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Project Management Ch10

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  • 1. Chapter 10 Project Scheduling: Lagging, Crashing, and Activity Networks 10-01
  • 2. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 10 Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, students will be able to:  Apply lag relationships to project activities.  Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.  Recognize alternative means to accelerate projects, including their benefits and drawbacks.  Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.  Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques.  Understand the differences in AON and AOA and recognize the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. 10-02
  • 3. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Lags in Precedence Relationships The logical relationship between the start and finish of one activity and the start and finish of another activity. Four logical relationships between tasks 1. Finish to Start 2. Finish to Finish 3. Start to Start 4. Start to Finish 10-03
  • 4. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Finish to Start Lag • Most common type of sequencing • Shown on the line joining the modes – Added during forward pass – Subtracted during backward pass 10-04 0 A 6 Spec Design 6 6 B 11 Design Check 5 15 C 22 Blueprinting 7 Lag 4
  • 5. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Finish to Finish Lag Two activities share a similar completion point – The mechanical inspection cannot happen until wiring, plumbing, and HVAC installation are complete 10-05 10 A 16 Plumbing 6 16 B 21 HVAC 5 21 C 22 Inspection 1 15 D 21 Wiring 6 Lag 3
  • 6. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Start to Start Lag 10-06 31 A 33 Plumbing 6 33 B 36 HVAC 5 36 C 37 Inspection 1 30 D 36 Wiring 6 Lag 3
  • 7. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Start to Finish Lag • Least common type of lag relationship • Successor’s finish dependent on predecessor’s start 10-07 22 A 28 Plumbing 6 28 B 33 HVAC 5 33 C 34 Inspection 1 30 D 36 Wiring 6 Lag 3
  • 8. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Gantt Charts  Establish a time-phased network  Can be used as a tracking tool Benefits of Gantt charts 1. Easy to create and comprehend 2. Identify the schedule baseline network 3. Allow for updating and control 4. Identify resource needs 10-08
  • 9. FIGURE 10.8 Completed Gantt Chart for Project Delta 10-9 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  • 10. FIGURE 10.9 Gantt Chart for Project Delta with Critical Path Highlighted 10-10 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  • 11. FIGURE 10.10 Gantt Chart with Resources Specified 10-11 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  • 12. FIGURE 10.11 Gantt Chart with Lag Relationships 10-12 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  • 13. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Crashing The process of accelerating a project Principal methods for crashing Improving existing resources’ productivity Changing work methods Compromise quality and/or reduce project scope Institute fast-tracking Work overtime Increasing the quantity of resources 10-13
  • 14. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Managerial Considerations • Determine activity fixed and variable costs • The crash point is the fully expedited activity • Optimize time-cost tradeoffs • Shorten activities on the critical path • Cease crashing when – the target completion time is reached – the crashing cost exceeds the penalty cost 10-14
  • 15. Project Activities and Costs 10-15 Normal Crashed Activity Duration Cost Duration Cost A 5 days $ 1,000 3 days $ 1,500 B 7 days 700 6 days 1,000 C 3 days 2,500 2 days 4,000 D 5 days 1,500 5 days 1,500 E 9 days 3,750 6 days 9,000 F 4 days 1,600 3 days 2,500 G 6 days 2,400 4 days 3,000 H 8 days 9,000 5 days 15,000 Total costs $22,450 $37,500 Table 10.1Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  • 16. FIGURE 10.14 Time–Cost Trade-Offs for Crashing Activities Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-16
  • 17. FIGURE 10.15 Fully Crashed Project Activity Network Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-17
  • 18. FIGURE 10.16 Relationship Between Cost and Days Saved in a Crashed Project Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-18
  • 19. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Activity on Arrow Networks Activities represented by arrows Widely used in construction Event nodes easy to flag Forward and backward pass logic similar to AON  Two activities may not begin and end at common nodes 10-19
  • 20. FIGURE 10.18 Notation for Activity-on-Arrow (AOA) Networks 10-20 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  • 21. FIGURE 10.19 Sample Network Diagram Using AOA Approach 10-21 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  • 22. FIGURE 10.20A Representing Activities with Two or More Immediate Successors(Wrong) 10-22 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  • 23. FIGURE 10.20B Alternative Way to Represent Activities with Two or More Immediate Successors (Wrong) 10-23 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  • 24. FIGURE 10.20C Representing Activities with Two or More Immediate Successors Using Dummy Activities (Better) 10-24 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  • 25. FIGURE 10.21 Partial Project Delta Network Using AOA Notation 10-25 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  • 26. FIGURE 10.22 Completed Project Delta AOA Network 10-26 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  • 27. FIGURE 10.23 Project Delta Forward Pass Using AOA Network 10-27 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  • 28. FIGURE 10.24 Project Delta Backward Pass Using AOA Network 10-28 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  • 29. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Controversies in the Use of Networks Networks can be too complex Poor network construction creates problems Networks may be used inappropriately When employing subcontractors – The master network must be available to them – All sub-networks must use common methods Positive bias exists in PERT networks 10-29
  • 30. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Summary 1. Apply lag relationships to project activities. 2. Construct and comprehend Gantt charts. 3. Recognize alternative means to accelerate projects, including their benefits and drawbacks. 4. Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities. 5. Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques. 6. Understand the differences in AON and AOA and recognize the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. 10-30
  • 31. 10-31 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall