Chapter 10
Project Scheduling: Lagging,
Crashing, and Activity
Networks
10-01
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Chapter 10 Learning Objectives
After completing this ...
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Lags in Precedence Relationships
The logical relation...
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Finish to Start Lag
• Most common type of sequencing
...
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Finish to Finish Lag
Two activities share a similar c...
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Start to Start Lag
10-06
31 A 33
Plumbing
6
33 B 36
H...
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Start to Finish Lag
• Least common type of lag
relati...
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Gantt Charts
 Establish a time-phased network
 Can ...
FIGURE 10.8
Completed Gantt Chart for Project
Delta
10-9
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice H...
FIGURE 10.9
Gantt Chart for Project Delta with
Critical Path Highlighted
10-10
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Pu...
FIGURE 10.10
Gantt Chart with Resources
Specified
10-11
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Ha...
FIGURE 10.11
Gantt Chart with Lag Relationships
10-12
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Crashing
The process of accelerating a project
Princi...
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Managerial Considerations
• Determine activity fixed ...
Project Activities and Costs
10-15
Normal Crashed
Activity Duration Cost Duration Cost
A 5 days $ 1,000 3 days $ 1,500
B 7...
FIGURE 10.14 Time–Cost Trade-Offs for Crashing Activities
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice ...
FIGURE 10.15 Fully Crashed Project Activity Network
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
1...
FIGURE 10.16 Relationship Between Cost and Days Saved in a Crashed Project
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publis...
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Activity on Arrow Networks
Activities represented by...
FIGURE 10.18
Notation for Activity-on-Arrow (AOA)
Networks
10-20
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pr...
FIGURE 10.19
Sample Network Diagram Using AOA
Approach
10-21
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prenti...
FIGURE 10.20A
Representing Activities with Two or
More Immediate Successors(Wrong)
10-22
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Educatio...
FIGURE 10.20B
Alternative Way to Represent
Activities with Two or More
Immediate Successors (Wrong)
10-23
Copyright © 2013...
FIGURE 10.20C
Representing Activities with Two or
More Immediate Successors Using
Dummy Activities (Better)
10-24
Copyrigh...
FIGURE 10.21
Partial Project Delta Network Using
AOA Notation
10-25
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as...
FIGURE 10.22
Completed Project Delta AOA
Network
10-26
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
FIGURE 10.23
Project Delta Forward Pass Using
AOA Network
10-27
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pre...
FIGURE 10.24
Project Delta Backward Pass Using
AOA Network
10-28
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pr...
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Controversies in the Use of
Networks
Networks can be...
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Summary
1. Apply lag relationships to project activit...
10-31
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
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Project Management Ch10

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Project Management Ch10

  1. 1. Chapter 10 Project Scheduling: Lagging, Crashing, and Activity Networks 10-01
  2. 2. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 10 Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, students will be able to:  Apply lag relationships to project activities.  Construct and comprehend Gantt charts.  Recognize alternative means to accelerate projects, including their benefits and drawbacks.  Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities.  Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques.  Understand the differences in AON and AOA and recognize the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. 10-02
  3. 3. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Lags in Precedence Relationships The logical relationship between the start and finish of one activity and the start and finish of another activity. Four logical relationships between tasks 1. Finish to Start 2. Finish to Finish 3. Start to Start 4. Start to Finish 10-03
  4. 4. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Finish to Start Lag • Most common type of sequencing • Shown on the line joining the modes – Added during forward pass – Subtracted during backward pass 10-04 0 A 6 Spec Design 6 6 B 11 Design Check 5 15 C 22 Blueprinting 7 Lag 4
  5. 5. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Finish to Finish Lag Two activities share a similar completion point – The mechanical inspection cannot happen until wiring, plumbing, and HVAC installation are complete 10-05 10 A 16 Plumbing 6 16 B 21 HVAC 5 21 C 22 Inspection 1 15 D 21 Wiring 6 Lag 3
  6. 6. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Start to Start Lag 10-06 31 A 33 Plumbing 6 33 B 36 HVAC 5 36 C 37 Inspection 1 30 D 36 Wiring 6 Lag 3
  7. 7. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Start to Finish Lag • Least common type of lag relationship • Successor’s finish dependent on predecessor’s start 10-07 22 A 28 Plumbing 6 28 B 33 HVAC 5 33 C 34 Inspection 1 30 D 36 Wiring 6 Lag 3
  8. 8. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Gantt Charts  Establish a time-phased network  Can be used as a tracking tool Benefits of Gantt charts 1. Easy to create and comprehend 2. Identify the schedule baseline network 3. Allow for updating and control 4. Identify resource needs 10-08
  9. 9. FIGURE 10.8 Completed Gantt Chart for Project Delta 10-9 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  10. 10. FIGURE 10.9 Gantt Chart for Project Delta with Critical Path Highlighted 10-10 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  11. 11. FIGURE 10.10 Gantt Chart with Resources Specified 10-11 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  12. 12. FIGURE 10.11 Gantt Chart with Lag Relationships 10-12 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  13. 13. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Crashing The process of accelerating a project Principal methods for crashing Improving existing resources’ productivity Changing work methods Compromise quality and/or reduce project scope Institute fast-tracking Work overtime Increasing the quantity of resources 10-13
  14. 14. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Managerial Considerations • Determine activity fixed and variable costs • The crash point is the fully expedited activity • Optimize time-cost tradeoffs • Shorten activities on the critical path • Cease crashing when – the target completion time is reached – the crashing cost exceeds the penalty cost 10-14
  15. 15. Project Activities and Costs 10-15 Normal Crashed Activity Duration Cost Duration Cost A 5 days $ 1,000 3 days $ 1,500 B 7 days 700 6 days 1,000 C 3 days 2,500 2 days 4,000 D 5 days 1,500 5 days 1,500 E 9 days 3,750 6 days 9,000 F 4 days 1,600 3 days 2,500 G 6 days 2,400 4 days 3,000 H 8 days 9,000 5 days 15,000 Total costs $22,450 $37,500 Table 10.1Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  16. 16. FIGURE 10.14 Time–Cost Trade-Offs for Crashing Activities Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-16
  17. 17. FIGURE 10.15 Fully Crashed Project Activity Network Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-17
  18. 18. FIGURE 10.16 Relationship Between Cost and Days Saved in a Crashed Project Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-18
  19. 19. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Activity on Arrow Networks Activities represented by arrows Widely used in construction Event nodes easy to flag Forward and backward pass logic similar to AON  Two activities may not begin and end at common nodes 10-19
  20. 20. FIGURE 10.18 Notation for Activity-on-Arrow (AOA) Networks 10-20 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  21. 21. FIGURE 10.19 Sample Network Diagram Using AOA Approach 10-21 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  22. 22. FIGURE 10.20A Representing Activities with Two or More Immediate Successors(Wrong) 10-22 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  23. 23. FIGURE 10.20B Alternative Way to Represent Activities with Two or More Immediate Successors (Wrong) 10-23 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  24. 24. FIGURE 10.20C Representing Activities with Two or More Immediate Successors Using Dummy Activities (Better) 10-24 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  25. 25. FIGURE 10.21 Partial Project Delta Network Using AOA Notation 10-25 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  26. 26. FIGURE 10.22 Completed Project Delta AOA Network 10-26 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  27. 27. FIGURE 10.23 Project Delta Forward Pass Using AOA Network 10-27 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  28. 28. FIGURE 10.24 Project Delta Backward Pass Using AOA Network 10-28 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  29. 29. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Controversies in the Use of Networks Networks can be too complex Poor network construction creates problems Networks may be used inappropriately When employing subcontractors – The master network must be available to them – All sub-networks must use common methods Positive bias exists in PERT networks 10-29
  30. 30. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Summary 1. Apply lag relationships to project activities. 2. Construct and comprehend Gantt charts. 3. Recognize alternative means to accelerate projects, including their benefits and drawbacks. 4. Understand the trade-offs required in the decision to crash project activities. 5. Develop activity networks using Activity-on-Arrow techniques. 6. Understand the differences in AON and AOA and recognize the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. 10-30
  31. 31. 10-31 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
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