DISCLAIMERS: Because I am willing to criticize Israel’s choices about Palestine, thatI am not an expert on makes my views differentIsrael and Palestine. from most Americans, including almost allI am, however, an American Jews, who tendexpert on my to not criticize Israel.experiences in Israeland Palestine. My views are unpopular.My views come from Many people wouldmy experience of judge me negatively forwhat I saw and heard my views.on my trip as well asresearch and news AFSC/Quakers tend towatching before I hold similar views towent. mine.
I want thereto be a Stateof Israel.I also wantjustice andequality forPalestinians.It is my viewthat Israelhas policiesagainstPalestinethat do notlead topeacefuloutcomes.
BUT BEFORE THERE WAS ISRAEL…The region thatnow containspresent-dayIsrael andPalestine wascontrolled bythe OttomanEmpire (Turkey)from 1517 –1917.In 1917, thatsame area wascontrolled bythe British insomethingcalled theBritishMandate.http://www.defence.pk/forums/military-photos-multimedia/48357-palestine-ottoman-empire.html
The land had been populated with Arab Muslims, Arab Christians, and someJews. They lived together in relative peace and equality for many centuries.
MEANWHILE BACK IN EUROPE… Life in Europe for Jews from the Middle Ages through the Holocaust was extremely difficult at best and at worst, very deadly. Jews faced discrimination and the possibility of violence almost constantly.
Some Jews did enjoy prosperity and safety (i.e. in Germany beforeWWI), but it always seemed fragile, as if Jews had to rely on others toensure their safety.World Response to WWI vs. WWII German Jews leaving Germany in the 1930s, German Federal Archives. (photo: courtesy Ethan Bensinger) http://www.timesofisrael.com/yekke-renewal-a-new-project-traces-the-remnants-of-german-jewish-culture/
ZIONISM•Zion is a Biblical term that refers to the land Jews believe was given to them byGod.•Since the mid1800s, some European Jews wanted to establish a Jewish nation inthe Middle East, a place with historical and Biblical connections for Jews.•The people who wanted this Jewish nation and worked hard to make it happenare called “Zionists”.• The man who really championed the Zionist cause was Theodor Herzl.
ZIONISM• Jews from Europe began moving to “Zion” starting in the mid 1800s.• They set up homes, farms, and businesses mostly peacefully, sometimes not so peacefully.• After WWII, creating a Jewish state for the millions of European Jews who were pouring out of the concentration camps had a lot of urgency.• Nations around the world, especially the allied nations of the U.S. and Great Britain supported the idea of creating a Jewish state.
"A land without a people for a people without a land."• Zionists used this phrase to suggest that no one was living in what would become the State of Israel.• It makes the land seem empty of people and available for others.• In fact, there were nearly 1 mm people living in the area that would become Israel.• They had homes, farms, families, businesses for generations.• These people are called Palestinians. They were a mix of lots of religions: Christians, Muslims, Jews, Druze, Samaritans…• In 1945, they did not have their own nation. They lived under the British Mandate.
•In 1947, The U.N. separated the land into an Arab and Jewish state, but theArabs did not accept the partition and war broke out.•In the War of 1948 that led to the founding of Israel, about 725,000Palestinians were forcibly removed from their farms and out of their homes.•They are not allowed toreturn to their land ever.•Israelis call the War“The War ofIndependence”;Palestinians call it“Nakba”(The Catastrophe).• In protest, Arab countriesrefused to recognizeIsrael and live in peace.www.theatlantic.com
•Each side believes different versions of the same history.• In Israel, where 1.5 mm Palestinians live, their version of history is not taught or evenacknowledged in the Israeli school system.•It’s as if it didn’t happen!•So Palestinian students in Israel told us that they do not learn about the Nakba at all.
THE RESULTSAfter Nakba, Palestinians wound up in three places:1. Living in refugee camps/surrounding towns in Palestine. Approx. 4 mm. in West Bank, Gaza, and East Jerusalem Some families live in the camps 3 or 4 generations later!2. Moving abroad (called the Diaspora). Approx. 5 mm. worldwide3. Living in the Al Jalazone State of Israel as Refugee Camp,Arab Israeli citizens. Ramallah.1.5 mm. wikipedia
Demographic RealitiesIsrael’s population today: 7.5 mm…includes 1.5 mm ArabPalestinians SO….6 mm Jews live in IsraelPalestine’s population today (WB/Gaza/E. Jerusalem): 4mm SO…add 1.5 Arab Israelis + 4 mm = 5.5 mm PalestiniansMany people say that by 2020, Arabs will outnumber Jews…ifpolicies do not change, this will mean that a minority will ruleover a majority…similar to South Africa in 80s.The Jewish priority is on increasing Jewish population: making aliyah Jews moving to and becoming citizensof Israel Biblical reasoning “it’s where we belong..” Economic reasoning Political reasoning
THE LEGACY1. An unending cycle of bad relations between the two groups(****not all Israelis and Palestinians agree among themselves).2. Bad feelings fuel bad actions based on mistrust and fear, especially the fear of violence.3. Many Arab and Muslim neighboring countries are angered by their perception of what’s happening to fellow Arabs.4. Palestinians feel especially wronged for historic as well as current reasons.5. Israel is more powerful and has the backing of the United States. In my view, it abuses its power over Palestinians in a way that is unjust.6. The State of Israel’s main concern is security for its citizens.7. Palestine’s main concerns are ending the Israeli Occupation and all its injustices, the Right of Return, and becoming a recognized nation.
Making Militarism Visible 2012 www.newprofile.org/english
Making Militarism VisibleIn Israel militarism is everywhere.Wherever you look you are bound tocome across its manifestations. Butwhat you may not see is howembedded militarism is in Israel’scollective perception. Militarism isntjust about the presence of soldiers incivil society, it is about the presence ofmilitaristic thinking in the way Israelisview the world and the way they thinkabout it. "Towards Tomorrow" by A. Ettinger Photo Editor: A. Milner. Purchased 2001
“…Neither shall they learn war…” Isaiah 2, 4This presentation is anintroduction to some of theaspects of militaristic perceptions,both visible and more subtle, thatshape the lives of Israelis.This is one perspective, but youare encouraged to form yourown. Photo: Activestills.org
Militaristic SurroundingsWherever you go in Israel,you are likely to comeacross soldiers, oftencarrying guns. This is afact of everyday life inIsrael.Guns and soldiers are anatural part of oursurroundings, as much ascars and trees. Photo: Esti Tsal
Militaristic SurroundingsYaakov Turner, aformer Air Forcecommander andformer mayor ofthe city of BeerSheba, used thisfighter airplane asa city decoration. Photo: Sergeiy Sandler
Militaristic SurroundingsCannon relics are anintegral part of manychildrens playgrounds.The idea here is that it isnormal, even valuable,for kids to be around warmemorabilia. Photo: Tal Hayoun
Militarized EducationHundreds ofsoldiers, stationed inschools, are servingas teachers andyouth guides. Theyare sent there toassist the teachersand also to directlypromote militaryservice among thestudents. Taken from the IDF personnel website http://www.aka.idf.il/chinuch/gallery/?catid=42929
Militarized EducationThe army operatesextensive programs,including a basic trainingweek, visits from officersand school trips,designed to promotemilitary service. Thestudents are compelledto participate as theseare considered regularschool activities. Photo: Activestills.org
Militarized EducationAll schools promotemilitary service as an idealform of service to thecountry.A paramilitary ceremony in arenowned Haifa high school,held jointly by the school and theadjacent military academy.Cadets and students, marchingtogether on the playing field. Photo: Activestills.org
Militaristic Education The curriculum is full of naturalizing or positive references to wars and the military, reaffirming the bond between Israelis and their army.This is a worksheet for kindergartenchildren, asking them to draw a linebetween state images, peacesymbols, tanks, fighter planes andthe IDF symbol, and thecorresponding number. Courtesy of Amir Terkel
Militaristic EducationMeanwhile inPalestine, this iswhat the first dayof school under theoccupation lookslike. Photo: Tamar Matza, Sheikh Saed, 1/9/2009
Militarized ParentingParents have a very specificrole in relation to the army:support.This ad represents, andappropriates, this idealizedrelationship.this ad reads: Baking from the heartWhen my boy comes home from thearmy, he deserves extraordinary pastry. Shimrit (Baking Yeast)
Militarized ParentingThe mothers role in particularis not just to support, but alsoto worry. Its a role designatedfor those who have no say inthe matter.This ad reads:“My boy is a combat soldier. The tension,the stress, the phone calls… I asked mypharmacist for Calmanervin, and it helpedme relax. Im back to functioning as Ishould.” Ad by Lichtenson, 2000
Militarized ParentingFathers, on the other hand,are expected to prepare theirchildren for military service;not in the sense of actualtraining, but by example, bysharing stories of their positiveexperiences, the camaraderieof soldiers, amusinganecdotes of life as a soldier,etc. Photo: http://kennysideshow.blogspot.com/2 008/11/other-election-circus.html
Militaristic Economy•Israeli society is heavily invested in its security. A glance at thebudget is all you need to see its priorities. The security budget is notonly the largest budget item, it is the most untouchable one. Data taken from the Treasury department website http://ozar.mof.gov.il/budget2007/index2008.htm
Militaristic Economy•Israels security spending is enormous even when compared toother countries.A 2009comparison ofthe securitybudget as apercentage ofGDP. Israel USA Great Germany Canada NATO Global Britain average average Source: Yedioth Achronot Newspaper, 1/12/2009
Militaristic Economy•Having a militaristic economy has its benefits. The Israeli security-industrial complex is one of the largest and most profitable in theworld. Israel frequently innovates and tests weapons and securitytechnology, making a company like Plasan-Sasa its "2010 Exporterof the Year“. "Plasans solutions for military vehicles, fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, civilian vehicles, and personal protection systems include a suite of technologies skillfully integrated into a complete protective system." taken from: http://www.plasansasa.com/content/survivability-solutions
Militarstic EconomyThe economic benefits work bothways. Financial companies relyheavily on aligning their brandwith the army and soldiers.The ad, printed during the Second Lebanon War, reads as follows: I.D.F. Biggest on securityMega Supermarket Chain embraces and supports all IDF soldiers.Thanks for everything.Take care of yourselves! Mega Biggest on savings
Militaristic GenderDo guns makewomen equal? Canwe achieve equality inan organization thathabitually castswomen in supportingroles?What happens towomen who want tointegrate in a male-centricestablishment? Photo: Rachel Papo 2004 www.rachelpapo.com/serial1.html
Militaristic GenderA humorous postcard There are many hard ...Like push-ups forintended to things in the army... instance...congratulate recruits.Military service isoften considered amale rite of passage,and a place forwomen to snag ahusband. "Condom included!” Illustration by A. Albanogen, 2000
Militaristic GenderAdvertisers use deep-seededcultural preferences to promotetheir products. In this casetheyre using machismo to sellunderwear to soldiers. "Warm Regards""Boxer shorts for soldiers." Package cover, Lodjia, 2000
Militarism and EqualityThe recurringdemolitions of theBedouin village of Al-Araqib go on as mostIsraelis arent evenaware of them, andwould probablysupport them. In asociety living on itssword, violence is thesolution of choice. Al-Araqib village demolition 27/7/2010
Militarism and EqualityA Palestinianwoman anddaughter sitting onthe remains of theirdemolished housein Lod, south of TelAviv. Those whoarent part of themainstream, likePalestinians, areleft to fend forthemselves. by activestills.org Taken on 14/12/2010 i
Militarism and IdentityOne of the most famousIsraeli idioms, inscribed onone of the more famousmonuments, the roaringlion, commemorates thebattle of Tel Hai, on March1, 1920 and JosephTrumpeldors last words:"It is good to die for ourcountry".
Militarism and IdentityEvery school has a memorialfor its graduates who havedied in action. Little Yasminpasses this one every dayon her way to kindergarten.What is she supposed tolearn about herself from thismonument? Photo: Amir Terkel 2009
Militarism and IdentityA soldier and asettler rejoicing inHebron. IsraelsJewish identity andits militaristictendencies play asignificant, andinterconnected role inthe ongoingoccupation of Photo taken from the "Breaking the Silence"Palestine exhibit
Militarism and IdentityAn Israeli bridecelebrating herwedding day byposing for a photowith an IDF mobileartillery piece at akibbutz near thenorthern GazaStrip. What doesthe future hold forher? AP Haaretz 29/9/2005
“Study WarNo More”This version of theexhibit wascreated by AlbertGivol and RuthHiller, with thehelp of many NewProfile activistsand friends. A New Profile Workshop on Militarism and Education in the Alternative Summer Camp 2006.
