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  • 1. Chapter 6The Relation of Shot to Shot: Editing1© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 2. What Is Editing?• The coordination of one shot with the next.• The duration of the shot and the way it joinsto the next shot can affect the viewer’sreaction.2© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 3. Graphic Relations Between Shots• Has to do with the pictorial andcinematographic qualities of the shots.• Can involve matching and contrasting thesequalities.• In The Birds, suspense is heightened by havingmovement conflict with countermovementand stillness.3© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 4. Rhythmic Relations Between Shots• Varying lengths of shots can create a rhythmand set a pace.• In The Birds, Hitchcock accelerates the pace atthe beginning of a tense sequence, creatingsuspense while depicting the savagery of theattack.4© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 5. Spatial Relations Between Shots• Involves establishing or constructing space.• The Kuleshov effect is a series of shotswithout an establishing shot, but prompts theviewer to infer a spatial whole.• Parallel editing is called crosscutting.5© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 6. Temporal Relations Between Shots• Editing can cue the viewer to construct storytime.• There is an order to events in the film whichcan change story-plot relations.• Editing can condense time through ellipticalediting or expand time through overlappingediting.6© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 7. Continuity Editing• A system of editing that allows space, time,and action to flow smoothly over a series ofshots.• The rhythm is dependent on camera distanceof the shot.• The goal is to present a coherent, clear story.7© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 8. Spatial Continuity:The 180-Degree System• A scene is constructed over an axis of action,or 180-degree line.• The filmmaker plans all the shots so that thecamera doesn’t cross the line.• This ensures consistency in positions ofobjects in the frame, eyelines, and screendirection.8© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 9. Continuity Editing inThe Maltese Falcon• The opening shot delineates the space of theoffice and establishes a 180-degree linebetween Spade and his secretary.• The following shot/reverse shot, eyelinematch, reestablishing shot, and match onaction reinforce the spatial continuity.9© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 10. Continuity Editing inThe Maltese Falcon• These shots advance the narrative byemphasizing the protagonist and linking himto his name on the window.• Offscreen sound and the viewer’s expectationof what comes next motivates the followingshots, which makes those shots lessnoticeable.• Together, the cutting controls the viewer’sattention.10© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 11. Continuity Editing: Some Fine Points• The 180-degree line may shift as charactersmove around.• Sometimes a director will rely only on theKuleshov effect and not have an establishingshot.• A cheat cut lets a director mismatch slightlythe positions of characters or actions.• Point-of-view cutting gives the viewer asubjective experience.11© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 12. Crossing the Axis of Action• Occasionally filmmakers will cross the axis ofaction in a symmetrical setting, or on the lineitself and use it as a transition.• Shots on the line often happen during actionscenes such as chases.12© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 13. Crosscutting• Editing can create omniscience for the viewer.• Alternates shots from one line of action withshots of other events in other places.• Draws the viewer in, builds suspense, and cancreate parallels.13© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 14. Temporal Continuity: Order,Frequency, and Duration• Classical editing typically shows events onlyonce and unfolds the narrativechronologically.• Time is seldom expanded, but it is frequentlyelided.14© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 15. Alternatives to Continuity Editing• Abstract and associational form often joinsshots together based on the graphic andrhythmic qualities instead of narrativefunction.• Occasionally narrative films will also do this.15© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 16. Spatial and Temporal Discontinuity• Using space ambiguously, inserting jump cutsand violating or ignoring the 180-degreesystem can jar and disorient the viewer.• Nondiegetic inserts can add symbolism orcreate a metaphor.• These techniques can interfere with narrativeclarity.16© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 17. Spatial and Temporal Discontinuity• Shuffling the order of story events or usingtime ambiguously can block viewerexpectations.• Can force the viewer to focus on piecingtogether the film’s narrative.17© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  • 18. Functions of Discontinuity Editingin October• Eisenstein was interested in the meaning thatarose from juxtaposing disjunctive anddisorienting shots, and creating conflict.• The viewer is an active participant in the film.• The viewer is forced to make emotional andconceptual connections and interpret thestory events and implicit meanings.18© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.