis largest pool of medieval it was easy for Bukhara water-carriersBukhara is located in the central part to fill their leather skins with cleanof the city. It was made in about water. During four hundred years this1620 between the Kanaka and Mad­ place has been arranged for tearasah, constructed by the order of drinking open pavilions (chaikhana)the Nadir Divan-Beghi. The two new and commercial shops. In thebuildings and Kukeldash Madrasah 20 th century, a monument to a legen-formed a harmonious architectural dary folk hero—the cheerful jokerensemble with a reservoir in the Khadja Nasr ad-Din was placed incenter. The pool is 42 m. long, 36 m. the park near Lyabi-Hauz.80
  78. 78. KHANAKA AND MADRASAH OF NADIR DIVANBEGHIThe khanaka was the first building of Divan-Beghi for the building madeLyabi-Hauz ensemble, built by vizier “for the glory of Allah.” After that,Nadir Divan-Beghi. It was a place for Nadir Divan-Beghi had to make theSufis to stay and meditate. This is caravanseraia madrasah. But con-a massive construction with a cen- structed with another purpose thetral cruciform domical hall and hud- building does not have a mosque,jras in the corners. Its high portal is classrooms or courtyard aivans.flanked by towers. The mihrab niche A memorable picture of the madras-is decorated with colorful stalactites. ah is the images of fantastic birdsLater, on the other side of the pool with deer in their talons on theNadir Divan-Beghi built a caravanse- entrance arch. These legendaryrai. At the grand opening of the car- birds of happiness, Semurg, flying toavanserai Bukhara Khan Imamkuli the sun symbolize aspiration for spir-(1611–1642) on the advice of Sufi itual knowledge.sheikhs gave compliments to Nadir 81
  79. 79. SITORAIMOHIHOSA The palace Sitorai-Mohi-Hosa (“Elegant Star of the Moon”) was a country residence of the Bukhara amirs. It is situated 4 km north of Bukhara in the area of a drained swamp. Parts of the palace buildings existed there under Amirs Nasrullah and Muzaffar. But large-scale construction in Sitorai-Mohi- Hosa was started only in the time of Amir Abd al-Ahad (died in 1910). The palace complex had been built for two decades by the end of the 19th century. The old palace was constructed under Amir Abd al-Ahad-khan. He sent Bukhara masters to Petersburg and Yalta to study Russian architecture. Using Russian experience, local architects headed by usto Khadja Hafiz built a splendid building that combined local Bukhara and European traditions. The pal- ace throne-yard played a major role. During the Amir’s reception ceremonies the court elite stood under its arches. Some of the buildings of the palace were designed by an engineer, Ignatiy Sakovich.82
  80. 80. The new palace complex of Sitorai-Mohi-Hosa wasfinished in the time of amir Alim-khan. It had a grandentrance arch, yard with galleries, main building in theEuropean style and house for the amir’s harem in thegarden. New structures were designed by engineerMorgulis. Dutch tiled stoves, stained glass and mirrorswere supplied by Russian plants. The marble lions at theentrance were sculptured by Nurata masters, they alsocarved marble spillways for the hauz in a form of a drag-on jaw. The carved ganch panels on mirror backgroundin “The White hall” were made by Bukhara masters head-ed by usto Shirin Muradov. The paintings in the recep-tion room—by usto Hasan-Djan. They are recognizedmasterpieces of Bukhara craft. After the revolution of1920, Sitorai-Mohi-Hosa was the chairman of theSupreme state body of Bukhara National Republic (1920–1924)—all-Bukhara Kurultai.
  81. 81. KHIVAKhiva is a historical city in the lower reaches of the Amu- In the first century A. D. the Afrigid dynasty came to pow-Darya River (41°22’N, 60°21’E), which in the Middle Ages er in Khorezm, who ruled up to the end of the 10th century. Inbecame the successor of the ancient Khorezm city culture. the 8th century these lands were annexed by the Arabs andThe history of antic Khorezm, which was destroyed by the became part of the Islamic world. In the 9th–13th centuries theArabian invasion, by that time, had already numbered state of Khorezm-shahs arose in Khorezm and was crushednearly two thousand years. In the sacred book of Zoroas- by the Mongols in the 13th century. In the 14th–15th centuriestrians “Avesta”, it is referred as Hvarizam in the Behistun Khorezm was a part of the Temurid state, and in the 16th cen-inscriptions of king Darius, Hvarazmish, in the writings of tury it was separated by the Chingizid khans. By the 17th cen-Arrian and in Strabo Horasmis. In the 6th–5th centuries B. C. tury Amu-Darya changed its crease and Khiva became theKhorezm submitted to the Persians, and became one of center of the oasis and the capital of the khanate. In 1873 Rus-the Achaemenids’ satrapies, but by the 4th century B. C. iy sia established a protectorate over the Khanate of Khiva. Theregained its independence. During the Asian campaign, Khiva khan was dethroned in 1920 and the Khiva RepublicAlexander the Great made a peace treaty with the Kho- was formed. It was annexed to the USSR and Khiva becamerezm king Pharasman. an administrative part of Uzbekistan in 1924.
  82. 82. ICHANQALAIchan-Qala (literary “internal fortress”) is the inner city, Khiva, within Ichan-Kala became the capital of thewhich was originally shahristan of medieval Khiva. northern Khanate in the time of the Chingizid KhanReferring to this city in the 10 th century Arabian geogra- Arab-Muhammad (1602–1623). After that the khanatepher al-Maqdisi wrote, “Khiva is on the edge of the became known as the Khiva Khanate. Under the rule ofdesert, it is a big city, it is on a canal, extracted from the Arab-khan’s sons, Esfendiyar (1623–1644) and Abu-l-Gha-river, it has a comfortable mosque.” Ichan-Qala has zi (1644–1664), five other major cities of Khorezm recog-a rectangular plan, with the area 650×400 m. It is sur- nized the supremacy of Khiva. The walls of Ichan-Qalarounded by a strong defensive wall of clay, strength- protected the city up to the invasion of Nadir-shah, whoened by semicircular towers. An arrow-shaped gallery captured Khiva in the middle of the 18th century. Underwith embrasures went along the top of the wall. The the Kungrad dynasty Khiva had grown so much that inlength of the wall is 2200 m, the height 7–8 m. Each of the 20 th century, the area outside the city (Dishan-Qala)Ichan-Qala’s four walls has its own gates (Darvaza). The was fifteen times bigger than the area of Ichan-Qala.western gates, Ata-Darvaza, are close to Kunya-Ark, the Ichan-Qala was named in UNESCO’s list of World Herit-northern, Bahcha-Darvaza, are on the way to Urgench, age as the historical center of Khiva. There are more thanthe eastern, Palvan-Darvaza, lead to Khasarasp and to sixty architectural monuments here: palaces, mosques,the Amu-Darya, and the southern, Tash-Darvaza, to the minarets, mausoleums, which all together presentKarakum desert. a holistic world of a medieval Eastern city.86

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