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IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations

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  • 1. DANGEROUSDANGEROUS GOODSGOODS REGULATIONSREGULATIONS (DGR)(DGR)
  • 2. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION • IATA was formed on 19 April 1945 inIATA was formed on 19 April 1945 in Havana, Cuba.Havana, Cuba. • HQ – 800 Place Victoria, Montreal,HQ – 800 Place Victoria, Montreal, CanadaCanada • Membership – 243 Airlines from more thanMembership – 243 Airlines from more than 126 nations126 nations • DG & CEO – Tony TylerDG & CEO – Tony Tyler • Successor of International Air TrafficSuccessor of International Air Traffic Association founded in Hague in 1919Association founded in Hague in 1919
  • 3. IATAIATA IInternationalnternational AAirir TTransportransport AAssociationssociation
  • 4. MISSIONMISSION OF IATAOF IATA ““To represent, lead and serveTo represent, lead and serve the airlines industrythe airlines industry.”.”
  • 5. AIMAIM • All airline rules and regulations are definedAll airline rules and regulations are defined by IATA.by IATA. • The main aim of IATA is to provide safeThe main aim of IATA is to provide safe and secure transportation to all itsand secure transportation to all its passengers.passengers.
  • 6. IATA - ACTIVITIESIATA - ACTIVITIES • IATA has many functions like:IATA has many functions like: – Price settingPrice setting – World wide accreditation of travel agentsWorld wide accreditation of travel agents – Assigning three-letter and two-letter codes toAssigning three-letter and two-letter codes to airports and airlinesairports and airlines – IATA regulates theIATA regulates the shipping of Dangerousshipping of Dangerous Goods and publishes the Dangerous GoodsGoods and publishes the Dangerous Goods Regulations manualRegulations manual (DGR)(DGR)
  • 7. DEFINITION OF DANGEROUSDEFINITION OF DANGEROUS GOODSGOODS Articles or substances which are capableArticles or substances which are capable of posing a risk to :of posing a risk to : health,health, safety,safety, property,property, or the environmentor the environment
  • 8. EXAMPLES FOR DANGEROUS GOODSEXAMPLES FOR DANGEROUS GOODS • PESTCIDESPESTCIDES • PETROLPETROL • PAINTPAINT • GASGAS CYLINDERSCYLINDERS • THINNERTHINNER • BLEACHBLEACH • AEROSOLS,AEROSOLS, ETC.ETC.
  • 9. AN ACCIDENT CAUSED BY MISHANDLING OFAN ACCIDENT CAUSED BY MISHANDLING OF DGDG • 11 MAY 1996, MIAMI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A VALUE JET11 MAY 1996, MIAMI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A VALUE JET FLIGHT 592 WAS BEING PREPARED FOR TAKE OFF. A CARGOFLIGHT 592 WAS BEING PREPARED FOR TAKE OFF. A CARGO LOADER PLACED A FEW BOXES OF 144 OUT-OF-DATELOADER PLACED A FEW BOXES OF 144 OUT-OF-DATE OXYGEN GENERATORS, LOOSELY PACKED IN DOUBLEOXYGEN GENERATORS, LOOSELY PACKED IN DOUBLE WRAP, AROUND AN AIRCRAFT TYRE IN THE CARGO HOLD.WRAP, AROUND AN AIRCRAFT TYRE IN THE CARGO HOLD. THE AIRCRAFT STARTED TO MOVE TOWARDS THE RUNWAY.THE AIRCRAFT STARTED TO MOVE TOWARDS THE RUNWAY. THIS MOVEMENT STARTED THE BURNING OF ONE OF THETHIS MOVEMENT STARTED THE BURNING OF ONE OF THE OXYGEN GENERATORS AND SUBSEQUENTLY ALL OF THEMOXYGEN GENERATORS AND SUBSEQUENTLY ALL OF THEM STARTED BURNING. THE SURFACE OF THE METALSTARTED BURNING. THE SURFACE OF THE METAL GENERATOR GOT HOTTER AND HOTTER. THE BOX AND THEGENERATOR GOT HOTTER AND HOTTER. THE BOX AND THE DOUBLE WRAP CAUGHT FIRE. THE AIRCRAFT CRASHED ANDDOUBLE WRAP CAUGHT FIRE. THE AIRCRAFT CRASHED AND KILLED ALL ON BOARD.KILLED ALL ON BOARD. • IT WAS A CLEAR EXAMPLE TO SHOW HOW MISHANDLING OFIT WAS A CLEAR EXAMPLE TO SHOW HOW MISHANDLING OF DANGEROUS GOODS CAN CAUSE ACCIDENT.DANGEROUS GOODS CAN CAUSE ACCIDENT.
