Unit 2 Lesson 05


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Unit 2 Lesson 05

  1. 1. Lesson 5 The Camera Digital Video BASICS Schaefermeyer
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Explain how a video camera works </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how a lens works </li></ul><ul><li>Describe exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Describe types of camera supports </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how to compose your shots </li></ul><ul><li>Define field of view </li></ul><ul><li>Give details about camera moves </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  3. 3. Vocabulary <ul><li>Aperture </li></ul><ul><li>Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Charge-coupled device (CCD) </li></ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul><ul><li>Convex </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of field </li></ul><ul><li>Digital zoom </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  4. 4. Vocabulary (continued) <ul><li>Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Field of view </li></ul><ul><li>Focal length </li></ul><ul><li>Focal point </li></ul><ul><li>Framing </li></ul><ul><li>Head room </li></ul><ul><li>Imaging device </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS <ul><li>Lens </li></ul><ul><li>Nose room </li></ul><ul><li>Optical zoom </li></ul><ul><li>Overexposure </li></ul><ul><li>Pan </li></ul><ul><li>The rule of thirds </li></ul><ul><li>Tilt </li></ul><ul><li>Underexposure </li></ul>
  5. 5. How Does the Camera Work? <ul><li>The camera is the most important piece of equipment when it comes to video. </li></ul><ul><li>Each camera has four distinct parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The lens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The imaging device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The viewfinder </li></ul></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  6. 6. How a Lens Works <ul><li>The job of the lens on a camera is to direct light to the imaging device. </li></ul><ul><li>Light covers the lens surface when it enters, but focuses to a single focal point when it leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Lenses are referred to according to their focal length—the distance between the lens and the imaging device when the image is in focus. </li></ul><ul><li>Focal length in a video camera is measured in millimeters. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  7. 7. How a Lens Works Optical and Digital Zoom <ul><li>An optical zoom uses the lens elements to enlarge the image. This is a “good” zoom, although it is difficult to hold a steady image. </li></ul><ul><li>The digital zoom is the “bad” zoom because it is accomplished by enlarging the pixels in the middle of the image. This means you have bigger pixels, but fewer of them. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  8. 8. About Exposure <ul><li>The lens controls the exposure—the amount of light that reaches the imaging device. </li></ul><ul><li>The aperture is the part of the lens that determines how much light gets through. </li></ul><ul><li>The aperture allows less light in when it is shut down and allows more in when it is open. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  9. 9. About Exposure F-Stop <ul><li>The aperture’s opening size is measured in f-stops. </li></ul><ul><li>Common f-stops are f/1.4, f/2, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, and f/22. </li></ul><ul><li>A smaller f-stop number means a larger opening. </li></ul><ul><li>Each f-stop setting allows half as much light in as the previous setting. </li></ul><ul><li>If the shot is overexposed (too bright), close down the aperture. If it is underexposed (too dark), open up the aperture. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  10. 10. About Exposure Lens Care <ul><li>Keep the lens cover on when the camera is not in use. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a clear filter and a lens hood if your lens will accept them. </li></ul><ul><li>Check the owner’s manual and clean lenses in an appropriate manner when needed. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  11. 11. About Exposure Depth of Field <ul><li>The f-stop helps control the depth of field. Depth of field is the area of the image that is in clear focus. </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of field: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increases when you decrease the size of the aperture, and decreases when you increase the size of the aperture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decreases when the subject is closer to the camera, and increases when the subject is further from the camera. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increases when you decrease the focal length of the lens, and decreases when you increase the focal length. </li></ul></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  12. 12. About Exposure Charge-Coupled Devices <ul><li>The imaging device is the part of the camera that translates the light waves into an image. The imaging device in a video camera is a charge-coupled device (CCD). </li></ul><ul><li>Most consumer cameras have a single CCD, or chip, that contains rows of pixels. Higher end cameras have three separate CCDs that capture red, green, or blue light (RGB) using prisms and mirrors. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  13. 13. About Exposure The Viewfinder <ul><li>The viewfinder allows you to see what the camera is shooting. Most consumer cameras have small LCD screens as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Viewfinders on professional cameras are generally black and white, so the camera operator can obtain a clearer focus, while the viewfinders and LCD screens on consumer cameras are in color. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  14. 14. About Exposure Storage <ul><li>The storage for a video camera: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tape: Most common storage method; advantages are that it is cheap, easily accessible, and can be stored indefinitely. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard drive: Advantage is that you can transfer the video directly to the computer without having to capture the video. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash memory: Advantage is no moving parts to jar loose. Downside is cost. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD: Advantages are playing it directly in a DVD player and low cost; downside is hard to edit and work with. </li></ul></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  15. 15. About Exposure White Balance <ul><li>White light is not always white. </li></ul><ul><li>White balance removes colored tints and prevents image from appearing red, green, blue, or whatever color the light gives off. </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic white balance on cameras doesn’t always work—learn how to use white balance feature. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  16. 16. About Camera Supports <ul><li>Camera supports keep the camera steady without having to hold it with your hands. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of camera supports include tripod, pedestal, dolly, crane, jib arm, and steady cam. </li></ul><ul><li>If camera support isn’t available, keep both hands on the camera, lean against something solid, and keep movement to a minimum. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  17. 17. How to Compose Your Shots <ul><li>Composition is the way things are arranged in the frame and determines not only what the audience sees, but the mood of the shot. </li></ul><ul><li>Good composition guides the viewer’s eye to the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Composition guidelines include the rule of thirds, color, mass, lines, framing, simplify, and depth of field. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  18. 18. How to Compose Your Shots Rule of Thirds <ul><li>Divide the frame into nine equal size cubes with an imaginary tic-tac-toe board. The prime locations for good composition are where the horizontal and vertical lines intersect. </li></ul><ul><li>When framing, make sure to leave plenty of head room (amount of space above the subject’s head), and nose room (amount of space in front of the subject’s nose). </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  19. 19. How to Compose Your Shots Color, Mass, and Lines <ul><li>Color: Bright objects grab the attention of the human eye. Using color also helps balance an image. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass: Making the subject the largest thing in the frame draws the eye to it. </li></ul><ul><li>Lines: Use lines to lead the viewer’s eyes to the main subject. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  20. 20. How to Compose Your Shots Framing, Simplify, and Depth of Field <ul><li>Framing: Direct the viewer’s eyes to the subject by creating a frame within the frame using things like a doorway, window, or tree branches. </li></ul><ul><li>Simplify: Eliminate the extra things in the background to make it easier to pick out the subject of an image. Make the background interesting, but don’t confuse the viewer. </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of Field: Change the depth of field to direct the viewer’s attention and control backgrounds. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  21. 21. About Field of View <ul><li>Field of view refers to how much of the subject is seen in the image. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close up (CU)—subject framed from chest up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme close up (XCU)—closer than CU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium shot (MS)—subject framed from waist up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long shot (LS)—full body shot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changing the camera angle can help create depth and interest, adding to the mood and feeling of the shot. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  22. 22. About Camera Moves <ul><li>In most situations, motion should be created by the subject and the camera should stay in one location. </li></ul><ul><li>Moving the camera is appropriate to reveal more information in the scene. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tilt: A camera move from up to down or down to up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pan: Camera turns from right to left or left to right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dolly move: Camera is moved by the dolly </li></ul></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  23. 23. Summary <ul><li>A video camera has four basic parts that work together to acquire video. The four parts are the lens, the CCD (or imaging device), storage, and the viewfinder. </li></ul><ul><li>The lens gathers the light waves and focuses the light waves onto the imaging device, which is a CCD in a video camera. </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of lenses perform different functions, with the function determined by the focal length. </li></ul><ul><li>A 50mm lens is a normal lens, which mimics what we would see with the normal eye. A telephoto lens has a larger focal length and brings objects closer to the camera. A wide angle lens has a shorter focal length and a larger field of vision than a normal lens. A zoom lens has a variable focal length and can serve as all three of the other types of lenses. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  24. 24. Summary (continued) <ul><li>Composition refers to how things are arranged in the frame. Good composition guides the viewer’s eye to the subject. Guidelines for good composition include the rule of thirds, color, mass, lines, framing, and depth of field. </li></ul><ul><li>Field of view refers to the amount of the world that is captured by the camera. The field of view is referred to by extreme close-up, close-up, medium shot, long shot, extreme long shot. </li></ul><ul><li>Camera supports help the camera stay stable. Camera supports include tripods, pedestals, dollies, jib arms, cranes, and steady cams. </li></ul><ul><li>Camera moves include pans, tilts, dolly moves, and jib arm moves. Camera moves are used to reveal more visual information. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS