The Pedagogy
and Practice of
Mobile Learning
SLN SOLsummit
February 27, 2014
Thursday, February 27, 14
exploring mobility
“Abilene Christian University gave out iPhones or iPod Touches …
to transform its campus into a 200-acr...
research activities...
near saturation of faculty with devices (over 95%)
faculty experimentation, utilization and innovat...
Thursday, February 27, 14
Quiz
Thursday, February 27, 14
tablet
Thursday, February 27, 14

versus

scroll
tablet
Thursday, February 27, 14

versus

scroll
scroll
Thursday, February 27, 14

versus

codex
scroll
Thursday, February 27, 14

versus

codex
codex
Thursday, February 27, 14

versus

tablet
?
codex
Thursday, February 27, 14

versus

tablet
Thursday, February 27, 14
6.8 billion cell-phone subscribers
-International Telecommunications Union

Thursday, February 27, 14
1.8 Billion iOS and Android Devices
1 Million iOS apps available
with 60B downloads
875,000 Android apps available
with 40...
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
emphases of learning in oral cultures
teachers live and work in relationship with students
teachers serve as guides or men...
What is the greatest challenge
of the oral information age?

Thursday, February 27, 14
What is the greatest challenge
of the oral information age?

accessing information

Thursday, February 27, 14
Johannes Gutenberg
c1398 – 1468

Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
what is the greatest challenge
of the print information age?

Thursday, February 27, 14
what is the greatest challenge
of the print information age?

finding information

Thursday, February 27, 14
emphases of learning in print culture
teachers serve as the primary conduit of
information, with students as receivers
emp...
what is the greatest challenge
of the digital information age?

Thursday, February 27, 14
what is the greatest challenge
of the digital information age?

assessing information

Thursday, February 27, 14
the major pitfall of the 21st century teaching:
“the belief that most of what we know will remain relatively
unchanged for...
the purpose for teaching?

Thursday, February 27, 14
the purpose for teaching?

Thursday, February 27, 14
in the digital age…

Thursday, February 27, 14
in the digital age…

information is a

commodity
Thursday, February 27, 14
Seth Godin
c1960–

“Never again is someone going to
pay you to answer a question that
they can look up on Wikipedia”

Thur...
rethinking pedagogy
print information age

digital information age

Information is “scarce” and

Information is abundant a...
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
If I imagine my primary job as a teacher is to serve
information, am I helping solve the current
informational problem or ...
And given the vast complexity of the informational
network, if I insist on my centrality, does that
establish or harm my c...
If assessing information – and the wisdom & experience
that requires – is the central challenge of the current
information...
rethinking pedagogy
print information age

digital information age

Course presentations and

Course presentations and

ma...
co-development: campus-wide media literacy

http://blogs.acu.edu/learningstudio/
Thursday, February 27, 14
mobile blogging: community
“We saw deep interest in being able to access... material on the fly, wherever
[students] are, a...
rethinking pedagogy
print information age

digital information age

Course activity typically

Course activity typically

...
course materials delivered on iPad...
majority of students positive about
functionality:
ease of use, accessibility, and
c...
rethinking pedagogy
print information age

digital information age

The classroom is the primary

Access to course content...
MEIBL: addressing student preparation
written documents
MSDS/safety info
search tool
response tool
Podcasts in two categor...
MEIBL: addressing student preparation
Podcast treatment
n = 33

Lecture treatment
n = 20

Lab Reports

95.99 ± 2.74

91.80...
MEIBL: clarifying interactions
Mean clarifying interactions by treatment block
Treatment group

Contrasting treatment

Equ...
rethinking pedagogy
print information age

digital information age

Course activity often focuses

Course activity focuses...
flipping Blooms
Evaluation
Synthesis
Analysis
Application
Comprehension
Knowledge
Thursday, February 27, 14
flipping Blooms
Evaluation
Synthesis
Analysis
Application
Comprehension
Knowledge
Thursday, February 27, 14
flipping Blooms
Evaluation
Synthesis
Analysis
Application
Comprehension
Knowledge
Thursday, February 27, 14
flipping Blooms
Evaluation

