Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
2,127
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
13
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Charles Babbage ( 26 December 1791 ミ 18 October 1871 ) was an English mathematician , analytical philosopher , mechanical engineer and (proto-) computer scientist who originated the idea of a programmable computer .
  • Part of a difference engine - In Babbage ユ s time numerical tables were calculated by humans called ヤ c omputers ユ . At Cambridge he saw the high error rate of the people computing the tables and thus started his life ユ s work in trying to calculate the tables mechanically, removing all human error. He began in 1822 with what he called the difference engine , made to compute values of polynomial functions.Unlike similar efforts of the time, Babbage's difference engine was created to calculate a series of values automatically. By using the method of finite differences, it was possible to avoid the need for multiplication and division.
  • Complete difference engine, rebuilt after his plans in 1989 - could calculate far more digits than a modern pocket calculator
  • Herman Hollerith - Herman Hollerith ( February 29 , 1860 ミ November 17 , 1929 ) was an American statistician who developed a mechanical tabulator based on punched cards to rapidly tabulate statistics from thousands and millions of data. Founder of Computer-Tabulating-Recording Company, later known as IBM - International Business Machines Corporation First TABLULATOR - 1890
  • Converted technology from decimal numeric assigning to binary numeric assigning 1946 - first computer based on binary system - ENIAC - Electronic Numerator, Intergrator, Analyzer, and Computer - top secret US military project Perform complicated calculation for hydrogen bomb comstruction
  • Programmers operate the ENIAC's main control panel at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering .
  • UNIVAC - Universal Automatic Computer - 1951 - last room-sized vacuum tube computer Public became aware of the “computer” - it was used to predict the outcome of the 1952 presidential election - Eisenhower won. - well publicized
  • SAGE , the Semi Automatic Ground Environment , was an automated control system used by NORAD for collecting, tracking and intercepting enemy bomber aircraft from the late 1950s into the 1980s . In later versions, the system could automatically direct aircraft to an interception by sending commands directly to the aircraft's autopilot . First used in 1955 - concept of “individual workstations - important in the future of graphic design
  • 1948 - invention of transistors - same function as vacuum tubes, but used silicon and could be as small as a pencil eraser. 1958 - used in first computers - allowed computer operations to occur in a vastly reduced space “ main-frames” - room sized computers, soon replaced by much smaller computers - minicomputers
  • Ivan Edward Sutherland (born 1938 in Hastings, Nebraska ) is a computer programmer and Internet pioneer. He was the inventor of Sketchpad , an innovative program that influenced alternative forms of interaction with computers. SKETCHPAD - 1963
  • Bill Gates - Microsoft - wrote first computer operating system software as a freshman at Harvard University with collaborator Paul Allen. Using the silicon chip they built the first true desktop computers around 1975
  • Apple II, 1977 to the Powerbooks of today, including all the lovely and interesting peripherals available - mouse, scanner, printer, hard drive, digital camera, card readers…..
  • Russell A. Kirsch - was responsible for computer design, operation, training, programming and research for 33 years in the U.S. National Bureau of Standards. His research started the computer fields of image processing, syntactic pattern recognition, and chemical structure searching.
  • Standards Electronic Automatic Computer (SEAC)
  • Kirsch’s newborn son - the first scan!! Photograph = continuous: spatially and tonally, rolling down ramp - blow it up: more detail Digital = discrete: subdivided into cells, or pixels, array of integers: raster grid, walking down steps - assigning of an integer value to a pixel in order to specify its tone or color.
  • Cubism - acceptance of collage as “fine art,” - layers of machine printed typography and textures linked art to the mass media dominated culture
  • Dada - artistic and literary movement - reaction to horrors of WWI - lasted to protest Hitler - shock value - irrationalit to emphasize supposed reationality that led to the wars - photomontages -
  • Photograms - relationship between image and object Contemporary - artists free to collage many many planes, angles, and viewpoints, incorporate found object, - consumer culture and mass media
  • Bauhaus - form follows function Graphic design - for follows function - image, or page layout, should reinforce the message by physical appearance Fine and applied arts intertwined - no such thing as high/low art - art + industry,
  • Fluxus Movement - lesser known movement - early 1960’s, potential for social change, emphasis on experimentation, - globalism, multi-media, Performance pieces, creation and interaction Nam June Paik, most prolific and influential of all electronic artists- originator of video art
  • William Henry Fox Talbot - 1839 - perfected the art of affixing shadows to paper chemically.