Tova Hartman, Founder Proponent of “Devotional Resistance” uses what she calls the self-correcting mechanisms found within Judaism.“The faith is wounded and wounding.”How could it be holy if someone is offended?”
“At first people said, ‘YOU fix it’ not “LET’S fix it together.”A core practice at Shira Hadasha is to ensure that everyonehas a place to eat Sabbath dinner.
Ophir YardenDirector of Education of the Interreligious Coordinating Council in IsraelSenior lecturer in Jewish and Israel studies at Brigham Young University’sJerusalem Center
Founded in the mid 1500s by fiveChristian families from what is todayJordan, Ramallah (it means “God’shilltop”).Nighttime population: 50,000Daytop population: 150,000It’s majority Muslim, but here are stillmany Arab Christians in Ramallah.
Luke 1:26 And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city ofGalilee, named Nazareth, 27 To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph,of the house of David; and the virgins name was Mary. 28 And the angel came inunto her, and said, Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee: blessedart thou among women. 29 And when she saw him, she was troubled at his saying,and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be. 30 And the angel saidunto her, Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favour with God. 31 And, behold, thoushalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his nameJesus. 32 He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the LordGod shall give unto him the throne of his father David: 33 And he shall reign over thehouse of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end. 34 Then said Maryunto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man? 35And the angelanswered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the powerof the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall beborn of thee shall be called the Son of God. 36 And, behold, thy cousin Elisabeth, shehath also conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her, whowas called barren. 37 For with God nothing shall be impossible. 38 And Mary said,Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy word. And theangel departed from her.
Mount Tabor is located in the Jezreel Valley. Har Megiddo(Armageddon), is across the Jezreel Valley.Mount Tabor is the site of the Mount Tabor Battle betweenBarak (under the leadership of the Israelite judgeDeborah), and the army of the Caananites in the mid 14 th c.BCE (Kings Chapter 4)
Many Christians think it is also the site for the Transfiguration ofJesus.On the mountain, Jesus begins to shine with bright rays of light.Then the prophets Moses and Elijah appear next to him and hespeaks with them. Jesus is called Son by a voice (assumed to beGod) coming from the sky.
NABLUS AND ENVIRONS Israeli checkpoint on the road to Nablus, pop. 250,000 At various points since 2000, Israel has blocked off Nablus Road, the main artery. Once part of the Silk Road.
Leaving Ramallah to Nablus, you pass byJelazone Refugee Camp. Sadly, I do nothave any pictures. Built to house 2,500,now holds 14,000. Tear gas experience.Israeli military installation looking overPalestinian village.
Palestinian village of Lubban. Notethat it is built on the shoulders onthe hill and not the top. Moresustainable for agricultural heritage. Closer to water sources and closerto valley below the hill.
This is the 20 year old Israelisettlement of Ma’ale Levonaoverlooking Lubban. These folkscommute to Jersusalem to work inservice sector jobs. Waterpumped up the hill.
Israel subsidizes settlements: land, mortgage loans, roads, electricity, water provision,lowered tax bills, and SECURITY.Very expensive for Israel. One estimate: $16,00/year/household to maintain settlements.Some settlers are “ideological”. Most are what they call “economic settlers” seeking acomfortable and affordable suburban lifestyle.
Little pancakes…eaten allyear, but esp. at Ramadan.
Costs 15 NIS 2 days a weekfor a bath; for women; 520 NIS for a days a week for men.massage.
Today, there are onlyabout 800 Samaritans inexistence.
The Samaritansresisted Christianity,and were consideredoutsiders, but in theBible, Christ presentsthem in a verypositive light.
This Samaritan village is quite prosperous compared to nearby Arab villages.They are interfaith go-betweens on all kinds of business deals!
Only women can convert to becoming Samaritan, but it’s noteasy being a Samaritan woman. Women are not equal to men. After delivering a boy baby, the Mother is considered impure for 40 days. If it’s a girl, it’s 80 days!