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The Failure Of The United Nations
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The Failure Of The United Nations

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  • 1. The Failure of the United Nations The disaster in Somalia influenced the United Nations to delay intervention in Rwanda.
  • 2. The United Nations
    • Founded in 1945 to replace league of nations
    • 1960s Decolonization Period
    • Low point in the 1980s during the Cold War
  • 3. The United Nations leading up to the Somalia Conflict
    • 1986 after the Cold War, the US and the Soviet Union enlisted the UN to end regional conflicts
    • In the early 1990s, UN had many jobs, and a vast amount of funds, and received much praise
  • 4. History of the Somalia Conflict
    • Political power struggle between SNM and the government since the 1980s
    • Weakened government, clan power
  • 5. Definition of Genocide
    • The deliberate and systematic destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group
  • 6. History of the Rwanda Genocide
    • The beginnings of the Hutu and Tutsi
    • Belgian occupation in Rwanda
    • 1964 Decolonization
    • April 6 th , 1994 assassination of President Habyarimana
  • 7. Intervention in Somalia The UN’s decision to send relief and aid into Somalia
    • 3 Reasons the UN Decided to Intervene
    • Prevent civil war
    • Feeling powerful
    • Lacked guidelines for intervention
  • 8. The United States’ role in Somalia
    • 4,000 US troops sent to help
    • US wanted to work on fixing the political system of Somalia.
    • US felt that their troops were dying for an unnecessary effort
  • 9. What Went Wrong
    • UN was unprepared and unorganized
    • Humanitarian food relief was intercepted by militias
    • The government of Somalia remained fragmented and Aideed was never captured
  • 10. Backlash from Failure
    • Horrific photos and video angered the US population
    • US at odds with the UN and took away privileges and resources
    • This Jeopardized future of the UN because lack of support meant not as successful interventions
    In the grisly aftermath of the Oct. 3, 1993 battle in Mogadishu, the corpse of an American soldier was dragged through the streets.
  • 11. Intervention in Rwanda US Unwilling to help
    • Bill Clinton wanted to preserve his reputation and didn’t want American troops killed
    • The previous warning of the US administration said that they would intervene for humanitarian motives only
    • US first instinct was to deny the genocide so they didn’t have to provide aid
    • Clinton Representative Denies Genocide
    UN Canadian Force Commander Romeo Dallaire the UN Lieutenant in charge of the Rwanda Mission
  • 12. Not Enough International Aid in Rwanda
    • Other countries followed US lead in refusing to aid
    • The UN did not have authorization to intervene, prevent, or take sides.
    • Colonel Luc Marchal:
    • “ I didn’t know much of the Rwandan language. But they taught me that the word UNAMIR means that your lips are moving but you aren’t saying anything. After a few weeks, the extremists knew we had no power.” (UNAMIR also stands for United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda).
    •  
  • 13. Somalia’s implications for Rwanda: A Fearful UN
    • Mogadishu line: Where peace keeping slips into peace enforcement.
    • “ The UN was getting out of the war business”, trying to relearn the peacekeeper boundaries.
    • “ We were cautious in interpreting our mandate and giving guidance because we did not want a repetition of Somalia.” Iqbal Riza. “The Triumph of Evil.” Frontline . 2008. PBS. 29 Mar. 2009
  • 14. US Admits Faults
    • “ The failure to stop Rwanda’s tragedies became one of the greatest regrets of my presidency.”
    • My Life. (New York: Random House, 2004) 593.
  • 15. Could the UN Have done more in Rwanda?
    • The UN could have organized a select intervention
    • The UN could have recognized the Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF) as government organization.
  • 16. What can we learn from This?
    • It’s important the US administration take responsibility for their actions
    • Distinguishing when to intervene
    • View media images with skepticism
  • 17.
    • As said in the words of philosopher Max Weber, “It is immensely moving when a mature man-no matter whether old or young in years – is aware of a responsibility with heart and soul. He then acts by following an ethic of responsibility and somewhat reaches a point where he says, “Here I stand; I can do no other.”