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Bordwell 10e ppt_ch12

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  • 1. Chapter 12Historical Changes in Film Art:Conventions and Choices, Traditionand Trends1© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 2. Film Art and Film History• This chapter examines some of the ways inwhich film art has been treated in particularhistorical contexts by looking at filmmovements and other relevant factors.• Shows how certain possibilities of film formand style were explored within a few typicaland well-known historical periods.2© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 3. Early Cinema (1893–1903)• The technology involved in creating motionpictures was achieved by the early 1890s.• The first films were very simple and usuallyshowed scenic places and noteworthy events.• Films circulated freely between countries andinfluenced foreign filmmakers.• Narrative form was the dominant type ofcommercial filmmaking.3© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 4. The Development of the ClassicalHollywood Cinema (1908–1927)• Edison tried to run other American filmmakersout of business, but it didn’t work.• Edwin S. Porter, D. W. Griffith, and Cecil B. DeMille were filmmakers who refined narrativeand stylistic technique, making it thepredominant form.• By the 1920s the continuity system was thestandardized style directors used.4© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 5. German Expressionism (1919–1926)• The government began backing the Germanfilm industry after WWI, which caused itsgrowth and spread of influence.• Expressionism in film began with The Cabinetof Dr. Caligari and was set apart by its stylizedmise-en-scene.• The movement disappeared by 1927 butinfluenced many American filmmakers, eventoday.5© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 6. French Impressionism (1918–1930)• Young French directors after WWI saw film as artand thought cinema should express feelings.• Narration has lots of psychological depth,manipulating plot time and subjectivity.• Rhythmic editing and subjective shots emphasizethe character’s inner feelings.• Not commercially successful and ceased by 1929,but was very influential to certain filmmakers,styles and genres.6© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 7. Surrealism (1918–1930)• Filmmakers worked outside the filmmakingsystem and made films that shocked andperplexed most audiences.• Seek to bring the unconscious to film and areanti-narrative.• An eclectic movement that lost unity after1930, but individual filmmakers continued towork for many years.7© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 8. Soviet Montage (1924–1930)• Russians saw film as a powerful tool foreducation and propaganda.• Sergei Eisenstein, Vsevolod Pudovkin, DzigaVertov, and Alexander Dovzhenko created theclassic Montage style which championed thepowers of editing to create new meaning.• By the 1930s, the Russian governmentcriticized experimentation.8© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 9. The Classical Hollywood CinemaAfter the Coming of Sound (1926–1950)• After technical problems were overcome,sound was a powerful addition to continuityediting.• Studios each developed their own style.• The musical emerges.• Color film changes lighting technique, offersdifferent stock options, and alters depth offield.9© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 10. Italian Neorealism (1942–1951)• A reaction to Italian cinema under Mussolini.• Goal is revealing contemporary socialconditions.• Often uses location filming and available light.• Photography seems documentary-like.• Loose narrative style lacks omniscientknowledge of events.• As Italy prospered, the movement ended.10© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 11. The French New Wave(1959–1964)• Revolves around the auteur theory.• Films have a casual look that involves locationshooting, a moving camera, and availablelight.• Sense of humor is pervasive.• Causal connections are loose and thenarrative often ends ambiguously.• It is difficult to say when this movementformally ended.11© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 12. The New Hollywood andIndependent Filmmaking, 1970s–1980s• A reaction to the failing industry in the 1960s,young film school graduates offer a freshperspective.• Films tend to have personal, self-consciousmessages and capitalize on films of the past.• In the 1980s, more young filmmakers beginwinning recognition.• Stylistically, most films continued classicalHollywood traditions, although there is someexperimentation.12© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 13. Hollywood and Independents,to Be Continued• Animated features play a bigger role.• Storytelling experiments are a hallmark.• 2000s see network and cable using narrativestyle.© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 13
  • 14. Contemporary Hong Kong Cinema,1980s–1990s• There is a long tradition of martial arts films andby the 1980s, kung-fu was incorporated intoHollywood-like action-adventure films.• Causal structure is loose so that action sequencescan be inserted easily.• Plots can end abruptly and there is constantmovement on the screen.• Stylistically, slow motion, color design, and moodlighting are trademarks.• Innovations in style and storytelling areinfluential to the rest of the world.14© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.