  • 10. Contd…Contd… • In this example the laid down procedures for theIn this example the laid down procedures for the handling of dangerous goods were not followed.handling of dangerous goods were not followed. • Neither the shipper who handed over theNeither the shipper who handed over the dangerous goods nor the airlines who accepteddangerous goods nor the airlines who accepted and handled the goods followed the standardand handled the goods followed the standard procedures.procedures. • To avoid such accidents or incidents, procedureTo avoid such accidents or incidents, procedure for dangerous goods were formulated.for dangerous goods were formulated.
  • 11. IATA DGRIATA DGR • Published by the IATA Dangerous Goods BoardPublished by the IATA Dangerous Goods Board and are revised every year.and are revised every year. • First Edition of DGR was published in 1956,First Edition of DGR was published in 1956, titled IATA Restricted Articles Regulations.titled IATA Restricted Articles Regulations. • It is a manual of industry carrier regulations to beIt is a manual of industry carrier regulations to be followed by all IATA member airlines.followed by all IATA member airlines. • 5555thth Edition of DGR will be effective from 01 JanEdition of DGR will be effective from 01 Jan 2014.2014.
  • 12. IATA DGR ARE BASED ONIATA DGR ARE BASED ON :-:- • Annex 18 to the Chicago Convention onAnnex 18 to the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation (1944).International Civil Aviation (1944). • Technical Instructions for the SafeTechnical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by airTransport of Dangerous Goods by air published by the ICAO.published by the ICAO.
  • 13. Contd…Contd… • There are differences between IATAThere are differences between IATA and ICAO regulations on Dangerousand ICAO regulations on Dangerous Goods.Goods. • IATA DGR are more restrictive thanIATA DGR are more restrictive than ICAO requirements.ICAO requirements.
  • 14. PURPOSE OF IATA DGRPURPOSE OF IATA DGR To provide procedures for theTo provide procedures for the shipper and the operator by whichshipper and the operator by which articles and substances witharticles and substances with hazardous properties can be safelyhazardous properties can be safely transported by air on all commercialtransported by air on all commercial air transport.air transport.
  • 15. GENERAL PHILOSOPHY-GENERAL PHILOSOPHY- SAFETYSAFETY 1.1. ClassificationClassification 2.2. PackagingPackaging 3.3. Marks and LabelsMarks and Labels 4.4. ProhibitionsProhibitions 5.5. DeclarationDeclaration 6.6. Notification to Pilot-in-CommandNotification to Pilot-in-Command 7.7. Avoiding Hidden HazardsAvoiding Hidden Hazards 8.8. Incident ReportingIncident Reporting 9.9. TrainingTraining
  • 16. 1.1. ClassificationClassification • Correct classification ofCorrect classification of dangerous goods.dangerous goods. • DGR include a detailed list ofDGR include a detailed list of dangerous goods and specify:-dangerous goods and specify:- • UN classification of each article orUN classification of each article or substancesubstance • Their acceptability for air transportTheir acceptability for air transport • The conditions for their transport’The conditions for their transport’ • Also include generic entries to assist inAlso include generic entries to assist in classification.classification.
  • 17. 2.2. ProhibitionsProhibitions • Some dangerous goods are identified as tooSome dangerous goods are identified as too dangerous to be carried on any a/c under anydangerous to be carried on any a/c under any circumstancescircumstances • Some others are forbidden under normalSome others are forbidden under normal circumstances, but may be carried with specificcircumstances, but may be carried with specific approval from from the States concerned.approval from from the States concerned. • Some are restricted to carriage on all cargoSome are restricted to carriage on all cargo aircraft.aircraft. • Most can be safely carried on passengerMost can be safely carried on passenger aircraft provided certain requirements are met.aircraft provided certain requirements are met.
  • 18. 3.3. PackagingPackaging • Packaging instructions are provided with aPackaging instructions are provided with a wide range of options for inner, outer orwide range of options for inner, outer or single packagings.single packagings. • Instructions normally require the use ofInstructions normally require the use of UN performance-tested specificationUN performance-tested specification packagings.packagings. But it is not required in theBut it is not required in the case of goods shipped under thecase of goods shipped under the provisions of Limited Quantity “Y”provisions of Limited Quantity “Y” packaging instructions.packaging instructions.
  • 19. 4.4.Marks and LabelsMarks and Labels • Packages are marked with requiredPackages are marked with required markingsmarkings • They bear the requiredThey bear the required labelslabels toto ensure that the hazards can beensure that the hazards can be recognized without relying onrecognized without relying on accompanying documentation.accompanying documentation.
  • 20. 5.5.DeclarationDeclaration • The shipper must make a properThe shipper must make a proper declaration of dangerous goods.declaration of dangerous goods. • This will ensure that:-This will ensure that:- – all in the transportation chain knowall in the transportation chain know what dangerous goods they arewhat dangerous goods they are transporting.transporting. – how to properly load and handle themhow to properly load and handle them – what to do if an incident or accidentwhat to do if an incident or accident occurs, either in flight or on theoccurs, either in flight or on the ground.ground.
  • 21. 6.6.Notification to Pilot-in-Notification to Pilot-in- CommandCommand • The pilot must know what is on board:The pilot must know what is on board: – To properly deal with any emergency whichTo properly deal with any emergency which may occur.may occur. – To convey this information to Air TrafficTo convey this information to Air Traffic Services to aid in the response to any aircraftServices to aid in the response to any aircraft incident or accident.incident or accident.
  • 22. 7.7.Avoiding Hidden HazardsAvoiding Hidden Hazards • Information regarding “Hidden DangerousInformation regarding “Hidden Dangerous Goods” must be conveyed to passengersGoods” must be conveyed to passengers and shippers to assist them in recognizingand shippers to assist them in recognizing dangerous goods that they are notdangerous goods that they are not permitted to carry on their person, in theirpermitted to carry on their person, in their baggage, or as cargo and which may notbaggage, or as cargo and which may not be readily recognizable as beingbe readily recognizable as being dangerous.dangerous.
  • 23. 8.8.Incident ReportingIncident Reporting • Incidents or accidents must beIncidents or accidents must be reported, so that :-reported, so that :- – An investigation by relevant authorities canAn investigation by relevant authorities can establish the cause and take correctiveestablish the cause and take corrective action.action. – Investigation findings can be used to makeInvestigation findings can be used to make changes in the Regulations without delay.changes in the Regulations without delay.
  • 24. 9.9.TrainingTraining • Necessary for all individuals involved inNecessary for all individuals involved in the preparation or transport of dangerousthe preparation or transport of dangerous goods.goods. • Training varies depending on job function:Training varies depending on job function: a familiarization or a detailed training.a familiarization or a detailed training. • Training programmes are recurrent andTraining programmes are recurrent and are determined by appropriate nationalare determined by appropriate national authority.authority.
