Film Art Chapter 6

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Film Art Chapter 6

  1. 1. Chapter 6 The Relation of Shot to Shot: Editing © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. What is Editing? <ul><li>The coordination of one shot with the next. </li></ul><ul><li>The duration of the of the shot and the way it joins to the next shot can affect the viewer’s reaction. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. Graphic Relations Between Shots <ul><li>Has to do with the pictorial and cinematographic qualities of the shots. </li></ul><ul><li>Can involve matching and contrasting these qualities. </li></ul><ul><li>In The Birds , suspense is heightened by having movement conflict with countermovement and stillness. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Rhythmic Relations Between Shots <ul><li>Varying lengths of shots can create a rhythm and set a pace. </li></ul><ul><li>In The Birds , Hitchcock accelerates the pace at the beginning of a tense sequence, creating suspense while depicting the savagery of the attack. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. Spatial Relations Between Shots <ul><li>Involves establishing or constructing space. </li></ul><ul><li>The Kuleshov effect is a series of shots without an establishing shot, but prompts the viewer to infer a spatial whole. </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel editing is called crosscutting. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. Temporal Relations Between Shots <ul><li>Editing can cue the viewer to construct story time. </li></ul><ul><li>There is an order to events in the film which can change story-plot relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Editing can condense time through elliptical editing or expand time through overlapping editing. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Continuity Editing <ul><li>A system of editing that allows space, time and action to flow smoothly over a series of shots. </li></ul><ul><li>The rhythm is dependent on camera distance of the shot. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is to present a coherent, clear story. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Spatial Continuity: The 180 Degree System <ul><li>A scene is constructed over an axis of action, or 180 degree line. </li></ul><ul><li>The filmmaker plans all the shots so that the camera doesn’t cross the line. </li></ul><ul><li>This ensures consistency in positions of objects in the frame, eyelines and screen direction. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. Continuity Editing in The Maltese Falcon <ul><li>The opening shot delineates the space of the office and establishes a 180 degree line between Spade and his secretary. </li></ul><ul><li>The following shot/reverse shot, eyeline match, re-establishing shot and match on action reinforce the spatial continuity. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. Continuity Editing in The Maltese Falcon <ul><li>These shots advance the narrative by emphasizing the protagonist and linking him to his name on the window. </li></ul><ul><li>Offscreen sound and the viewer’s expectation of what comes next motivates the following shots, which makes those shots less noticeable. </li></ul><ul><li>Together, the cutting controls the viewer’s attention. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Continuity Editing: Some Fine Points <ul><li>The 180 degree line may shift as characters move around. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes a director will rely only on the Kuleshov effect and not have an establishing shot. </li></ul><ul><li>A cheat cut lets a director mismatch slightly the positions of characters or actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Point-of-view cutting gives the viewer a subjective experience. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Crossing the Axis of Action <ul><li>Occasionally filmmakers will cross the axis of action in a symmetrical setting, or on the line itself and using it as a transition. </li></ul><ul><li>Shots on the line often happen during action scenes such as chases. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. Crosscutting <ul><li>Editing can create omniscience for the viewer. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternates shots from one line of action with shots of other events in other places. </li></ul><ul><li>Draws the viewer in, builds suspense and can create parallels. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Temporal Continuity: Order, Frequency and Duration <ul><li>Classical editing typically shows events only once and unfolds the narrative chronologically. </li></ul><ul><li>Time is seldom expanded, but it is frequently elided. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Alternatives to Continuity Editing <ul><li>Abstract and associational form often joins shots together based on the graphic and rhythmic qualities instead of narrative function. </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally narrative films will do this too. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Spatial and Temporal Discontinuity <ul><li>Using space ambiguously, inserting jump cuts and violating or ignoring the 180 degree system can jar and disorient the viewer. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-diegetic inserts can add symbolism or create a metaphor. </li></ul><ul><li>These techniques can interfere with narrative clarity. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. Spatial and Temporal Discontinuity <ul><li>Shuffling the order of story events or using time ambiguously can block viewer expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Can force the viewer to focus on piecing together the film’s narrative. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Functions of Discontinuity Editing in October <ul><li>Eisenstein was interested in the meaning that arose from juxtaposing disjunctive and disorienting shots, and creating conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>The viewer is an active participant in the film. </li></ul><ul><li>The viewer is forced to make emotional and conceptual connections and interpret the story events and implicit meanings. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

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