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Title: Definition and representation of user experience intentions in the early stage of the industrial design process: a focus of the kansei process

Title: Definition and representation of user experience intentions in the early stage of the industrial design process: a focus of the kansei process

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  • 1. Definition and representation of user experience intentions in the early phase of the industrial design process: a focus on the kansei process Ph.D. defense Promoter: Alexandre Gentner Jury: Toshimasa Yamanaka Tsukuba University, Professor Jean-Bernard Martens Eindhoven University, Professor Shirley Coleman Newcastle University, Technical Director Carole Favart Toyota Motor Europe, General Manager Daniel Esquivel Toyota Motor Europe, Senior Kansei Engineer Advisor: Carole Bouchard Arts&Métiers ParisTech, Professor Co-advisor: Jean-François Omhover Arts&Métiers ParisTech, Senior Lecturer TOYOTA
  • 2. PASSIOn EMOTIONS CREATIVITY EXPERIENCE
  • 3. Definition and representation of user experience intentions in the early phase of the industrial design process Industrial and research Context Literature Review Users’ experiences with products Industrial design process Experience-centred design activities Research question and hypotheses Experiments EXP 1: User experience and the kansei process EXP 2: kansei Representations - inputs from designers EXP 3: kansei Representations - inputs from users EXP 4: kansei Representations - inputs from a design team EXP 5: experience-centred concept development projects COntributions Academic Contributions Industrial contributions Conclusion and perspectives
  • 4. Literature review Research question EXPERIMENTS Contributions Conclusion 4 TOyota motor europe - Kansei design • Unique within the Toyota group • “Kansei-driven” division • Evolution in terms of approach taken and fields takled Toyota motor corporation • Automotive context • R&D centres distributed around the globe • “Engineering-driven” corporation TME-KD over time Toyota R&D in the world Industrial Context Context Toyota Motor North America, Inc (TMA) Toyota Motor Europe Nv/SA (TME) Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) Toyota Motor Asia Pacific Pte Ltd (TMAP-MS) Timeline 2003 2014 Present Ph.D. research Approach taken Fields tackled Experience-based and intuitive thinking Analytic thinking Multi-sensory perception Response to perception Interaction Integrative thinking Experience
  • 5. Literature review Research question EXPERIMENTS Contributions Conclusion 5 DEsign research fields • User-centred approaches • Three main influent fields This research in relation to design research approaches Research context Context Kansei Engineering and Science Nagamaschi, Harada, Yamanaka, Schütte Ergonomics and cognitive psychology in design Norman, Simon User-centred approaches to design Emotional and experience design Jordan, Hassenzahl, Desmet, Hekkert This research
  • 6. Literature review Research question EXPERIMENTS Contributions Conclusion 5 DEsign research fields • User-centred approaches • Three main influent fields • Action-research approach: enable to observe implicit aspects of the design process Lawson 2004 This research in relation to design research approaches Research context Context Kansei Engineering and Science Nagamaschi, Harada, Yamanaka, Schütte Ergonomics and cognitive psychology in design Norman, Simon User-centred approaches to design Emotional and experience design Jordan, Hassenzahl, Desmet, Hekkert This research
  • 7. Literature review Research question EXPERIMENTS Contributions Conclusion 5 Past researches at LCPI • All design activities are covered • Psychological measurements with multi sensory stimuli • No physiological or behavioural measurements DEsign research fields • User-centred approaches • Three main influent fields • Action-research approach: enable to observe implicit aspects of the design process Lawson 2004 Design informational cycle (Bouchard & Aoussat 2003) Information Mougenot 2008 Bongard-Blanchy 2013 Design informational cycle of an early representation Generation Kim 2011 Rieuf 2013 Evaluation & Decision Mantelet 2006 Communication This research in relation to design research approaches Research context Context Kansei Engineering and Science Nagamaschi, Harada, Yamanaka, Schütte, Lévy Ergonomics and cognitive psychology in design Norman, Simon User-centred approaches to design Emotional and experience design Jordan, Hassenzahl, Desmet, Hekkert This research
  • 8. Context Research question EXPERIMENTS Contributions Conclusion 6 content of the literature review • Three main notions: - Users’ experiences with products - Experience-centred design activities - Industrial design process • Common multi-cultural context (age, gender, function...) Notions covered by the literature review Literature review Introduction USERS’ EXPERIENCES WITH PRODUCTS EXPERIENCE-CENTRED DESIGN ACTIvITIES INDUSTRIAL DESIGN PROCESS CULTURAL ENvIRONMENT
  • 9. + User experience and kansei process • Occurs when a human interacts with his environ- ment Desmet & Hekkert 2007, Hassenzahl 2010, Ortíz Nicólas 2013 • Complementary to rational processes leading to understanding Lévy, Lee, & Yamanaka 2007 Users’ Experiences with products Kansei and Risei processes in the context of an interaction PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS Perceived KANSEI QUALITIES RAtional understanding PRODUCT ATTRIBUTES CONTEXT ATTRIBUTES INTERACTION ATT. KANSEI PROCESS RISEI (RATIONAL) PROCESS USER ENVIRONMENT ConclusionContributionsEXPERIMENTSResearch questionContext Literature review
  • 10. ConclusionContributionsEXPERIMENTSResearch questionContext 7 User experience and kansei process • Occurs when a human interacts with his environ- ment Desmet & Hekkert 2007, Hassenzahl 2010, Ortíz Nicólas 2013 • Complementary to rational processes leading to understanding Lévy, Lee, & Yamanaka 2007 • Kansei process as a link between the different entities Lévy, Lee, & Yamanaka 2007, Ortíz Nicólas 2013 Kansei-Experience descriptive framework (adaped from the literature) Literature review Users’ Experiences with products • Meaning • Emotion • Sensory attributes • Technical attributes ... • Action enabled • Type of interface ... • Temporal • Situational ... • Age, gender • Nationality • Values and personality • Mindset • Memory PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS Perceived KANSEI QUALITIES PRODUCT ATTRIBUTES CONTEXT ATTRIBUTES INTERACTION ATT. KANSEI PROCESS USER ENVIRONMENT
  • 11. Context Research question EXPERIMENTS Contributions Conclusion 7 Description of the entities • Relationships between perceived kansei qualities and: - User’s personal charateristics Medeiros et al. 2008, Fenko et al. 2010 - Product attributes Nagamachi 1997, Berlyne 1974, Karjalainen 2006 - Interaction attributes Lim 2011, Klooster & Overbeeke 2005 - Context attributes Underhill 2000, Forlizzi & Battarbee 2004 Kansei-Experience descriptive framework (adaped from the literature) Literature review Users’ Experiences with products User experience and kansei process • Occurs when a human interacts with his environ- ment Desmet & Hekkert 2007, Hassenzahl 2010, Ortíz Nicólas 2013 • Complementary to rational processes leading to understanding Lévy, Lee, & Yamanaka 2007 • Kansei process as a link between the different entities Lévy, Lee, & Yamanaka 2007, Ortíz Nicólas 2013 • Meaning • Emotion • Sensory attributes • Technical attributes ... • Action enabled • Type of interface ... • Temporal • Situational ... • Age, gender • Nationality • Values and personality • Mindset • Memory PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS Perceived KANSEI QUALITIES PRODUCT ATTRIBUTES CONTEXT ATTRIBUTES INTERACTION ATT. KANSEI PROCESS USER ENVIRONMENT
  • 12. Context Research question EXPERIMENTS Contributions Conclusion 8 Design activities Bouchard & Aoussat 2003, Cross 2008 • Four main activities: Information (I), Generation (G), Evaluation&decision (E&D), Communication (C) • PhD context: Creation of early representations conveying UX intentions experience-centred design activities Literature review Design activities - design informational cycle (Bouchard & Aoussat 2003, Cross 2008) I G E&D C Project context representations conveying a UX intention
  • 13. Context Research question EXPERIMENTS Contributions Conclusion 8 Design activities Bouchard & Aoussat 2003, Cross 2008 • Four main activities: Information (I), Generation (G), Evaluation&decision (E&D), Communication (C) • PhD context: Creation of early representations conveying UX intentions tools and methodologies Byttebier et al. 2009, Forlizzi 2008, IDEO 2003 • Relying on different types of reasoning (inductive & de- ductive or abductive) Dorst 2011 • User treated as a partner or as a subject Sanders&Stappers 2008 experience-centred design activities Literature review Design activities - design informational cycle (Bouchard & Aoussat 2003, Cross 2008) I G E&D C Project context representations conveying a UX intention - Desk research Material library, PEEST research... - Field research Day in a life, guided tour, error analysis... - User involvement / interviews Laddering interviews, Card sorting... - User involvement / else Cultural probes, bodystorming... - Exploration activities Experience prototyping, engagement... - Abductive creativity tools and methodologies Harvey cards, lotus blossom... - “Scientific” creativity tools and methodologies UX principles, SKIPPI... - Participatory design sessions Scenario, projection, collages... - Convergence tools and methodologies Enhancement checklist, 6 thinking hats... - Expert panel Expert evaluation, heuristic evaluation... - Psychological measurements SD scales, PrEmo, over time (iScale)... - Physiological measurements Heart rate, electroencephalography... - Behavioural measurements Eye-tracking, behaviour coding... Categories of tools and methodologies supporting design activities I G E&D
  • 14. Context Research question EXPERIMENTS Contributions Conclusion 9 design information Bouchard et al 2009, Kim et al. 2009 • Exchanged by a design team in early design stages • Three levels of abstraction identified Literature review experience-centred design activities Design information (Bouchard et al 2009, Kim et al. 2009) Design information categories Example Related UX entity H (High level) Value Security Personal characteristics Semantic word Playful Kansei qualities Analogy Like a rabbit Kansei qualities Style Edge design Product M (Middle level) Context Leisure with family Context Functionality Modularity Product Sector/object Tennis Product L (Low level) Form Square Product Colour Light blue Product Texture Plastic Product Abstraction level
  • 15. H Value Semantic word Analogy Style M Context Functionality Sector/object L Form Colour Texture Personal characteristics Kansei qualities Product att. Context att. Interaction att. H Value Semantic word Analogy Style M Context Functionality Sector/object L Form Colour Texture Personal characteristics Kansei qualities Product att. Context att. Interaction att. Context Research question EXPERIMENTS Contributions Conclusion 9 design information Bouchard et al 2009, Kim et al. 2009 • Exchanged by a design team in early design stages • Three levels of abstraction identified Representation of design intentions • Communication activities • Five types of representation: - Text-based Buijs 2012, Pruitt & Adlin 2006 - Picture-based Baxter 1995, Eckert & Stacey 2000 - Multi sensory Schifferstein & Desmet 2008 - Narrative Sanders 2006, Buxton 2007, Sears & Jacko 2007 - Interactive Koskinen & Lee 2009, Buchenau et al. 2000 • Differences in terms of design information communicated Characteristics of two types of early representation Literature review experience-centred design activities Title Visual theme boards (picture-based) Storyboard scenario (narrative) Example Related design information Covered UX entities
  • 16. Context Research question EXPERIMENTS Contributions Conclusion 10 NCD and npd stages • Two from the four major stages of the industrial design process • NCD: creation of intellectual property Koen et al. 2002 • NPD: design of consumable artifacts Ulrich & Eppinger 2000 Industrial design process Literature review Industrial design process (adapted from Buijs 2012) New concept development (NCD) New product development (NPD) CommercialisationProduct use
  • 17. Context Research question EXPERIMENTS Contributions Conclusion NCD NPD CommercialisationProduct use 10 NCD and npd stages • Two from the four major stages of the industrial design process • NCD: creation of intellectual property Koen et al. 2002 • NPD: design of consumable artifacts Ulrich & Eppinger 2000 • Innovation process: uptake of intellectual property into new product develpment (NPD) Van de Ven 1986, Gero 2010 Industrial design process Literature review Link and differences between NCD and NPD (Gero 2010, Koen et al. 2002, Kim & Wilemon 2002, Sandemeier et al. 2004) Fuzzy and unpredictable Organised and structured Innovation process
  • 18. Context Research question EXPERIMENTS Contributions Conclusion NCD NPD CommercialisationProduct use Link and differences between NCD and NPD (Gero 2010, Koen et al. 2002, Kim & Wilemon 2002, Sandemeier et al. 2004) Fuzzy and unpredictable Organised and structured Innovation process 10 NCD and npd stages • Two from the four major stages of the industrial design process • NCD: creation of intellectual property Koen et al. 2002 • NPD: design of consumable artifacts Ulrich & Eppinger 2000 • Innovation process: uptake of intellectual property into new product develpment (NPD) Van de Ven 1986, Gero 2010 Design team Gibson 2004, Graff et al. 2011 • Culture = Gender, function, nationality... • Able to provide a competitive advantage • Some challenges to overcome Industrial design process Literature review Multicultural teams: strengths and weaknesses (Gibson 2004, Graff et al. 2011) Multi-cultural teams Strengths (+) - More innovative - Higher adapability Weaknesses (-) - Decreased communication - Increased conflict - Lower performance
  • 19. Context Research question EXPERIMENTS Contributions Conclusion 11 Users’ experiences with products • Relationships between experience entities are often studied one by one Experience-centred design activities • Representation-types rich in terms of design info. and UX entities adressed are rare Industrial design process • Communication is crucial in early design stages (between members of a team, between teams...) Synthesis of the literature review synthesis Literature review USERS’ EXPERIENCES WITH PRODUCTS EXPERIENCE-CENTRED DESIGN ACTIvITIES INDUSTRIAL DESIGN PROCESS User’s kansei process Experience entities: personal characteristics perceived kansei quality attributes of the environ. (product, interaction, context) Multi-cultural design team Complementary types of thinking within a design team Use of representation to improve mutual understanding The user’s culture is an important factor influen- cing Ux Design activities Design information Early representation Tools and methodologies NCD and NPD Innovation process Design team CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT
  • 20. Context Literature review EXPERIMENTS Contributions Conclusion INDUSTRIAL DESIGN PROCESS EXPERIENCE-CENTRED DESIGN ACTIVITIES USERS’ EXPERIENCES WITH PRODUCTS CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT 12 Overview of the hypotheses - Link with literature review HYPOTHESeS 1/ Users’ experiences with products can be described with criteria related to the five experience entities. 2/ Early representations can convey design information related to all experience entities. 3/ Kansei-focused tools and methodologies can be inte- grated into an industrial design process. Research question “How can approaches centred on the kansei process support early design activities?” Research question & hypotheses Research question HYPOTHESIS 1 HYPOTHESIS 2 HYPOTHESIS 3
  • 21. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 13 Overview of the experiments EXPERIMENTS Exp 1 - Hypothesis 1 • Describe user experiences as compositions of entities Structure of the experiments I PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS KANSEI QUALITIES PRODUCT ATTRIBUTES CONTEXT ATTRIBUTES INTERACTION ATT. KANSEI PROCESS USER ENVIRONMENT RELATIONSHIPS ?
  • 22. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 13 Overview of the experiments EXPERIMENTS Exp 1 - Hypothesis 1 • Describe user experiences as compositions of entities Exp 2, 3, and 4 - Hypothesis 2 • New methodologies for the definition and representation of UX intentions (I, G, E&D) • New types of representations rich in term of design information conveyed (C) Structure of the experiments I G CE&D TOOLS AND METHODOLOGIES ? REPRESENTATIONS OF INTENTIONS ? DESIGN INFORMATION CONVEYED?
  • 23. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 13 Overview of the experiments EXPERIMENTS Exp 1 - Hypothesis 1 • Describe user experiences as compositions of entities Exp 2, 3, and 4 - Hypothesis 2 • New methodologies for the definition and representation of UX intentions (I, G, E&D) • New types of representations rich in term of design information conveyed (C) ExP 5 - Hypothesis 3 • How can UX intentions be discussed in early design phases Structure of the experiments NCD I G CE&D NPDUSE IN INDUSTRIAL DESIGN PROCESS?
  • 24. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 13 Overview of the experiments EXPERIMENTS Exp 1 - Hypothesis 1 • Describe user experiences as compositions of entities Exp 2, 3, and 4 - Hypothesis 2 • New methodologies for the definition and representation of UX intentions (I, G, E&D) • New types of representations rich in term of design information conveyed (C) ExP 5 - Hypothesis 3 • How can UX intentions be discussed in early design phases Structure of the experiments NCD I G CE&D NPD
  • 25. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 14 Exp 1: User experience and the kansei process EXPERIMENTS Repeat for up to four times 1/ Report demographics 2/ Enjoyable experience selection 3/ General description 4/ Perceived kansei qualities description PC KQ PRODUCT CONTEXT INTERACT USER ENVIRONMENT AIm • Describe user experiences as compositions of entities Protocol • 211 UX descriptions collected (189 international p.) • Participants selected freely a product • Description of the experience with open questions and semantic differential scales
  • 26. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 15 results & discussions • Causal relationships observed between descriptors from experience entities Exp 1: User experience and the kansei process EXPERIMENTS Significant differences between personal characteristics sub-groups for electronic products Semantic descriptor (KQ) Emotion (KQ) Age (PC) Harmonious 20-29 > 50+ Amused At ease 30-39 > 50+ 20-29 > 30-39 Gender (PC) Social In fashion Chic, elegant 20-29 > 20-29 > 20-29 > Curious 20-29 > Nationality (PC) In fashion Subtle Social At ease 20-29 > 20-29 > 20-29 > 20-29 > Passionate Satisfied Surprised 20-29 > 20-29 > 20-29 >
  • 27. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 15 results & discussions • Causal relationships observed between descriptors from experience entities • Hierarchical cluster analysis of the descriptions ac- cording to KQ: 15 clusters Exp 1: User experience and the kansei process EXPERIMENTS Dissimilarity C14 C9 C5 C15 C4 C12 C6 C3 C8 C2 C10 C11 C7 C13 C1 - Comfortable - Chic, elegant - Relaxed - Joyful - Active - Proud - Stimulated 211 descriptions clustered according to their KQ (HCA result)
  • 28. Dissimilarity C14 C9 C5 C15 C4 C12 C6 C3 C8 C2 C10 C11 C7 C13 C1 - Comfortable - Chic, elegant - Relaxed - Joyful - Active - Proud - Stimulated Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 15 results & discussions • Causal relationships observed between descriptors from experience entities • Hierarchical cluster analysis of the descriptions ac- cording to KQ: 15 clusters Exp 1: User experience and the kansei process EXPERIMENTS 211 descriptions clustered according to their KQ (HCA result)
  • 29. Dissimilarity C14 C9 C5 C15 C4 C12 C6 C3 C8 C2 C10 C11 C7 C13 C1 - Comfortable - Chic, elegant - Relaxed - Joyful - Active - Proud - Stimulated Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 15 results & discussions • Causal relationships observed between descriptors from experience entities • Hierarchical cluster analysis of the descriptions ac- cording to KQ: 15 clusters Exp 1: User experience and the kansei process EXPERIMENTS Age: 20-29 Gender: Female Value: Capable Joyful Loving, affectionate Open-minded Semantic: Intuitive Fun Timeless Emotion: Joyful Relaxed Stimulated Functioning mechanism: Static Examples: Tent Book Action enabled: Communicate Entertain Interface: Direct Physical Engagement: Mental Number of users: Several users USER ENVIRONMENT 211 descriptions clustered according to their KQ (HCA result) Board game
  • 30. Dissimilarity C14 C9 C5 C15 C4 C12 C6 C3 C8 C2 C10 C11 C7 C13 C1 - Comfortable - Chic, elegant - Relaxed - Joyful - Active - Proud - Stimulated Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 15 results & discussions • Causal relationships observed between descriptors from experience entities • Hierarchical cluster analysis of the descriptions ac- cording to KQ: 15 clusters • 15 UX harmonics identified • Representative of experience directions Exp 1: User experience and the kansei process EXPERIMENTS 211 descriptions clustered according to their KQ (HCA result) Board game Abstraction level Covered UX entities H (High level) M (Middle level) L (Low level) Personal characteristics Kansei qualities Product att. Context att. Interaction att. Design information Age: 20-29 Gender: Female Value: Capable Joyful Loving, affectionate Open-minded Semantic: Intuitive Fun Timeless Emotion: Joyful Relaxed Stimulated Functioning mechanism: Static Examples: Tent Book Action enabled: Communicate Entertain Interface: Direct Physical Engagement: Mental Number of users: Several users USER ENVIRONMENT
  • 31. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 16 CONclusion • Relationships between experience entities could be considered all together • Experience directions could be identified (i.e. 15 UX harmonics) => Validates hypothesis 1 (UX description combining 5 entities) Exp 1: User experience and the kansei process EXPERIMENTS Contribution to hypothesis 1 NCD I G CE&D NPD descriptions covering all the UX entities
  • 32. Context Literature review Research question Contributions ConclusionEXPERIMENTS 17 Exp 2: Kansei representation UX harmonics translated by designers 1/ Presentation of the 15 UX harmonics (UXH) 3/ Enrichement of the directions with pictures and music 2/ Association of project personas and UXH AIM • Create kansei representations based on UX harmonics • What affects the perception of kansei representations? (understanding of design info., intrinsic kansei qualities) creation Protocol • Creators: Design team (selection) and designers (creation) • Tool: UX harmonic 3 UX harmonics 2 UX harmonics 2 UX harmonics 1 UX harmonic 2 UX harmonics REJECTED 5 UX harmonics
  • 33. Context Research question Contributions Conclusion Abstraction level Covered UX entities EXPERIMENTS Exp 2: Kansei representation UX harmonics translated by designers Literature review Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movementsand behaviors Inspirational music User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board D Emotion - Proud - Calm - Nostalgic Semantic - Chic,elegant - Comfortable - Intuitive,easy to use - Timeless Aesthetic - Pleasantto see - Pleasantto smell - Coherencybetween thesenses Interface - Directtangible interface Wayoffunctioning - Staticproduct Locationofuse - Outdoor - Handbag - Wallet - Scarf Terminalvalues - Maturelove - Social recognition - A prosperouslife - Equality Behavioralvalues - Loving,affectionate - Polite,Indulgent - Helpful Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Style accessory/ Fashionable utility Key attributes Examples Maestro User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board A Emotion - Curious - Inspired - Proud - Surprised Semantic - Pure - Dynamic Aesthetic - Pleasantto see - Pleasantto smell Interface - Touchscreen Locationof use - Outdoor Function - Display mediacontent - Learn - Discover - Smartphone - Digital camera Terminalvalues - Excitinglife - Pleasure - Wisdom Behavioralvalues - Broad-minded - Independent - Curiousand courageous Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Digital explorer Key attributes Examples Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movements and behaviors Inspirational music Gettysburg KeywordsPicturesMusic Kansei representation (output) • Multi-sensory enrichment of UXH H (High level) M (Middle level) L (Low level) Personal characteristics Kansei qualities Product att. Context att. Interaction att. Design information
  • 34. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 19 EXPERIMENTS Research • 4 layouts tested • 30 design team members - product planner, engineer, styling designer - female, male • Evaluation of understanding of the design information conveyed (30 criteria) • Evaluation of the intrinsic kansei qualities (4 criteria) Exp 2: Kansei representation UX harmonics translated by designers Evaluation of the layouts The four types of layout presented to each participant User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board A Emotion - Curious - Inspired - Proud - Surprised Semantic - Pure - Dynamic Aesthetic - Pleasantto see - Pleasantto smell Interface - Touchscreen Locationof use - Outdoor Function - Display mediacontent - Learn - Discover - Smartphone - Digital camera Terminalvalues - Excitinglife - Pleasure - Wisdom Behavioralvalues - Broad-minded - Independent - Curiousand courageous Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Digital explorer Key attributes Examples Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movements and behaviors Inspirational music Gettysburg User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board A Emotion - Curious - Inspired - Proud - Surprised Semantic - Pure - Dynamic Aesthetic - Pleasantto see - Pleasantto smell Interface - Touchscreen Locationof use - Outdoor Function - Display mediacontent - Learn - Discover - Smartphone - Digital camera Terminalvalues - Excitinglife - Pleasure - Wisdom Behavioralvalues - Broad-minded - Independent - Curiousand courageous Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Digital explorer Key attributes Examples Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movements and behaviors Inspirational music Gettysburg User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board A Emotion - Curious - Inspired - Proud - Surprised Semantic - Pure - Dynamic Aesthetic - Pleasantto see - Pleasantto smell Interface - Touchscreen Locationof use - Outdoor Function - Display mediacontent - Learn - Discover - Smartphone - Digital camera Terminalvalues - Excitinglife - Pleasure - Wisdom Behavioralvalues - Broad-minded - Independent - Curiousand courageous Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Digital explorer Key attributes Examples Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movements and behaviors Inspirational music Gettysburg Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movements and behaviors Inspirational music User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board D Emotion - Proud - Calm - Nostalgic Semantic - Chic,elegant - Comfortable - Intuitive,easy to use - Timeless Aesthetic - Pleasantto see - Pleasantto smell - Coherencybetween thesenses Interface - Direct tangible interface Wayof functioning - Staticproduct Locationof use - Outdoor - Hand bag - Wallet - Scarf Terminalvalues - Maturelove - Social recognition - A prosperouslife - Equality Behavioralvalues - Loving,affectionate - Polite, Indulgent - Helpful Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Style accessory / Fashionable utility Key attributes Examples Maestro User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board A Emotion - Curious - Inspired - Proud - Surprised Semantic - Pure - Dynamic Aesthetic - Pleasantto see - Pleasantto smell Interface - Touchscreen Locationof use - Outdoor Function - Display mediacontent - Learn - Discover - Smartphone - Digital camera Terminalvalues - Excitinglife - Pleasure - Wisdom Behavioralvalues - Broad-minded - Independent - Curiousand courageous Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Digital explorer Key attributes Examples Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movements and behaviors Inspirational music Gettysburg User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board A Emotion - Curious - Inspired - Proud - Surprised Semantic - Pure - Dynamic Aesthetic - Pleasantto see - Pleasantto smell Interface - Touchscreen Locationof use - Outdoor Function - Display mediacontent - Learn - Discover - Smartphone - Digital camera Terminalvalues - Excitinglife - Pleasure - Wisdom Behavioralvalues - Broad-minded - Independent - Curiousand courageous Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Digital explorer Key attributes Examples Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movements and behaviors Inspirational music Gettysburg User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board A Emotion - Curious - Inspired - Proud - Surprised Semantic - Pure - Dynamic Aesthetic - Pleasantto see - Pleasantto smell Interface - Touchscreen Locationof use - Outdoor Function - Display mediacontent - Learn - Discover - Smartphone - Digital camera Terminalvalues - Excitinglife - Pleasure - Wisdom Behavioralvalues - Broad-minded - Independent - Curiousand courageous Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Digital explorer Key attributes Examples Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movements and behaviors Inspirational music Gettysburg User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board B Emotion - Curious - Interested Semantic - Chic,elegant - Intuitive - Easy to use Aesthetic - Pleasantto touch Interface - Remotecontrol GUI - Touchscreen Wayof functioning - Electricproduct Function - Display mediacontent - Learn, discover - Entertain,play - eBook - Smartphone - Small meanof transportation (bike,motorbike, small car) Terminalvalues - Truefriendship - Senseof accomplishment - Wisdom Behavioralvalues - Logical - Honest, frank Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Easiness, efficiency and flexibility Key attributes Examples Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movements and behaviors Inspirational music Eple User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board A Emotion - Curious - Inspired - Proud - Surprised Semantic - Pure - Dynamic Aesthetic - Pleasantto see - Pleasantto smell Interface - Touchscreen Locationof use - Outdoor Function - Display mediacontent - Learn - Discover - Smartphone - Digital camera Terminalvalues - Excitinglife - Pleasure - Wisdom Behavioralvalues - Broad-minded - Independent - Curiousand courageous Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Digital explorer Key attributes Examples Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movements and behaviors Inspirational music Gettysburg User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board A Emotion - Curious - Inspired - Proud - Surprised Semantic - Pure - Dynamic Aesthetic - Pleasantto see - Pleasantto smell Interface - Touchscreen Locationof use - Outdoor Function - Display mediacontent - Learn - Discover - Smartphone - Digital camera Terminalvalues - Excitinglife - Pleasure - Wisdom Behavioralvalues - Broad-minded - Independent - Curiousand courageous Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Digital explorer Key attributes Examples Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movements and behaviors Inspirational music Gettysburg User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board A Emotion - Curious - Inspired - Proud - Surprised Semantic - Pure - Dynamic Aesthetic - Pleasantto see - Pleasantto smell Interface - Touchscreen Locationof use - Outdoor Function - Display mediacontent - Learn - Discover - Smartphone - Digital camera Terminalvalues - Excitinglife - Pleasure - Wisdom Behavioralvalues - Broad-minded - Independent - Curiousand courageous Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Digital explorer Key attributes Examples Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movements and behaviors Inspirational music Gettysburg User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board F Emotion - Joyful - Relaxed - Stimulated Semantic - Intuitive - Easy to use - Timeless - Fun,amusing Aesthetic - Pleasantto touch Interface - Direct tangible interface Wayof functioning - Staticproduct Amount ofusersinvolved - Severaluser Engagement required - Mentalengagement Function - Communicate - Entertain,play - Board games - Books - Campingtent Terminalvalues - Maturelove - Truefriendship - Equality Behavioralvalues - Loving,affectionate - Helpful - Cheerful Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Fun as a group / Enabling direct social interaction Key attributes Examples Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movements and behaviors Inspirational music BananaPancakes User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board A Emotion - Curious - Inspired - Proud - Surprised Semantic - Pure - Dynamic Aesthetic - Pleasantto see - Pleasantto smell Interface - Touchscreen Locationof use - Outdoor Function - Display mediacontent - Learn - Discover - Smartphone - Digital camera Terminalvalues - Excitinglife - Pleasure - Wisdom Behavioralvalues - Broad-minded - Independent - Curiousand courageous Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Digital explorer Key attributes Examples Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movements and behaviors Inspirational music Gettysburg User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board A Emotion - Curious - Inspired - Proud - Surprised Semantic - Pure - Dynamic Aesthetic - Pleasantto see - Pleasantto smell Interface - Touchscreen Locationof use - Outdoor Function - Display mediacontent - Learn - Discover - Smartphone - Digital camera Terminalvalues - Excitinglife - Pleasure - Wisdom Behavioralvalues - Broad-minded - Independent - Curiousand courageous Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Digital explorer Key attributes Examples Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movements and behaviors Inspirational music Gettysburg User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board A Emotion - Curious - Inspired - Proud - Surprised Semantic - Pure - Dynamic Aesthetic - Pleasantto see - Pleasantto smell Interface - Touchscreen Locationof use - Outdoor Function - Display mediacontent - Learn - Discover - Smartphone - Digital camera Terminalvalues - Excitinglife - Pleasure - Wisdom Behavioralvalues - Broad-minded - Independent - Curiousand courageous Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Digital explorer Key attributes Examples Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movements and behaviors Inspirational music Gettysburg User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board A Emotion - Curious - Inspired - Proud - Surprised Semantic - Pure - Dynamic Aesthetic - Pleasantto see - Pleasantto smell Interface - Touchscreen Locationof use - Outdoor Function - Display mediacontent - Learn - Discover - Smartphone - Digital camera Terminalvalues - Excitinglife - Pleasure - Wisdom Behavioralvalues - Broad-minded - Independent - Curiousand courageous Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Digital explorer Key attributes Examples Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movements and behaviors Inspirational music Gettysburg Layout 1: Keywords Layout 2: Pictures Layout 3: Keywords + Pictures Layout 4: Keywords + Pictures + Music
  • 35. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 20 EXPERIMENTS Results & discussions Participants’ personal characteristics • Participants’ function and gender have very limited impact on understanding of design info. Layout of the representations • Distance between design info. understood and inten- tion (top): - Sensory richness tends to lower it! • Intinsic kansei qualities of the representation (bottom): - Sensory richness tends to increase it! Exp 2: Kansei representation UX harmonics translated by designers Intrinsic kansei qualities Distance to intention OverallAttr. of. EnvironmentKansei qualitiesPers. Charact. 9% 5% 3% 2% 1% 4% 6% 7% 8% OverallEfficiencyEase of useAppeal 5 3 1 0 2 4 Keywords Pictures Keywords+Pictures Keywords+Pictures+Music Keywords Pictures Keywords+Pictures Keywords+Pictures+Music Keywords Pictures Keywords+Pictures Keywords+Pictures+Music Keywords Pictures Keywords+Pictures Keywords+Pictures+Music Keywords Pictures Keywords+Pictures Keywords+Pictures+Music Keywords Pictures Keywords+Pictures Keywords+Pictures+Music Keywords Pictures Keywords+Pictures Keywords+Pictures+Music Keywords Pictures Keywords+Pictures Keywords+Pictures+Music Criteriawithsign.highdistance(%)Averagerating
  • 36. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 21 EXPERIMENTS Conclusion • Multi sensory representation convey design informa- tion related to the five UX entities • Sensory richness postively impacts reciprocal understanding and appeal of early representations => Contributes to discuss hypothesis 2 (wide range of design info.) Exp 2: Kansei representation UX harmonics translated by designers Contribution to hypothesis 2 NCD I G CE&D NPD creators: designers + DESIGN TEAM tool: UX harmonics additional: STRONG RECIPROCAL UNDERSTANDING
  • 37. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 22 AIM • Can users be involved in the creation of multi sensory kansei representations? • What is their impact? FIRST iteration (summary) • Participatory design session with current hybrid car drivers •7 visual concrete- and abstract- and oriented directions as output Exp 3: Kansei representation participatory design sessions with users EXPERIMENTS 7 concrete- or abstract-oriented directions (1st iteration) Refinement Contrast Premium Geometrial Hue: Complex composi- tion, sophisticated colors Contrast of hue: middle L-D contrast: middle Energy Duality Power/ Dynamism Joy Hue: Bright, saturated, and vivid colors Contrast of hue: high L-D contrast: middle Different & unexpected Forward looking Dynamic Bold Hue: Bright, saturated, and vivid colors Contrast of hue: high L-D contrast: low Techno. & innovative Intelligent Light (weight) Leading edge Hue: White, grey, black, and other dark colors Contrast of hue: low L-D contrast: high Smooth & fluid Minimalism Silence Elegant Hue: Mainly blue, also grey and light colors Contrast of hue: low L-D contrast: high Organic & natural Eco-friendly Freedom Warm Hue: Mainly green, yel- low, beige, and brown Contrast of hue: middle L-D contrast: middle Serene & peace of mind Harmony Pure Relaxing Hue: light colors, often cold (blue, green, white) Contrast of hue: low L-D contrast: low A/Serene & peace of mind B/Refinement C/Energy D/Different & unexpected 1/Techno. & innovative 2/Smooth & fluid 3/Organic & natural KanseiqualitiesPicturesColors
  • 38. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 23 The resulting 12 Mood boxes created mood boxes - MB (input) • Inspirational objects and materials • Automotive fabrics and paint samples Exp 3: Kansei representation participatory design sessions with users EXPERIMENTS A/ Serene & peace of mind B/ Refinement C/ Energy D/ Different & unexpected 1/ Technological & innovation 2/ Smooth & fluid 3/ Organic & natural Abstraction level Covered UX entities H (High level) M (Middle level) L (Low level) Personal characteristics Kansei qualities Product att. Context att. Interaction att. Design information
  • 39. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 24 Exp 3: Kansei representation participatory design sessions with users EXPERIMENTS creation Protocol • Creators: Users (and designers for stimuli crea.) • Tools: Mood box, sensory sample, cards Repeated for the 3 Mood boxes selected 1/ Report demographics 2/ Mood box selection (1 per group) 6/ Discuss the 3 directions created 3/ Association of product attributes 5/ Association of kansei qualities 4/ Association of interaction attributes
  • 40. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 24 Exp 3: Kansei representation participatory design sessions with users EXPERIMENTS creation Protocol • Creators: Users (and designers for stimuli crea.) • Tools: Mood box, sensory sample, cards 15 stimuli 14 stimuli 7 stimuli Repeated for the 3 Mood boxes selected 1/ Report demographics 2/ Mood box selection (1 per group) 6/ Discuss the 3 directions created 3/ Association of product attributes 5/ Association of kansei qualities 4/ Association of interaction attributes
  • 41. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 24 Exp 3: Kansei representation participatory design sessions with users EXPERIMENTS creation Protocol • Creators: Users (and designers for stimuli crea.) • Tools: Mood box, sensory sample, cards 92 stimuli Repeated for the 3 Mood boxes selected 1/ Report demographics 2/ Mood box selection (1 per group) 6/ Discuss the 3 directions created 3/ Association of product attributes 5/ Association of kansei qualities 4/ Association of interaction attributes
  • 42. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 24 Exp 3: Kansei representation participatory design sessions with users EXPERIMENTS creation Protocol • Creators: Users (and designers for stimuli crea.) • Tools: Mood box, sensory sample, cards 41 stimuli Repeated for the 3 Mood boxes selected 1/ Report demographics 2/ Mood box selection (1 per group) 6/ Discuss the 3 directions created 3/ Association of product attributes 5/ Association of kansei qualities 4/ Association of interaction attributes
  • 43. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 24 Exp 3: Kansei representation participatory design sessions with users EXPERIMENTS creation Protocol • Creators: Users (and designers for stimuli crea.) • Tools: Mood box, sensory sample, cards Repeated for the 3 Mood boxes selected 1/ Report demographics 2/ Mood box selection (1 per group) 6/ Discuss the 3 directions created 3/ Association of product attributes 5/ Association of kansei qualities 4/ Association of interaction attributes
  • 44. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 25 RESEARCH • 41 European participants • 25 Japanese participants • Quantitative information gathered from: - Association of stimuli activities - Selection and rating activities RESults and discussion • Nationality has more influence than gender for both association and selection activities Exp 3: Kansei representation participatory design sessions with users EXPERIMENTS Cultural-specific association (w sign. diff.) for the concrete direction: “Organic & natural” Tactile samples Auditory samples Olfactory samples Semantic keywords Emotion keywords JP - very soft - soft - scattered grain - minimalist - subtle - gratified EU - hard - nature rythme #2 - stands-out - finesse - confident - enthusiastic Four Mood-boxes part of the concrete direction: “Organic & natural”
  • 45. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 25 RESEARCH • 41 European participants • 25 Japanese participants • Quantitative information gathered from: - Association of stimuli activities - Selection and rating activities RESults and discussion • Nationality has more influence than gender for both association and selection activities • Kansei representations related to the European image of future hybrid experience: - PCA: Mapping representation of MB and stimuli - HCA: clusters of stimuli Exp 3: Kansei representation participatory design sessions with users EXPERIMENTS Visualisation of principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) for European participants active passive more less 1A 1B 1C 1D 2A 2B 2C 2D 3A 3B 3C 3D e.peaceful e.confident e.serene e.inspired e.comfortable e.relaxed e.enthusiastic e.safe e.fascinated e.joyful e.intriguing e.exciting e.curious e.stimulated e.delighted e.satisfied e.interestede.gratified s1 s2 s3 s4 s5 s6 s7 sd1 sd2 sd3 sd4 sd5 sd6 sd7 sd8 sd9 sd10 sd11 sd12 sd13 sd14 t1A t1B t1C t2A t2B t2C t2D t3A t3B t3C t3D t4A t4B t4C t4D v.harmonious v.clean v.natural v.finesse v.elegance v.clever v.simplicity v.lightweight v.subtle v.smooth v.leading-edge v.vibrant v.precise v.futuristic v.dynamic v.timeless v.radical v.minimalist v.quiet v.energized v.authentic v.stands-out v.soft EXTREME NATURE ISOLATED SAMPLES UNEXPECTED INNOVATIVE AND HIGH-TECH ZEN SIMPLE BUT NOT SIMPLISTIC
  • 46. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 26 KANSEI REPRESENTATION (OUTPUT) • Composed of Mood-boxes, sensory samples, KQ keywords, gesture cards EXPERIMENTS Exp 3: Kansei representation participatory design sessions with users B/Minimal and smooth fluidity C/Intelligent and surprising high-tech A/Light and organic refinement Abstraction level Covered UX entities H (High level) M (Middle level) L (Low level) Personal characteristics Kansei qualities Product att. Context att. Interaction att. Design information
  • 47. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 26 EXPERIMENTS Exp 3: Kansei representation participatory design sessions with users B/Minimal and smooth fluidity C/Intelligent and surprising high-tech A/Light and organic refinement Inspiration atmosphere for styling designers (direction A) Brief for material engineers (direction A) Abstraction level Covered UX entities H (High level) M (Middle level) L (Low level) Personal characteristics Kansei qualities Product att. Context att. Interaction att. Design information KANSEI REPRESENTATION (OUTPUT) • Composed of Mood-boxes, sensory samples, KQ keywords, gesture cards
  • 48. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 27 Conclusion • Multi sensory representation convey design informa- tion related to the five UX entities • The directions identified are specific to European (personal characteristics of users) => Contributes to discuss hypothesis 2 (wide range of design info.) Exp 3: Kansei representation participatory design sessions with users EXPERIMENTS Contribution to hypothesis 2 NCD I G CE&D NPD creators: USERS + designers tool: MOOD BOXES + KANSEI CARDS + sensory samples additional: USERS’ INFLUENCE ON THE PROCESS
  • 49. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 28 EXPERIMENTS Exp 4: kansei representation co-creation within a design team AIM • Co-creation within a design team (engineer, styling designers...) of early representations • What is the impact of representation co-creation on generation design activities?
  • 50. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 29 kansei cards (input) • 12 families of pictures and 3 families of keywords EXPERIMENTS Exp 4: kansei representation co-creation within a design team Animals (47 items) Sports (37 items) Localised gestures (35 items) Natural landscapes (30 items) Simple shapes (59 items) Semantic descriptors (35 items)
  • 51. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion Kansei card family Abstraction level Covered UX entities 29 kansei cards (input) • 12 families of pictures and 3 families of keywords • Each family focuses on particular categories of design information EXPERIMENTS Exp 4: kansei representation co-creation within a design team Personal characteristics Personal characteristics Kansei qualities Kansei qualities Product att. Product att. Context att. Context att. Interaction att. Interaction att. Design information H (High level) M (Middle level) L (Low level) H (High level) M (Middle level) L (Low level) Animals (47 items) Sports (37 items) Localised gestures (35 items) Natural landscapes (30 items) Simple shapes (59 items) Semantic descriptors (35 items)
  • 52. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 30 EXPERIMENTS Exp 4: kansei representation co-creation within a design team creation Protocol • Creators: design team (styling designers, engineers...) • Tool: Kansei cards 1/ Discuss the project context (identify key dimensions) 3/ Voting and/or clustering activities 2/ Co-mapping of the cards
  • 53. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 31 Example of workshop using Kansei cards EXPERIMENTS Exp 4: kansei representation co-creation within a design team KANSEI REPRESENTATION (output) • Weighted mapping of kansei cards Abstraction level Covered UX entities H (High level) M (Middle level) L (Low level) Personal characteristics Kansei qualities Product att. Context att. Interaction att. Design information
  • 54. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 32 RESEARCH • 4 multi-cultural design teams (4 pers. each) • 2x comparision “Control group” vs. “Test group” • Evaluation of the concept generated Concept ideas rated 1 star (left) and 3 stars (right) EXPERIMENTS Exp 4: kansei representation co-creation within a design team
  • 55. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 32 RESEARCH • 4 multi-cultural design teams (4 pers. each) • 2x comparision “Control group” vs. “Test group” • Evaluation of the concept generated REsults & discussions • Co-creation of kansei representations impacts: - concept quantity: +61% - high quality concepts (rated 2-3 stars): +52% • Only two measurements for each condition (not enough to be statisically significant) Concept ideas created by test and control groups Concept ideas rated 1 star (left) and 3 stars (right) EXPERIMENTS Exp 4: kansei representation co-creation within a design team 0 5 3 3 5 Control group 5 5 4 Control group 3 7 9 Test group 5 Test group 8 9 10 15 20 25 Amountofideas Rated 3 stars Rated 2 stars Rated 1 stars Design challenge 1 Design challenge 2
  • 56. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 33 Conclusion • Co-created mapping convey design information related to the five UX entities • Positive impact on generation activities => Contributes to discuss hypothesis 2 (wide range of design info.) EXPERIMENTS Exp 4: kansei representation co-creation within a design team Contribution to hypothesis 2 NCD I G CE&D NPD creators: INDUSTRIAL DESIGN TEAM tool: KANSEI CARDS additional: INFLUENCE ON GENERATION ACTIVITES
  • 57. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 34 Aim • How are kansei-focused representations created in prac- tice? protocol • Interview and report analysis related to 27 projects • Main focusing points: - Context (purpose, design team) - Design activities (reasoning, audience, repres. type) - Design information conveyed EXPERIMENTS Exp 5: Use of kansei representation in an industrial context Repeat for the 27 projects 1/ Project identification 2/ Analysis of reports 3/ Inteviews with team members 4/ Compari- son of the info. gathered
  • 58. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 34 List of categories of design information (*originally “functionality”) Aim • Broader picture of how kansei-focused tools and methodologies are used in practice. protocol • Interview and report analysis related to 27 projects • Main focusing points: - Context (purpose, design team) - Design activities (reasoning, audience, repres. type) - Design information conveyed EXPERIMENTS Exp 5: Use of kansei representation in an industrial context Categories Related UX entity Value User’s personal characteristics Semantic descriptor User’s perceived kansei quality Emotion User’s perceived kansei quality Style Product attributes Lifestyle User’s personal characteristics Interface characteristic* Interaction attributes Action enabled* Interaction attributes Product characteristic* Product attributes Sector/object Product attributes Physical context Context attributes Temporal context Context attributes Culture User’s personal characteristics Morphology User’s personal characteristics Gesture* Interaction attributes Feedback* Interaction attributes Visual attribute Product attributes Tactile attribute Product attributes Auditory attribute Product attributes Olfactory attribute Product attributes AbstractMiddlelevelConcrete
  • 59. abductive reasoning scientific reasoning Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 35 Results & discussions Exp 5: Use of kansei representation in an industrial context EXPERIMENTS “Exploratory concept” (EC) projects Purpose: Propose new experience concepts for future break- through products Design team members: Multi-cultural, internal and external to TME Reasoning: Mainly abduction Audience: Managerial level/ Wide but fuzzy Intermediate representations: Visual, narrative Final representations: Narrative, interactive Categories: Mainly abstract, not much focus on product attributes “Product lining strategy” (PLS) projects Purpose: Identify user experience logics and directions for future platform products Design team: Multi-cultural, mostely internal to TME Reasoning: Balanced between abductive and scientific Audience: Managerial & working level/ Clear and rather large Intermediate representations: Multi sensory, visual Final representations: Narrative (limited), multi sensory, visual Categories: Combining concrete and abstract design information. Only limited consideration of context and interaction “Pre-development direction” (PDD) projects Purpose: Prepare grade and character strategies of future incre- mental products Design team: Multi-cultural, only internal to TME Reasoning: Balanced between abductive and scientific Audience: Managerial & working level/ Clear and specific Intermediate representations: Visual Final representations: Multi sensory, visual Categories: Mainly combining user-related and product related de- sign information with intention in terms of kansei qualities. Designinformation conveyed Design activities Context oftheprojects
  • 60. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion conclusion • Three project-types dealing with UX-intentions • Described in terms of context, design activities, and design information conveyed => Validates Hypothesis 3 in the case of Toyota (integra- tion indus. process) Exp 5: Use of kansei representation in an industrial context EXPERIMENTS Contribution to hypothesis 3 NCD I G CE&D NPD 36 3 typologies OF PROJECTS DESCRIbed with: - CONTEXT - design activities - design information conveyed
  • 61. Context Literature review Research question Contributions Conclusion 37 Exp 1 • Correlation between experience entities • Experience directions identified (clusters) => Hypothesis 1: UX description combining 5 entities Exp 2, 3, and 4 • Tools and methodologies to: - define UX directions - communicate of design information => Hypothesis 2: Design info. related to all UX entities Exp 5 • Three project-types dealing with UX-intentions • Description in terms of context, design activities, and design information conveyed => Hypothesis 3: Integration into the Toyota process Conclusion of the experiments EXPERIMENTS Overview Hypothesis - Experiments NCD I G CE&D NPD - CREATORS - TOOLS - REPRESENTATION TYPEs - DESIGN INFORMATION CONVEYED 3 typologies OF PROJECTS DESCRIbed with: - CONTEXT - design activities - design information conveyed UX considered as a composition of entities
  • 62. Model of kansei design informationKansei-Experience framework (5 entities = 5 colors) User Concrete Enviroment (Product & static context) Abstract - Value - Personality - Semantic descriptor - Emotion - Style - Lifestyle - Past experience - Mental capability - Skill - Interface characteristic - Action enabled - Temporal context - Product characteristic - Sector/object - Physical context - Culture (demographics) - Morphology - Physical capability - Gesture - Feedback - Visual att. - Tactile att. - Auditory att. - Olfactory att. - Other sensory att. PC KQ PRODUCT CONTEXT INTERACT USER ENVIRONMENT Context Literature review Research question EXPERIMENTS Conclusion 38 model of kansei Design information • Model representing categories of design information exchanged in early design activities • Experience entity dimension (horizontal) in addition to the original abstraction dimension (vertical) Academic contributions Contributions
  • 63. Concrete User Environ- ment Abstract Concrete User Environ- ment Abstract Context Literature review Research question EXPERIMENTS Conclusion 39 Multi sensory representation and design information conveyed (EXP 3) Multi sensory representation and design information conveyed (EXP 2) Multi sensory early representations • Two different types of representations • Differences in terms of: - creation methodologies (tools, creations) - design information conveyed Academic contributions Contributions User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board A Emotion - Curious - Inspired - Proud - Surprised Semantic - Pure - Dynamic Aesthetic - Pleasantto see - Pleasantto smell Interface - Touchscreen Locationof use - Outdoor Function - Display mediacontent - Learn - Discover - Smartphone - Digital camera Terminalvalues - Excitinglife - Pleasure - Wisdom Behavioralvalues - Broad-minded - Independent - Curiousand courageous Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Digital explorer Key attributes Examples Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movements and behaviors Inspirational music Gettysburg
  • 64. Concrete User Environ- ment Abstract Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movementsand behaviors Inspirational music User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board D Emotion - Proud - Calm - Nostalgic Semantic - Chic,elegant - Comfortable - Intuitive,easy to use - Timeless Aesthetic - Pleasantto see - Pleasantto smell - Coherencybetweenthesenses Interface - Directtangible interface Wayoffunctioning - Staticproduct Locationofuse - Outdoor - Handbag - Wallet - Scarf Terminalvalues - Maturelove - Social recognition - A prosperouslife - Equality Behavioralvalues - Loving,affectionate - Polite,Indulgent - Helpful Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Style accessory/ Fashionable utility Key attributes Examples Maestro User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board A Emotion - Curious - Inspired - Proud - Surprised Semantic - Pure - Dynamic Aesthetic - Pleasantto see - Pleasantto smell Interface - Touchscreen Locationof use - Outdoor Function - Display mediacontent - Learn - Discover - Smartphone - Digital camera Terminalvalues - Excitinglife - Pleasure - Wisdom Behavioralvalues - Broad-minded - Independent - Curiousand courageous Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Digital explorer Key attributes Examples Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movements and behaviors Inspirational music Gettysburg Refinement Contrast Premium Geometrial Hue: Complex compo- sition, sophisticated colors Contrast of hue: middle L-D contrast: middle Energy Duality Power/ Dynamism Joy Hue: Bright, saturated, and vivid colors Contrast of hue: high L-D contrast: middle Different & unexpected Forward looking Dynamic Bold Hue: Bright, saturated, and vivid colors Contrast of hue: high L-D contrast: low Concrete User Environ- ment Abstract Concrete User Environ- ment Abstract Concrete User Environ- ment Abstract Concrete User Environ- ment Abstract Concrete User Environ- ment Abstract Concrete 1 4 5 8 User Environ- ment Abstract Concrete User Environ- ment Abstract Context Literature review Research question EXPERIMENTS Conclusion 40 INDUStrial contributions Contributions Kansei representations developed Tools developed (UX harmonics, kansei cards, and Mood boxes) Depends on cards used Depends on cards used New know-how • Tools: UX harmonics, Kansei cards, Mood-boxes • Early representations: visual and multi sensory • Different creators: designers (EXP 2 & 3), users (EXP 3), and design team (EXP 2 & 4)
  • 65. Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movementsand behaviors Inspirational music User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board D Emotion - Proud - Calm - Nostalgic Semantic - Chic,elegant - Comfortable - Intuitive,easy to use - Timeless Aesthetic - Pleasantto see - Pleasantto smell - Coherencybetweenthesenses Interface - Directtangible interface Wayoffunctioning - Staticproduct Locationofuse - Outdoor - Handbag - Wallet - Scarf Terminalvalues - Maturelove - Social recognition - A prosperouslife - Equality Behavioralvalues - Loving,affectionate - Polite,Indulgent - Helpful Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Style accessory/ Fashionable utility Key attributes Examples Maestro User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board A Emotion - Curious - Inspired - Proud - Surprised Semantic - Pure - Dynamic Aesthetic - Pleasantto see - Pleasantto smell Interface - Touchscreen Locationof use - Outdoor Function - Display mediacontent - Learn - Discover - Smartphone - Digital camera Terminalvalues - Excitinglife - Pleasure - Wisdom Behavioralvalues - Broad-minded - Independent - Curiousand courageous Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Digital explorer Key attributes Examples Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movements and behaviors Inspirational music Gettysburg Refinement Contrast Premium Geometrial Hue: Complex compo- sition, sophisticated colors Contrast of hue: middle L-D contrast: middle Energy Duality Power/ Dynamism Joy Hue: Bright, saturated, and vivid colors Contrast of hue: high L-D contrast: middle Different & unexpected Forward looking Dynamic Bold Hue: Bright, saturated, and vivid colors Contrast of hue: high L-D contrast: low Context Literature review Research question EXPERIMENTS Conclusion 40 New know-how • Tools: UX harmonics, Kansei cards, Mood-boxes • Early representations: visual and multi sensory • Different creators: designers (EXP 2 & 3), users (EXP 3), and design team (EXP 2 & 4) • Uptake in the Toyota research and pre-development projects INDUStrial contributions Contributions Use of the methodologies and kansei representations developed Use of the tools developed (UX harmonics, kansei cards, and Mood boxes) EC projects: 1 PLS projects: 2 PDD projects: 1 EC projects: 1 PLS projects: 2 PDD projects: 4 EC projects: 1 PLS projects: 1 PDD projects: 0 EC projects: 0 PLS projects: 1 PDD projects: 1 EC projects: 1 PLS projects: 2 PDD projects: 1 EC projects: 2 PLS projects: 3 PDD projects: 4 EC projects: 0 PLS projects: 2 PDD projects: 2
  • 66. Context Literature review Research question EXPERIMENTS Conclusion 40 INDUStrial contributions Contributions Exampe of prescription and guidelines documents Internal presentations (general R&D audience) New know-how • Tools: UX harmonics, Kansei cards, Mood-boxes • Early representations: visual and multi sensory • Different creators: designers (EXP 2 & 3), users (EXP 3), and design team (EXP 2 & 4) • Uptake in the Toyota research and pre-development projects
  • 67. Context Literature review Research question EXPERIMENTS Conclusion 41 UPTAKE IN PROJECTS • Lead to higher reciprocal understanding within the design teams • Different functional divisions were able to take ownership of the design information conveyed by the representations Contributions INDUStrial contributions Concrete User Environ- ment Abstract An early representation (from EXP 2) and design information conveyed User experiencecomponents New B - Inspirational User experience board A Emotion - Curious - Inspired - Proud - Surprised Semantic - Pure - Dynamic Aesthetic - Pleasantto see - Pleasantto smell Interface - Touchscreen Locationof use - Outdoor Function - Display mediacontent - Learn - Discover - Smartphone - Digital camera Terminalvalues - Excitinglife - Pleasure - Wisdom Behavioralvalues - Broad-minded - Independent - Curiousand courageous Personalvalues TME-KD USER PRODUCT,INTERACTION andCONTEXT Experience context: Digital explorer Key attributes Examples Inspirational user experiences Inspirational movements and behaviors Inspirational music Gettysburg
  • 68. Context Literature review Research question EXPERIMENTS Conclusion 41 New Approach in vehicle pre-development • Lead to higher reciprocal understanding within the design teams • Different functional divisions were able to take ownership of the design information conveyed by the representations • Shared intention, different expertises Contributions Characteristics of the main types of early representation Level of focus: Concrete User Environ- ment Abstract Concrete User Environ- ment Abstract Concrete User Environ- ment Abstract STYLING DESIGNER PRODUCT PLANNER ENGINEER INDUStrial contributions
  • 69. Context Literature review Research question EXPERIMENTS Contributions Toyota Motor Europe’s design centre (top), head office (middle), and R&D centre (bottom) 42 Perspective • Other types of representation (e.g. narrative, interac- tive) • Link between intentions and final products: - Use along the design process - Break-down in function-specific requirements Conclusion • Link kansei studies and the industrial design process • Definition and representation of UX intentions: - Tools, representations, methodologies - Descriptive model of design information exchanged conclusion and perspectives Conclusion
  • 70. Context Literature review Research question EXPERIMENTS Contributions 43 Conclusion conclusion and perspectives Journal publications (2 submitted, 1 published) • Gentner, A., Bouchard, C., Boisseau, E., Favart, C. (TBC). Representation of the intended user experience of a product during its early design stage, International Journal of Design. • Gentner, A., Bouchard, C., Favart, C. (TBC). Participatory design sessions supporting the identification of user experience directions, International Journal of Vehicle Design. • Gentner, A., Bouchard, C., Esquivel, D., Favart, C. (2013). Mapping a multi-sensory identity territory at the early design stage. Int. Journal of Affective Engineering, 12(2). CONFERENCE publications (4 accepted, 8 presented) • Gentner, A., Bouchard, C. (2014). Three types of experience-driven new concept development. In T. Abram, W. Karwowski, T. Marek (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics. • Gentner, A., Bouchard, C., Favart, F. (2014). Kansei-related design information exchange during early concept creation phases. In Proceedings of the Kansei Engineering and Emotional Research confer- ence. • Gentner, A., Bouchard, C., Badoil, A., Favart, F. (2014). Kansei cards: A visual tool supporting the investigation, discussion, and representation of the kansei-related intentions of a product to be de- signed. In Proceedings of the Kansei Engineering and Emotional Research conference. • Bouchard, C., Gentner, A. (2014). About the nature of Kansei information, from abstract to concrete. In Proceedings of the Kansei Engineering and Emotional Research conference. • Gentner, A., Bouchard, C., Favart, C. (2013). Early user experience representation in an industrial context: the kansei experience design approach. In Proceedings of the 3rd Int. Conf. on Integration of Design, Engineering & Management. • Gentner, A., Bouchard, C., Favart, C. (2013). Investigating user experience as a composition of components and influencing factors. In Proceedings of Int. Association of Societies of Design Research conference. • Bouchard, C., Bongard-Blanchy, K., Omhover J.F., Gentner, A. (2013). Touchstorming and bodystorming: A generative approach for the elaboration of a gesture database in interaction design. In Pro- ceedings of Int. Association of Societies of Design Research conference. • Boisseau, E., Bouchard, C., Gentner, A., Esquivel, D. (2013). Is “Portrait Chinois” efficient to cluster mental images of a Target user. In Proceedings of CONFERE conference. • Gentner, A., Bouchard, C., Esquivel, D., Oprea, G. (2012). Creativity comparison between Japanese and European at the concept creation stage. In Proceedings of the International Conference on De- sign Creativity. • Gentner, A., Bouchard, C., Esquivel, D., Favart, C. (2012). Towards a platform for New Concept Development: when kansei and design-thinking approaches meet. In Proceedings of NordDesign confer- ence. • Gentner, A., Bouchard, C., Esquivel, D., Favart, C. (2012). Kansei design approaches for the new concept development process. In Proceedings of CONFERE conference. • Gentner, A., Bouchard, C., Aoussat, A., Esquivel, D. (2012). Defining an identity territory for low emission cars through multi-sensory “Mood-boxes”. In Proceedings of the Kansei Engineering and Emo- tional Research conference.
  • 71. Thank you!!! Time for questions TOYOTA
  • 72. Definition and representation of user experience intentions in the early phase of the industrial design process: a focus on the kansei process Ph.D. defense Promoter: Alexandre Gentner Jury: Toshimasa Yamanaka Tsukuba University, Professor Jean-Bernard Martens Eindhoven University, Professor Shirley Coleman Newcastle University, Technical Director Carole Favart Toyota Motor Europe, General Manager Daniel Esquivel Toyota Motor Europe, Senior Kansei Engineer Advisor: Carole Bouchard Arts&Métiers ParisTech, Professor Co-advisor: Jean-François Omhover Arts&Métiers ParisTech, Senior Lecturer TOYOTA