  • 25. CONTENTS OF DGRCONTENTS OF DGR The DGR begins with a preface and isThe DGR begins with a preface and is divided intodivided into 1010 main sections, followedmain sections, followed byby 88 Appendices.Appendices.
  • 26. SECTIONSSECTIONS 1.1. ApplicabilityApplicability 2.2. LimitationsLimitations 3.3. ClassificationClassification 4.4. IdentificationIdentification 5.5. PackagingPackaging 6.6. Packaging specifications and performance testsPackaging specifications and performance tests 7.7. Marking and LabelingMarking and Labeling 8.8. DocumentationDocumentation 9.9. HandlingHandling 10.10.Radioactive MaterialRadioactive Material
  • 27. APPENDICESAPPENDICES A.A. GlossaryGlossary B.B. NomenclatureNomenclature C.C. Currently Assigned SubstancesCurrently Assigned Substances D.D. Competent AuthoritiesCompetent Authorities E.E. Packaging Testing Facilities, ManufacturersPackaging Testing Facilities, Manufacturers and Suppliersand Suppliers F.F. Related ServicesRelated Services G.G. IATA Safety Standards ProgrammesIATA Safety Standards Programmes H.H. Edition Packing Instruction NumbersEdition Packing Instruction Numbers
  • 28. DEFINITION OFDEFINITION OF DANGEROUS GOODSDANGEROUS GOODS Articles or substances which are capable ofArticles or substances which are capable of posing aposing a riskrisk to :to : health,health, safety,safety, property,property, or the environmentor the environment,, which are shown in the list of dangerous goodswhich are shown in the list of dangerous goods in DGR,in DGR, oror which are classified according to the DGR.which are classified according to the DGR.
  • 29. APPLICABILITY OF DGRAPPLICABILITY OF DGR • All airlines which are members orAll airlines which are members or associate members of IATA.associate members of IATA. • All airlines which are party to the IATAAll airlines which are party to the IATA Multilateral Interline Traffic Agreement –Multilateral Interline Traffic Agreement – CargoCargo • All shippers and agents that offerAll shippers and agents that offer consignments of dangerous goods toconsignments of dangerous goods to these operators.these operators.
  • 30. CLASSIFICATIONCLASSIFICATION Dangerous Goods are divided inDangerous Goods are divided in 99 classes and they are listed in DGRclasses and they are listed in DGR 3.0.2.3.0.2. Classes 1,2,4,5 and 6 are divided intoClasses 1,2,4,5 and 6 are divided into “Divisions” due to hazard variations.“Divisions” due to hazard variations.
  • 31. CLASSES OF DANGEROUSCLASSES OF DANGEROUS GOODSGOODS • Class 1Class 1 -- ExplosivesExplosives • Class 2Class 2 -- GasesGases • Class 3Class 3 -- Flammable LiquidsFlammable Liquids • Class 4Class 4 -- Flammable SolidsFlammable Solids • Class-5Class-5 -- Oxidizing subustances andOxidizing subustances and Organic Peroxides.Organic Peroxides.
  • 32. Contd…Contd… • Class 6Class 6 -- Toxic and InfectiousToxic and Infectious SubstancesSubstances • Class 7Class 7 -- Radioactive MaterialRadioactive Material • Class 8Class 8 -- CorrosivesCorrosives • Class 9Class 9 -- Miscellaneous DangerousMiscellaneous Dangerous GoodsGoods
  • 33. HOW CAN YOU RECOGNIZEHOW CAN YOU RECOGNIZE DANGEROUS GOODSDANGEROUS GOODS • Each class has hazard symbols, known asEach class has hazard symbols, known as a placard or label, that represent thea placard or label, that represent the danger of that class. Labels must bedanger of that class. Labels must be attached to small containers (e.g. drums,attached to small containers (e.g. drums, boxes, bottles, cylinders). Placards mustboxes, bottles, cylinders). Placards must be attached to large containers (e.g.be attached to large containers (e.g. trucks, trailers, tote tanks, rail cars).trucks, trailers, tote tanks, rail cars).
