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  • 1. Lesson 2 Telling a Story Digital Video BASICS Schaefermeyer
  • 2. Objectives
    • Identify the basic elements of a story
    • Write a script for a news broadcast in Final Draft AV
    • Write a script for a short documentary in Final Draft AV
    • Develop a narrative fiction story
    • Write a script for a short narrative fiction video in Final Draft
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • 3. Vocabulary
    • Active sentence
    • Antagonist
    • Conflict
    • Content
    • Documentary
    • External conflict
    • Internal conflict
    • Narrative
    • Passive sentence
    • Protagonist
    • Script
    • Story
    • Style
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • 4. Introduction to Story
    • Start with a script, which helps organize ideas, identifies what the video will look and sound like, and makes sure everything is connected and flows in a logical order.
    • Editing a script is less expensive than re-shooting and re-editing video.
    • The three different types of scripts are news broadcasts, documentaries, and narrative (fictional) videos. They all contain a story.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • 5. Elements of a Story
    • DV and other types of video are used to tell a story.
    • A story is a retelling of events that happened.
    • A storyteller knows three things that tell a good story:
      • Any story is about conflict. Conflict describes when and how things go wrong.
      • A storyteller knows how to make you care about a story. Stories are about characters facing conflicts and having to make choices about the situation they are in.
      • A storyteller gets to the point.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • 6. Types of Productions News
    • A newscast has to be scripted and timed to the second to make sure the newscast goes as smoothly as possible.
    • Television news has followed the same format for years: a news anchor tells the story with video clips of the event or interviews to illustrate the story.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • 7. Types of Productions Content
    • Content covers what you write.
      • Include what, who, where, when, how, and why
      • You will not always have all the information, but make sure you give the audience as much as possible
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • 8. Types of Productions Style
    • Style is how you write. The six points of style are:
      • Write in a conversational style. Read it out loud and make sure it is clear the first time you hear it.
      • Use active sentences. Follow the basic formula: subject, verb, object (S-V-O). Passive sentences (O-V-S) are longer, harder to read, and more difficult to understand.
      • Start strong. Get the audience’s attention.
      • Write simply. Use words people understand.
      • Do not be wordy. Get to the point and stick with it.
      • Write to be spoken. Write out numbers and spell out pronunciations so the reader knows exactly what to say.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • 9. Types of Productions News vs. Opinion
    • Separate personal beliefs from how news is reported.
    • Reporters should be as fair and balanced as possible, relaying the facts.
    • A commentator’s job is to shape opinions.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • 10. Writing a Script for a News Broadcast
    • A reporter must ask themselves whether they have a story. Is there conflict?
    • A reporter has to know his or her audience and how the story applies to that audience.
    • Good news reporters jump right to the heart of the story.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • 11. Writing a Script for a News Broadcast: Documentary
    • A documentary is a nonfiction film or video.
    • Documentaries are based on recent or historical facts and often cover subjects in depth.
    • You still need a script.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • 12. Documentary (continued)
    • Process for developing a story:
      • Write down what the documentary is going to be about.
      • Research the topic and put the facts on paper.
      • Write questions to ask your subject and any others who have pertinent information to be included in the documentary.
      • After interviewing your subjects and acquiring the footage, you should revisit your script to determine if your story is still what you thought it was going to be. Continue on or clarify your story.
      • Organize the footage. Write down what you have, how it will be put together, and identify any missing information or footage.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • 13. Writing a Script for a News Broadcast: Propaganda or Information?
    • Present fair and balanced information.
    • Propaganda is trying to convince an audience of something or expressing your opinion.
    • There is a fine line between presenting information and creating propaganda. Be aware that the audience can tell what you are doing.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • 14. Writing a Script for a Short Documentary in Final Draft AV
    • News and documentary scripts share the same two-column script format.
    • Write the visuals in the column on the left, and write audio in the column on the right.
    • Add rows to align the visuals with the audio.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • 15. Writing a Script for a Short Documentary in Final Draft AV (cont)
    • Final Draft should open a new script automatically when you start the program.
    • Press Tab to move from the Video column to the Audio column.
    • Click the Insert Parenthetical icon to insert parentheses.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • 16. Fictional Narrative
    • The classic story structure has a beginning, middle, and end.
    • The classic story begins by introducing the main characters and the conflict. The main character is known as the protagonist.
    • The middle starts when the protagonist’s world or situation changes. The antagonist, or bad guy, appears and there is conflict.
    • An external conflict is something or someone outside the protagonist that prevents them from obtaining their goal. An internal conflict is something within the character that keeps them from obtaining the goal.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • 17. Fictional Narrative (continued)
    • The middle of the story is the buildup of tension between the two opposing forces. It typically is the weakest part of the story.
    • When the story reaches the end, or the climax, only one can win. If the protagonist wins, it is a happy ending. If the antagonist wins, you have a sad, or negative ending.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • 18. Writing a Script for a Short Narrative in Final Draft
    • The official narrative script format:
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • 19. Writing a Script for a Short Narrative in Final Draft (continued)
    • The first step in writing a script is to determine the setting. Identify whether it is outside (exterior) or inside (interior) and identify every location change.
    • Second, write stage directions to tell actors what they are supposed to do when they are on camera.
    • Third, use action to show what characters do and use dialogue to express what they feel.
    • Follow the six style points from the section on writing news scripts. Do your best to mimic the sound, feeling and rhythm of real speech.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • 20. Writing a Script for a Short Narrative in Final Draft (continued)
    • Final Draft creates a new script when you start the program.
    • A menubar and toolbar are at the top of the screen.
    • The Element window tells you what element you are working on. Press Tab to navigate through the screenplay elements.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • 21. Writing a Script for a Short Narrative in Final Draft (continued)
    • When you begin keying a word or abbreviation, a SmartType box appears where you can choose the complete word or abbreviation.
    • Be sure the correct screenplay element is displayed before you begin typing.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • 22. Summary
    • The three elements of a story are conflict, caring about the story, and getting to the point.
    • The story structure of a fictional narrative is a clear beginning with a protagonist and an antagonist, a middle with an external and internal conflict, and the end where the climax is reached.
    • Content (what you write) and style (how you write) are important in writing a script.
    • You can use software to write a news script, a fictional narrative script, and a documentary script.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  • 23. Summary (continued)
    • The six points of style for clear writing are to write in a conversational style, use active sentences, start strong, write simply, do not be wordy, and write to be spoken.
    • There are two approaches to the same story: news vs. opinion.
    • There is a difference between information and propaganda in creating a documentary.
    Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS