Camera Body - black box that protects film from exposure and holds the lens. Lens attaches to body - focuses the image and allows light to pass through.
Think opposite - the larger the number, the smaller the opening. Expansion = opening up. Contraction = stopping down. Aperture controls the amount of light striking the film. Larger = more light, smaller = less light. Each direction either doubles of halves the next one.
Three factors determine depth of field =aperture, focus distance, focal length of lens. When composing: how much should be in focus from foreground to background. Depth of field increases as smaller apertures are selected. Narrow range of focus = large aperture (small number). Wide range of focus = small aperture (large number).
Shutter controls quantity of light striking the film and controls motion. Aperture opens up in varying degrees to allow light to strike film, much like how far open the water faucet is opened determines the flow of water - trickle versus flow. The shutter speed determines HOW LONG the light is allowed to strike the film, just as HOW LONG the water flows determines how much water is in the glass.
Law of reciprocity - if you open up or stop down the aperture, a corresponding adjustment must be made to the shutter speed to maintain the same exposure. Example: Meter reading - f8 @ 125, stop down aperture + open up shutter speed = f11 @ 60, open up aperture + stop down shutter speed = f5.6 @ 250. Same direction, opposite terminology.
Can bracket with either shutter speed or aperture. If you do not want to change the depth of field, bracket using shutter speed. Example: Meter reading: f11 @ 250: Aperture 5 stop bracketing: f5.6@250, f8@250, f11@250, f16@250, f22@250. Shutter speed 5 stop bracketing: f11@60, 125, 250 (meter reading), 500, 1000. Sometimes bracketing makes little harder to rpint in darkroom. See negatives above.
<ul><li>Parts of a Camera: </li></ul><ul><li>Shutter release </li></ul><ul><li>Film Advance Lever </li></ul><ul><li>Shutter Speed Dial </li></ul><ul><li>Hot Shoe </li></ul><ul><li>View Finder </li></ul><ul><li>Rewind Crank </li></ul><ul><li>Sync Cord Receptor </li></ul><ul><li>Film Compartment </li></ul><ul><li>Sprockets </li></ul><ul><li>Take-up Spool </li></ul><ul><li>Focal Plane Shutter </li></ul><ul><li>Rewind Release Button </li></ul><ul><li>Battery Compartment </li></ul><ul><li>Lens: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mirror </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pentaprism </li></ul></ul>
Depth of Field Large aperture Stopping down Maximum aperture
Aperture at f/2.8 - Narrow Depth of Field Aperture at f/22 - Greatest Depth of Field Camera-to-Subject Relationship
Depth of Field - Selection Background distracting Larger aperture reduces background texture - smaller Depth of Field
Trickle versus Flow Water Faucet Turned: Like Aperture - How much, how fast. Controls the Flow: Shutter speed Controls flow of light to the film.
Shutter Speed Stopping the action Of the water moving - Fast shutter speed Allowing the water to blur - Slow shutter speed - More descriptive and interesting
BRACKET I NG 2 stops overexposed 1 stop overexposed Camera meter reading: Correct exposure 1 stop underexposed 2 stops underexposed
Film Sensitivity to Light A box of film has an ISO (International Standard Organization) number. Film is either slow, medium, or fast: - ISO below 50 - slow - ISO 125/200 - medium - ISO 400 and above - fast