  • Same time - 1839 - France - Daguerreotypes make appearance - “From this day on, painting is dead!!” The daguerreotype is named after one of its inventors, French artist and chemist Louis J.M. Daguerre , who announced its perfection in 1839. The daguerreotype is one of the earliest types of photograph in which the image is exposed directly onto a mirror -polished surface of silver bearing a coating of silver halide particles deposited by iodine vapor. Unlike later photographic processes that supplanted it, the daguerreotype is a direct positive image making process with no "negative" original
  • Varoety of technological and artistic innovation in 19th and 20th centuries (daguerreotypes, photography, development of moving pictures) led to the digital imagin we know today Edward Muybridge -(1830-1904)- Galloping Horse, 1978
  • Born 1886 – Illinois, grew up Chicago, 16: photographer, 1906, first publication of photographs, move California, 1922: move New York City – met Stieglitz, O’Keefe, others, 1923 – Mexico City: opened photo studio – Diego Rivera, David Siqueiros, Jose Orozco – Weston master of 20 th century art, close-ups, natural forms, nudes, landscapes – 1929 California, Adams and others, photo club, f/64, 1941 – photo illustration sof Whitman’s Leaves of Grass, 1948 stopped taking photos (parkinson’s disease), 1946 MOMA NY – retrospective, sons continued to print negatives until his death, 1958
  • Modernist Photographer- infinite subtle gradations of black and white, human hand could never duplicate
  • No lines in the painter’s sense Tiny particles - give special finesse to the technique - handwork destroys this tension - integrity of photograph destroyed
  • Digital image - opposite what weston said about traditional photography - the essential characteristic of digital image is that it CAN be manipulated easily and very rapidly by a computer. Intermediate processing of digital images plays a KEY role in the process.
  • Born NY 1890, 12: photography, 1904: joined school to learn, apprentice to Lewis Hine, photographer of immigrants to Ellis Island, introdiced to Stieglitz and others, 1911: self-employees commercial photographer, “Straight Photography” method, worked closely with Stieglitz, WWI medic, 1925+ film cameraman, Depression: active in politics, 1935: Russia, back to US – began making documentaries, 1945 MOMA retrospective, moved to France – blacklisted by American officials, 1976 – dies.
  • Modernist argument: photographic manipulation - unphotographic/undersirable Full potential of every medium is dependant on the purity of its use. Dead things: color-etching, photographic painting: gum print, oil-print Hand work - impotent desire to paint!!!
  • Henry Peach Robinson - compostie of 5 negativesearly 1900’s
  • Oscar G. Reijlander - composite of numerous images
  • John Heartfield - photomontages
  • Jerry Uelsmann
  • Jerry uelsmann - 1950’s on…
  • In a decade of many defining moments the 1966 film Blow Up, the first film in English by Italian director Michelangelo Antonioni, is generally reckoned to be one of the most important films of the decade - a 'defining moment' for English language cinema.One of those films regularly included in lists of 'the greatest films of all time', Blow Up is also regarded as a cult film that continues to influence many contemporary artists and filmmakers. Blow-up picture - more details that might otherwise be overlooked
  • Blow up of digital image Reproduction: photographs of photographs - breakdown in image quality, but copies of copies of copies of original digital image do not breakdown - indistinguishable from original
  • David Em - Early computer art - illusionary images
  • Harold Cohen - artist - one of the first artists to become involved in artificial intelligence. Building machine-based simulation of cognitive process of drawing. This machine - AARON is seen here creating a drawing.
  • Lillian Schwartz is a pioneer in computer graphics and computer art. Her work is represented in major art collections and museums around the world, and has been exhibited at the Museum of Modern Art, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Whitney Museum of Art, the Moderna Museet in Stockholm, the Georges Pompidou, Centre Beauborg, and Grand Palais museums in Paris. First computer art in the MOMa collection Cmputer generated etched aluminum plate - 1977
  • Barbara Nessim - highly successful illustrator, used computers in other art as well
  • Michael Noll - 1965 - fisrt US digital based art show - Computer Generated Pictures
  • 1968 - Cybernetic Serendipity: The Computer and the Arts exhibition, at the Institute of Contemporary Art, London, curated by Jasia Reichardt (director of ICA and author of The Computer in Art) and advised by Max Bense (UK).
  • 1986 - Photoshop first written as 24-bit paint system by Thomas and John Knoll, working at Lucasfilm (US). Andy warhol uses program in his artwork with deborah harry

Transcript

  • 1. History of the Machine - The Computer
  • 2. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 3. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 4. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 5. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 6. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 7. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 8. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 9. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 10. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Vacuum tube transistor QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Mainframe QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. minicomputer
  • 11. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 12. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 13. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 14. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 15. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 16. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 17. History of the Art - Movements Leading to Digital Art
  • 18. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 19. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 20. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 21. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 22. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 23. History of the Art - Beginnings of Digital Art
  • 24. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 25. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 26. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 27. Edward Weston
  • 28. Paul Strand QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 29. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 30. Composite Images Henry Peach Robinson, Oscar G. Reijlander, John Heartfield, Jerry Uelsmann
  • 31. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 32. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 33. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 34. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 35. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 36. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 37. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 38. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorare needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 39. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 40. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.