Chapter 12 Film Art and Film History © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Film Art and Film History <ul><li>This chapter examines some of the ways in which film art has been treated in particular ...
Early Cinema (1893-1903) <ul><li>The technology involved in creating motion pictures was achieved by the early 1890s. </li...
The Development of the Classical Hollywood Cinema (1908-1927) <ul><li>Edison tried to run other American filmmakers out of...
German Expressionism (1919-1926) <ul><li>The government began backing the German film industry after WWI, which caused its...
French Impressionism (1918-1930) <ul><li>Young French directors after WWI saw film as art and thought cinema should expres...
Surrealism (1918-1930) <ul><li>Filmmakers worked outside the filmmaking system and made films that shocked and perplexed m...
Soviet Montage (1924-1930) <ul><li>Russians saw film as a powerful tool for education and propaganda. </li></ul><ul><li>Se...
The Classical Hollywood Cinema After the Coming of Sound <ul><li>After technical problems were overcome, sound was a power...
Italian Neorealism (1942-1951) <ul><li>A reaction to Italian cinema under Mussolini. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is revealing c...
The French New Wave (1959-1964) <ul><li>Revolves around the auteur theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Films have a casual look that...
The New Hollywood and  Independent Filmmaking <ul><li>A reaction to the failing industry in the 1960s, young film school g...
Contemporary Hong Kong Cinema <ul><li>There is a long tradition of martial arts films and by the 1980s, kung-fu was incorp...
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Film Art Chapter 12

  1. 1. Chapter 12 Film Art and Film History © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Film Art and Film History <ul><li>This chapter examines some of the ways in which film art has been treated in particular historical contexts by looking at film movements and other relevant factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Shows how certain possibilities of film form and style were explored within a few typical and well-known historical periods. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. Early Cinema (1893-1903) <ul><li>The technology involved in creating motion pictures was achieved by the early 1890s. </li></ul><ul><li>The first films were very simple and usually showed scenic places and noteworthy events. </li></ul><ul><li>Films circulated freely between countries and influenced foreign filmmakers. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1904 narrative form was the dominant type of commercial filmmaking. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. The Development of the Classical Hollywood Cinema (1908-1927) <ul><li>Edison tried to run other American filmmakers out of business, but it didn’t work. </li></ul><ul><li>Edwin S. Porter, D. W. Griffith and Cecil B. DeMille were filmmakers who refined narrative and stylistic technique, making it the predominant form. </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1920s the continuity system was the standardized style directors used. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. German Expressionism (1919-1926) <ul><li>The government began backing the German film industry after WWI, which caused its growth and spread of influence. </li></ul><ul><li>Expressionism in film began with The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari and was set apart by its stylized mise-en-scene. </li></ul><ul><li>The movement disappeared by 1927 but influenced many American filmmakers, even today. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. French Impressionism (1918-1930) <ul><li>Young French directors after WWI saw film as art and thought cinema should express feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Narration has lots of psychological depth, manipulating plot time and subjectivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythmic editing and subjective shots emphasize the character’s inner feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Not commercially successful and ceased by 1929, but was very influential to certain filmmakers, styles and genres. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Surrealism (1918-1930) <ul><li>Filmmakers worked outside the filmmaking system and made films that shocked and perplexed most audiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Seek to bring the unconscious to film and are anti-narrative. </li></ul><ul><li>An eclectic movement that lost unity after 1930, but individual filmmakers continued to work for many years. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Soviet Montage (1924-1930) <ul><li>Russians saw film as a powerful tool for education and propaganda. </li></ul><ul><li>Sergei Eisenstein, Vseveolod Pudovkin, Dziga Vertov and Alexander Dovzhenko created the classic Montage style which championed the powers of editing to create new meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1930s, the Russian government criticized experimentation. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. The Classical Hollywood Cinema After the Coming of Sound <ul><li>After technical problems were overcome, sound was a powerful addition to continuity editing. </li></ul><ul><li>Studios each developed their own style. </li></ul><ul><li>The musical emerges. </li></ul><ul><li>Color film changes lighting technique, offers different stock options and alters depth of field. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. Italian Neorealism (1942-1951) <ul><li>A reaction to Italian cinema under Mussolini. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is revealing contemporary social conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Often uses location filming and available light. </li></ul><ul><li>Photography seems documentary-like. </li></ul><ul><li>Loose narrative style lacks omniscient knowledge of events. </li></ul><ul><li>As Italy prospered, the movement ended. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. The French New Wave (1959-1964) <ul><li>Revolves around the auteur theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Films have a casual look that involves location shooting, a moving camera and available light. </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of humor is pervasive. </li></ul><ul><li>Causal connections are loose and the narrative often ends ambiguously. </li></ul><ul><li>It is difficult to say when this movement formally ended. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. The New Hollywood and Independent Filmmaking <ul><li>A reaction to the failing industry in the 1960s, young film school graduates offer a fresh perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>Films tend to have personal, self-conscious messages and capitalize on films of the past. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1980s, more young filmmakers and begin winning recognition. </li></ul><ul><li>Stylistically, most films continued classical Hollywood traditions, although there is some experimentation. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. Contemporary Hong Kong Cinema <ul><li>There is a long tradition of martial arts films and by the 1980s, kung-fu was incorporated into Hollywood-like action-adventure films. </li></ul><ul><li>Causal structure is loose so that action sequences can be inserted easily. </li></ul><ul><li>Plots can end abruptly and there is constant movement on the screen. </li></ul><ul><li>Stylistically, slow motion, color design and mood lighting are trademarks. </li></ul><ul><li>Innovations in style and storytelling are influential to the rest of the world. </li></ul>© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

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