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Chapter 1Film as Art: Creativity, Technology,and Business1© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Film as Art, Creativity, Technology,and Business• Films are designed to affect viewers.• Does commercial success make film...
Art vs. Entertainment? Art vs.Business?3• Simple judgment: art is serious and worthy,and entertainment is superficial• Art...
Creative Decisions in Filmmaking• Filmmaking consists of making big and smalldecisions.• Form consists of the overall, uni...
Creative Decisions: To See into theNight in Collateral• By altering the original setting and character,the cab driver is m...
Creative Decisions: To See into theNight in Collateral• Seamless editing heightened excitementduring stunts.• The soundtra...
Mechanics of the Movies• Filmmaking relies on technology andfinancing.• Two processes in cinematic motion: criticalflicker...
Illusion Machines• Critical flicker fusion: each frame is projectedon the screen twice• Apparent motion: our eyes are fool...
Making Films with PhotographicFilm• The film strip is called a negative.• The strip is perforated and has space for thesou...
Films as Digital Media• Digital film: much like 35mm camera, but withfixed light-sensitive sensor.• Early 1900s used DV (d...
Making the Movie: Film Production1. Scriptwriting and Funding: the script isdeveloped and funding is acquired.2. Preparati...
Modes of Production• Large-Scale Production: prior to 1960s, largestudios centrally managed film production.• Independent ...
Art and Production Modes• Films can be categorized based on how theyare made, such as the fiction film and thedocumentary ...
Distribution: The Center of Power• Distribution releases the films to the theaters,dictates rental terms, and collects ren...
Exhibition:Theatrical and Nontheatrical• Theatrical involves the public payingadmission.• Nontheatrical includes video, ca...
Ancillary Markets: Taking MoviesBeyond the Theater• These include airline release, pay-per-view,cable, network broadcasts,...
Art Implications of Distribution andExhibition• Video has allowed filmmakers to capitalize onviewer’s ability to re-watch ...
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  1. 1. Chapter 1Film as Art: Creativity, Technology,and Business1© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Film as Art, Creativity, Technology,and Business• Films are designed to affect viewers.• Does commercial success make film lessartistically important?• Films come from the filmmakers, the peoplewho pay them, and complex technology allworking together.2© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. Art vs. Entertainment? Art vs.Business?3• Simple judgment: art is serious and worthy,and entertainment is superficial• Art versus business: some consider film asart, and some consider film as business© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Creative Decisions in Filmmaking• Filmmaking consists of making big and smalldecisions.• Form consists of the overall, unified shape ofthe parts of the film.• Style is the way a film uses the techniques offilmmaking.• Manipulation of style and form can createviewer engagement.4© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. Creative Decisions: To See into theNight in Collateral• By altering the original setting and character,the cab driver is more likeable and the settingbecomes a character in itself.• High-definition cinematography, use ofexisting light, and custom-made lights allowedthe film to have texture and depth.© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 5
  6. 6. Creative Decisions: To See into theNight in Collateral• Seamless editing heightened excitementduring stunts.• The soundtrack sets the pace for the climacticprogression, building suspense andexcitement in the viewer.© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 6
  7. 7. Mechanics of the Movies• Filmmaking relies on technology andfinancing.• Two processes in cinematic motion: criticalflicker fusion and apparent motion.• Earliest, widely used format: films on film.7© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Illusion Machines• Critical flicker fusion: each frame is projectedon the screen twice• Apparent motion: our eyes are fooled intoseeing movement© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 8
  9. 9. Making Films with PhotographicFilm• The film strip is called a negative.• The strip is perforated and has space for thesound track.© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 9
  10. 10. Films as Digital Media• Digital film: much like 35mm camera, but withfixed light-sensitive sensor.• Early 1900s used DV (digital video).• In 2000s, HD (high-definition) video is used.• Resurgence of 3D technology in mid-2000s.© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 10
  11. 11. Making the Movie: Film Production1. Scriptwriting and Funding: the script isdeveloped and funding is acquired.2. Preparation for Filming: planning theproduction.3. Shooting: the actual film is made.4. Assembly: images and sounds are combined;music, dialogue, and titles are added.11© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Modes of Production• Large-Scale Production: prior to 1960s, largestudios centrally managed film production.• Independent Production: usually lower-budget films where directors often have morecontrol over production.• Small-Scale Production: where one person ora small group creates the entire film.12© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. Art and Production Modes• Films can be categorized based on how theyare made, such as the fiction film and thedocumentary film.• The director is considered the author of a filmbecause the crew’s job is to create thedirector’s vision.13© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Distribution: The Center of Power• Distribution releases the films to the theaters,dictates rental terms, and collects rental fees.• Major distributors are part of multinationalcorporations, giving them easy access tofunding.• Distributers also provide the publicitycampaign.14© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Exhibition:Theatrical and Nontheatrical• Theatrical involves the public payingadmission.• Nontheatrical includes video, cable, satellite,and other screenings such as film festivals.15© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Ancillary Markets: Taking MoviesBeyond the Theater• These include airline release, pay-per-view,cable, network broadcasts, and DVD release.• Typically video generates more money thantheatrical release, which has allowed smallerdistributors and foreign films to be profitable.• Digital technology is spreading nontheatricalviewing.© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 16
  17. 17. Art Implications of Distribution andExhibition• Video has allowed filmmakers to capitalize onviewer’s ability to re-watch films.• With the spread of digital technology, short-form storytelling is spreading and marketingand merchandising is changing.• The size and shape of the screen has alsoaffected the way filmmakers compose shots.17© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
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