  • 34. Class 1 - ExplosivesClass 1 - Explosives 1.11.1 Articles and substances havingArticles and substances having mass explosion hazardmass explosion hazard 1.21.2 Articles and substances having aArticles and substances having a projection hazardprojection hazard 1.31.3 Articles and substances having aArticles and substances having a minor blast or projection hazardminor blast or projection hazard
  • 35. 1.41.4 Articles and substances whichArticles and substances which present no significant hazardpresent no significant hazard 1.51.5 Very insensitive substances whichVery insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazardhave a mass explosion hazard 1.61.6 Extremely insensitive articles whichExtremely insensitive articles which dodo not have a mass explosionnot have a mass explosion hazardhazard
  • 36. Class 2 - GasesClass 2 - Gases 2.12.1 Any gas which when mixed with air in certainAny gas which when mixed with air in certain proportions, form a flammable mixture. Eg.proportions, form a flammable mixture. Eg. Butane,Butane, Hydrogen, Propane, Acetylene, LightersHydrogen, Propane, Acetylene, Lighters 2.22.2 Any non-flammable, non-toxic gas orAny non-flammable, non-toxic gas or refrigerated liquefied gas. Eg.refrigerated liquefied gas. Eg. Carbon dioxide,Carbon dioxide, Neon, Fire Extinguisher, liquefied Nitrogen orNeon, Fire Extinguisher, liquefied Nitrogen or HeliumHelium 2.32.3 Gases known to be toxix or corrosive to humansGases known to be toxix or corrosive to humans and known to pose a health risk. E.g.and known to pose a health risk. E.g. Aerosols ofAerosols of low toxicity, tear gas deviceslow toxicity, tear gas devices..
  • 37. Class 3- FlammableClass 3- Flammable LiquidsLiquids 33 Any liquid having a closed-Any liquid having a closed- cup flash point of 60 Deg C orcup flash point of 60 Deg C or below and liquid desensitizedbelow and liquid desensitized explosivesexplosives E.g.E.g. Certain paints, Varnishes,Certain paints, Varnishes, Alcohols, some Adhesives,Alcohols, some Adhesives, Acetone, petrol etc.Acetone, petrol etc.
  • 38. Class 4 – FlammableClass 4 – Flammable SolidsSolids 4.14.1 Flammable solid.Flammable solid. Any solid material, which is readilyAny solid material, which is readily combustible, or may cause or contribute to fire throughcombustible, or may cause or contribute to fire through friction.friction. Matches, sulphur, celluloid etcMatches, sulphur, celluloid etc 4.24.2 Spontaneously Combustible.Spontaneously Combustible. Substances liable toSubstances liable to spontaneous heating or to heating up in contact with airspontaneous heating or to heating up in contact with air and then liable to catch fire. E.g.and then liable to catch fire. E.g. while or yellowwhile or yellow phosphorous, magnesium diamidephosphorous, magnesium diamide 4.34.3 Dangerous when wet.Dangerous when wet. Substances which are liable toSubstances which are liable to become spontaneously flammable by interaction withbecome spontaneously flammable by interaction with water. Eg.water. Eg. Calcium carbide, sodium.Calcium carbide, sodium.
