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Presentation notes: Gartner; Towards Ubiquitous Cartography
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Presentation notes: Gartner; Towards Ubiquitous Cartography


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  • 1. Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software For evaluation only. Motivation - Role of cartography is shifting o “Anyone” can create a map for any purpose o Cartographic knowledge/training non-existent o User need; context specific spatial and aspatial information Ubiquitous mapping - Ubiquitous mapping: “Use and creation of maps by users anywhere and at anytime” - Ubiquitous cartography: “Study of how maps can be created anywhere and at anytime” - Ubiquitous cartography emerging technology/field o No general accepted ontology / taxonomy § I.e. not generally defined § No definition on what it is and what it is not. § (fits well with GISc in general?) - Context awareness a driving force o Location Based Services, TeleCartography, mobile cartography +++ - Technology supports this (ie. it is already feasible) o Stimulation and facilitation of dynamic and personalized mapping o Wireless broadband, data storage, +++ Supporting context - Reduce cognitive burden o “translation” between map and perceived reality o Embed users in the map § Moving avatars etc o Embed map in reality § Augmented reality - Carto-centric to user-centered - Issue; What to present and how to best present it - More than automatic map making o Adaptive maps o Context-sensitive maps
  • 2. Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software For evaluation only. Location Location Location - Foundation for context - Position in space is the foundation of (ubiquitous) map making - Two orthogonal perspectives o Determined position (eg. by GPS) o Process to help determine the position (eg. as input) - Technologies o Positioning with coordinates § Indoor problem § WiFi, RFID, GPS, Galileo, Dead reckoning, Digital compass etc. o Positioning through the user [figure: ellipsis including user] § User interaction helps system find position § sketch maps, image analysis, augmented reality, (Machine vision) • Images along a path, Virtual signposts Communicating meaning - Cartography is shifting o Not limited to static views à dynamic maps § Zoom, Level of detail, panning, show/hide concepts o Data availability increasing § Everything is available - Guidelines for TeleCartography o Need for guidelines? Old guidelines still valid? o Screen size emphasized o Cartographic communication process need to be met § Attention towards adaptability • Adapts to context (automatic, semi-automatic) • Argue; Only a selection of qualities – relative to guidelines o However! No guidelines exist for mobile cartography § A wicked problem?’ § Technology centric/driven - Technologies for visualization o AR, ePaper, high-resolution LCD/TFT screens, digital Etch-a-Sketch +++ o Should not drive research
  • 3. Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software For evaluation only. Finding the way - Translation of computed data-structures to cognitive available presentation - Context defined by; o User situation o Users knowledge/interpretation o Quality of instructions § Semantic, geometric, temporal correctness or usability o Ability for communication (ie. human understanding?) o Technical restrictions - Research topics; o Alternative presentation forms § Maps, text-visual, acoustic, photographs, animations etc. § Context important (night/day) o Translation of route information to guiding instructions § Translation algorithms must be defined § What about formal languages? o Active landmarks § Landmarks important for navigation / orientation process § Large church, monument etc. o Augmented reality § All necessary information displayed to the user § Reduce cognitive load § Not in the near future. Keeping it safe - Privacy; “ability to self-determine; when, how and to what extent location information is shared” - Collective sense of privacy may be shifting o Accepting intrusion into privacy for better technologies - Manual/automatic information mining (transitive approach) needs to be considered o Could be unintended privacy issue Conclusion - Context-driven, machine “reasoning”, adaptability, individualism - Definition and scope of ubiquitous cartography is hard to find o SOA all over again - Indicating wide applicability and impact domain o To wide?
  • 4. Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software For evaluation only. Discussion - Context o Field of cartography is shifting § Users and makers are “everyone” § Applicability is wider o Context-sensitive maps => Selection of qualities (MAPQUAL!!) § Verbal output, generalization, symbolization (night vs. day maps) +++ • Language vs. maps - Location o Important, many technologies exist o Needs better way of exploiting this - Communication - Argue for new guidelines! o Issues not only limited to symbolization (graphics) o Map is an holistic representation § Road is not useful without a position § Blue polygon no meaning without context - Adaptability (automatic/semi-automatic); o Argue; Only a selection of qualities - No existing guidelines o Shift focus from technology driven to technology independent - Navigation o Translation the main task § What about the language/model perspective? o Augmented reality § Google Android + Street View + camera? - Privacy - Concern, but more ethically/social than cartography