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Understanding Online Teaching Presence
 

Understanding Online Teaching Presence

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SLN's adapted community of inquiry model and class community. Effective online practices.

SLN's adapted community of inquiry model and class community. Effective online practices.

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  • What makes a good online-learning environment?

Understanding Online Teaching Presence Understanding Online Teaching Presence Presentation Transcript

  • Alexandra M. Pickett Assistant Director SUNY Learning Network Faculty Development & Learning Design 2001 Sloan-C Award for Excellence in ALN Faculty Development Understanding Online Teaching Presence
  • Introduction
          • What makes an effective online learning environment?
          • How do you and your students demonstrate “teaching presence” in your f2f classroom?
          • How do you and your students cultivate a sense of class community in your f2f classroom?
  • Introduction This presentation will provide:
    • Background and context for our theoretical model.
    • An overview of “Teaching Presence.”
    • An overview of “Class Community.”
    • A discussion of Best Practices.
    • Conclusion and implications for general online course and learning design.
    Introduction
    • Faculty Development:
      • Consistent quality - effective practices.
      • Large scale and unique vantage point.
      • Opportunity to influence and share best practices across the design of all courses.
      • Research.
      • SLN student satisfaction surveys: the most significant contributing factor to student satisfaction and reported learning is student/teacher interaction. Second is student to student interaction.
    Background Background
  • Background
        • The effective online course developer/instructor...
    • Encourages student-faculty contact & interaction.
    • Encourages student cooperation and reciprocity.
    • Encourages active learning.
    • Gives prompt feedback.
    • Emphasizes time on task.
    • Communicates high expectations.
    • Respects diverse talents and ways of learning.
    • Adapted from The Seven Principals of good Practice in Undergraduate Education - Chickering, and Gamson 1987.
    !
      • Principles
      • of good practice in online Teaching
      • and
      • Learning
    Seven Principles...
  • Background
    • Knowledge Centered – Outcomes oriented - knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for successful transfer.
    • Learner Centered – Connect to the strengths, interests, and preconceptions of learners and help them learn about themselves as learners.
    • Community Centered – Environment where students feel safe to ask questions, learn to work collaboratively, and are helped to develop lifelong learning skills.
    • Assessment Centered – Provide multiple opportunities to make students’ thinking visible so they can receive feedback and be given a chance to revise.
    • Bransford et al, 2000.
    !
      • People
      • learn
      • best in
      • environments
      • that are...
    How People Learn...
  • Background !
      • People
      • learn
      • best in
      • environments
      • that support...
    Critical inquiry in a text-based environment...
    • Social Presence – “the ability of students to project themselves socially and affectively into a community of inquiry. ”
    • Cognitive Presence – “the extent to which students are able to construct and confirm meaning through sustained discourse in a community of inquiry. ”
    • Teaching Presence – “the design, facilitation, and direction of cognitive and social processes for the realization of personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes .”
    • Garrison, Anderson, Rourke, and Archer, 2002.
  • Background !
      • People
      • learn
      • best in
      • environments
      • that are...
    • How people learn - Bransford et al, 2000.
    An emerging framework... Community Assessment Centered Knowledge Centered Learner Centered
  • Background !
      • People
      • learn
      • best in
      • environments
      • that are and support...
    An emerging framework...
    • How people learn - Bransford et al, 2000.
    • Critical Inquiry in a Text-based Environment - Garrison, Anderson, Rourke, and Archer, 2002.
    Online Learning Community Teaching Presence Assessment-Centered Social Presence Knowledge -Centered Cognitive Presence Learner/learning-Centered Setting Climate Supporting Discourse/Interaction Selecting Content
  • Background !
      • Best Practices
      • in effective online learning environment design
    An emerging framework...
    • Encourage student-faculty contact and interaction.
    • Encourage student cooperation and reciprocity.
    • Encourage active learning.
    • Give prompt feedback.
    • Emphasize time on task.
    • Communicate high expectations.
    • Respect diverse talents and ways of learning.
    • The Seven Principals of good Practice in Undergraduate Education - Chickering, and Gamson 1987.
    • How people learn - Bransford et al, 2000
    • Critical Inquiry in a Text-based Environment - Garrison, Anderson, Rourke, and Archer, 2002.
    Online Learning Community Teaching Presence Assessment-Centered Social Presence Knowledge -Centered Cognitive Presence Learner/learning-Centered Setting Climate Supporting Discourse/Interaction Selecting Content
  • Teaching Presence Teaching Presence Facilitating Discourse Direct Instruction Instructional Design & Organization
    • Effective Online Teaching Presence - the facilitation and direction of cognitive and social processes for the realization of personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes.
    • Adapted from Anderson 2001.
  • . . .
    • Identifying areas of agreement and disagreement.
    • Seeking to reach consensus and understanding.
    • Encouraging, acknowledging, and reinforcing student contributions.
    • Setting the climate for learning.
    • Drawing in participants, prompting discussion/interaction.
    • Assessing the efficacy of the process.
    Teaching Presence: from theory to practice. . . F acilitating Discourse D irect Instruction I nstructional Design & Organization
  • . . . Teaching Presence: from theory to practice. . . F acilitating Discourse D irect Instruction I nstructional Design & Organization 73% of students expressed agreement that their instructors facilitated discourse effectively. 72% of student expressed agreement that their classmates facilitated discourse effectively. These percentages correlate directly to high levels of student satisfaction and reported learning.
  • . . . F acilitating Discourse D irect Instruction I nstructional Design & Organization
    • Presenting content and questions.
    • Focusing the discussion.
    • Summarizing the discussion.
    • Confirming understanding.
    • Diagnosing misperceptions.
    • Injecting knowledge from diverse sources.
    • Responding to technical concerns.
    Teaching Presence: from theory to practice. . .
  • . . . F acilitating Discourse D irect Instruction I nstructional Design & Organization Teaching Presence: from theory to practice. . . 76% of students expressed agreement that their instructors provided direct instruction effectively. 66% of student expressed agreement that their classmates provided direct instruction effectively. These percentages correlate directly to high levels of student satisfaction and reported learning.
  • . . . F acilitating Discourse D irect Instruction I nstructional Design & Organization
    • Setting the curriculum.
    • Designing methods.
    • Establishing time parameters.
    • Utilizing the medium effectively.
    • Establishing netiquette.
    Teaching Presence: from theory to practice. . .
  • . . . F acilitating Discourse D irect Instruction I nstructional Design & Organization Teaching Presence: from theory to practice. . . Overall, 85% of student respondents agreed that the indicators for this category were present in their courses. This percentage correlates directly to high levels of student satisfaction and reported learning.
  • Class Community Class Community
      • Two components...
    • Connectedness
    • Learning
    • Effective Online Class Community - A rich productive online teaching and learning milieu that engenders trust, spirit, connectedness, belonging, membership and support , and that results in faculty and students that report high levels of satisfaction and learning.
    • Adapted from Rovai 2002, Wenger 1997, Scardamalia and Berieter, 1996.
  • . . . C onnectedness L earning Class Community: from theory to practice. . .
    • Building social/group spirit.
    • Establishing trust.
  • . . . Class Community: from theory to practice. . .
    • Engaging in supportive contact and interaction.
    • Sharing educational expectations.
    C onnectedness L earning
  • . . . Class Community: from theory to practice. . . Our research shows that there is a relationship between teaching presence and the development of community in online learning environments Courses characterized by effective teaching presence are more likely to develop a stronger sense of community on the part of the students = high levels of student satisfaction and reported learning. C onnectedness L earning
  • . . . Class Community: from theory to practice. . . C onnectedness L earning
    • Create and provide ample opportunities for interaction.
    • Create and use activities that build a sense of class community.
    • Build/design activities that create a sense of connectedness between the students and the instructor.
    • Create a learning environment that is engaging with supportive contact and interaction.
  • . . . Class Community: from theory to practice. . . C onnectedness L earning Online courses that are designed to promote a sense of class community, where there are ample opportunities for interaction and the social construction of knowledge, result in online teaching and learning communities of satisfied students and faculty.
  • What works? Conclusion
    • To be an effective online instructor you will need to engage in behaviors that are likely to result in high levels of learning and student satisfaction.
    • To achieve this goal you will need to design an online course environment that:
        • Is learner/learning-centered, knowledge-centered, assessment-centered, and community-centered.
        • Incorporates the seven principles of good practice in online teaching and learning.
        • Provides high levels of “teaching presence.”
        • Provides and fosters a strong and effective sense of online “class community.”
  • ? Any questions ? Any questions
  • Thank you! Thank you! Alexandra M. Pickett [email_address]