  • 39. Class 5 – OxidizingClass 5 – Oxidizing Substances and OrganicSubstances and Organic PeroxidesPeroxides • 5.1 Oxidizer. A substance that yields5.1 Oxidizer. A substance that yields oxygen readily to stimulate theoxygen readily to stimulate the combustion of other material. E.g.combustion of other material. E.g. Ammonium nitrate, calcium chlorate,Ammonium nitrate, calcium chlorate, bleaches.bleaches. • 5.2 Organic Peroxide. An organic5.2 Organic Peroxide. An organic material that can be ignited readily bymaterial that can be ignited readily by external flame and then burns with anexternal flame and then burns with an accelerating rate. Eg.accelerating rate. Eg. tert-Butyltert-Butyl hydroperoxidehydroperoxide
  • 40. Class 6 – Toxic and InfectiousClass 6 – Toxic and Infectious SubstancesSubstances 6.16.1 Toxic SubstanceToxic Substance. Liquids or solids which. Liquids or solids which are dangerous if inhaled, swallowed orare dangerous if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through skin. E.g.absorbed through skin. E.g. Arsenic, Nicotine,Arsenic, Nicotine, Cyanide, Pesticides etc.Cyanide, Pesticides etc. 6.26.2 Infectious Substance.Infectious Substance. Substances whichSubstances which are known or reasonably expected to containare known or reasonably expected to contain pathogens and cause disease in humans or inpathogens and cause disease in humans or in animals. E.g.animals. E.g. Virus, Bacteria, Rabies, someVirus, Bacteria, Rabies, some specimens, Medical and clinical wastesspecimens, Medical and clinical wastes
  • 41. Class 7 – RadioactiveClass 7 – Radioactive MaterialMaterial 77 Category ICategory I WhiteWhite.. MaximumMaximum surface Radioactive level Lesssurface Radioactive level Less than or equal to 0.005 mSv/h,than or equal to 0.005 mSv/h, Transport Index = 0 E.g. CobaltTransport Index = 0 E.g. Cobalt 60, Caesium 131, etc.60, Caesium 131, etc. 77 Category II YellowCategory II Yellow. MSRL. MSRL greater than 0.005 and lessgreater than 0.005 and less than or equal to .5. E.g. Cobaltthan or equal to .5. E.g. Cobalt 60, Caesium 131 etc.60, Caesium 131 etc.
  • 42. Class 7 – contd….Class 7 – contd…. 77 Category III YellowCategory III Yellow. MSRV. MSRV greater than 0.5 and less orgreater than 0.5 and less or equal to 2. Transport Indexequal to 2. Transport Index between 0 and 1.between 0 and 1. 77 Radioactive Fissile MaterialRadioactive Fissile Material Criticality Safety Index. E.g.Criticality Safety Index. E.g. Uranium 233 and 235,Uranium 233 and 235, plutoniuim 239 and 241.plutoniuim 239 and 241.
  • 43. Class 8 - CorrosivesClass 8 - Corrosives 88 Corrosive Material. A liquid orCorrosive Material. A liquid or solid that will cause severesolid that will cause severe damage when in contact withdamage when in contact with living tissue or, in the case ofliving tissue or, in the case of leakage will materially damage orleakage will materially damage or even destroy other goods or theeven destroy other goods or the means of transport. E.g.means of transport. E.g. BatteryBattery acids, sulphuric and other acids,acids, sulphuric and other acids, sodium hydroxide, potassiumsodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, Mercury etc.hydroxide, Mercury etc.
  • 44. Class 9 – MiscellaneousClass 9 – Miscellaneous Dangerous GoodsDangerous Goods • 9 Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods. Any9 Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods. Any substance which presents a danger duringsubstance which presents a danger during air transportation that is not covered byair transportation that is not covered by other classes. E.g.other classes. E.g. Asbestos, Garlic Oil,Asbestos, Garlic Oil, ICE, vehicles.ICE, vehicles. • 9. Magnetised Material. Materials which9. Magnetised Material. Materials which have high magnetic field of strength.have high magnetic field of strength. E.g.E.g. Magnetrons, non shielded permanentMagnetrons, non shielded permanent magnets without keeper bars installed.magnets without keeper bars installed.
  • 45. Class 9 – Contd…Class 9 – Contd… • 9. Environmentally Hazardous9. Environmentally Hazardous Substances. E.g. SomeSubstances. E.g. Some pesticides not meeting thepesticides not meeting the definition of other class.definition of other class.