Relevancy

Synthesis

Thinking Skills

Analysis

Making Connections

Application
Comprehension
...
flipping Blooms
Evaluation
Synthesis
Analysis
Application
Comprehension
Knowledge
Thursday, February 27, 14
flipping Blooms
Evaluation
Synthesis
Analysis
Application
Comprehension
Knowledge
Thursday, February 27, 14
flipping Blooms
Evaluation
Synthesis
Analysis
Application
Comprehension
Knowledge
Thursday, February 27, 14
flipping Blooms
Evaluation
Synthesis
Analysis
Application
Comprehension
Knowledge
Thursday, February 27, 14
flipping Blooms
Evaluation
Synthesis
Analysis
Application
Comprehension
Knowledge
Thursday, February 27, 14
flipping Blooms
Evaluation
Synthesis
Analysis
Application
Comprehension
Knowledge
Thursday, February 27, 14
real world projects to drive engagement

Bell Labs

Cambridge University Press

Thursday, February 27, 14
rethinking pedagogy
print information age

digital information age

Course activity emphasizes

Course activity emphasizes...
John Medina
c1943–

Professor of Bioengineering at the University
of Washington School of Medicine
Director of the Brain C...
John Medina
c1943–

Professor of Bioengineering at the University
of Washington School of Medicine
Director of the Brain C...
John Medina
c1943–

Thursday, February 27, 14
John Medina
c1943–

you’re doing
it wrong!

Thursday, February 27, 14
John Medina
c1943–

Thursday, February 27, 14
John Medina
c1943–

“If you wanted to design a
learning environment that
was diametrically opposed to
how the brain works,...
remote teaching examples

Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
remote teaching examples

Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
rethinking pedagogy
print information age

digital information age

Students and teachers have

In addition to classroom

...
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
rethinking pedagogy
print information age

digital information age

Discrete disciplinary bound-

Interdisciplinary connec...
what’s holding us back?

Thursday, February 27, 14
what’s holding us back?

Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Search for:
Vision of ACU City Square

Thursday, February 27, 14
the purpose for learning?

Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
the
trash
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thursday, February 27, 14
Thank
You
George Saltsman saltsman@acu.edu
Thursday, February 27, 14
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George Saltsman - Teaching and Learning at Abilene Christian University George Saltsman: Pedagogy and Practice of Mobile Learning What exactly is mobile learning?

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George Saltsman, director of the Adams Center for Teaching and Learning at Abilene Christian University
Pedagogy and Practice of Mobile Learning
What exactly is mobile learning? It’s not quite online education. It’s not quite face-to-face. Mobile is a medium all its own and it has the power to create learning experiences unlike any other medium. Building on six years of empirical research and large-scale experimentation, this session explores the intersection of learning theory and internet culture to help you put mobile learning to work for you.

Presentation at the 15th annual SLN SOLsummit 2014 february 27, 2014

Published in: Education
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George Saltsman - Teaching and Learning at Abilene Christian University George Saltsman: Pedagogy and Practice of Mobile Learning What exactly is mobile learning?

  1. 1. The Pedagogy and Practice of Mobile Learning SLN SOLsummit February 27, 2014 Thursday, February 27, 14
  2. 2. exploring mobility “Abilene Christian University gave out iPhones or iPod Touches … to transform its campus into a 200-acre Petri dish for studying the intersection of mobile technology and higher education.” Steve Kolowich, “The Mobile Campus,” Inside HigherEd. 21 September 2009. Thursday, February 27, 14
  3. 3. research activities... near saturation of faculty with devices (over 95%) faculty experimentation, utilization and innovation 42 formal research projects 73 funded investigations innumerable explorations multiple national grants research studies at www.acu.edu/connected/research Thursday, February 27, 14
  4. 4. Thursday, February 27, 14
  5. 5. Quiz Thursday, February 27, 14
  6. 6. tablet Thursday, February 27, 14 versus scroll
  7. 7. tablet Thursday, February 27, 14 versus scroll
  8. 8. scroll Thursday, February 27, 14 versus codex
  9. 9. scroll Thursday, February 27, 14 versus codex
  10. 10. codex Thursday, February 27, 14 versus tablet
  11. 11. ? codex Thursday, February 27, 14 versus tablet
  12. 12. Thursday, February 27, 14
  13. 13. 6.8 billion cell-phone subscribers -International Telecommunications Union Thursday, February 27, 14
  14. 14. 1.8 Billion iOS and Android Devices 1 Million iOS apps available with 60B downloads 875,000 Android apps available with 40B downloads Thursday, February 27, 14
  15. 15. Thursday, February 27, 14
  16. 16. Thursday, February 27, 14
  17. 17. Thursday, February 27, 14
  18. 18. Thursday, February 27, 14
  19. 19. Thursday, February 27, 14
  20. 20. Thursday, February 27, 14
  21. 21. Thursday, February 27, 14
  22. 22. emphases of learning in oral cultures teachers live and work in relationship with students teachers serve as guides or mentors, emphasizing learning by practice and apprenticeship emphasis on contextual learning, using knowledge in particular contexts repetition and assessment lead to independent praxis learning as embodied, subjective, dialectic, and broadly interconnected Thursday, February 27, 14
  23. 23. What is the greatest challenge of the oral information age? Thursday, February 27, 14
  24. 24. What is the greatest challenge of the oral information age? accessing information Thursday, February 27, 14
  25. 25. Johannes Gutenberg c1398 – 1468 Thursday, February 27, 14
  26. 26. Thursday, February 27, 14
  27. 27. Thursday, February 27, 14
  28. 28. Thursday, February 27, 14
  29. 29. Thursday, February 27, 14
  30. 30. Thursday, February 27, 14
  31. 31. Thursday, February 27, 14
  32. 32. Thursday, February 27, 14
  33. 33. what is the greatest challenge of the print information age? Thursday, February 27, 14
  34. 34. what is the greatest challenge of the print information age? finding information Thursday, February 27, 14
  35. 35. emphases of learning in print culture teachers serve as the primary conduit of information, with students as receivers emphasis on differentiating, classifying, and cataloguing focus on memorization of facts and data repetition is primary, analysis is secondary learning as hierarchical, “objective,” standardized, and narrowly-defined Thursday, February 27, 14
  36. 36. what is the greatest challenge of the digital information age? Thursday, February 27, 14
  37. 37. what is the greatest challenge of the digital information age? assessing information Thursday, February 27, 14
  38. 38. the major pitfall of the 21st century teaching: “the belief that most of what we know will remain relatively unchanged for a long enough period of time to be worth the effort of transferring it” Thomas and Brown (2011) Thursday, February 27, 14
  39. 39. the purpose for teaching? Thursday, February 27, 14
  40. 40. the purpose for teaching? Thursday, February 27, 14
  41. 41. in the digital age… Thursday, February 27, 14
  42. 42. in the digital age… information is a commodity Thursday, February 27, 14
  43. 43. Seth Godin c1960– “Never again is someone going to pay you to answer a question that they can look up on Wikipedia” Thursday, February 27, 14
  44. 44. rethinking pedagogy print information age digital information age Information is “scarce” and Information is abundant and publishing is limited. Quality publishing is pervasive and and assessment of informa- easily accessible. Access to tion are assured by the pro- information is assured, but fessionalized processes of automated cataloguing and publishing and cataloguing easy publishing limit quality and assessment Thursday, February 27, 14
  45. 45. Thursday, February 27, 14
  46. 46. Thursday, February 27, 14
  47. 47. Thursday, February 27, 14
  48. 48. Thursday, February 27, 14
  49. 49. If I imagine my primary job as a teacher is to serve information, am I helping solve the current informational problem or make it worse? Thursday, February 27, 14
  50. 50. And given the vast complexity of the informational network, if I insist on my centrality, does that establish or harm my credibility as a teacher? Thursday, February 27, 14
  51. 51. If assessing information – and the wisdom & experience that requires – is the central challenge of the current informational age, are teachers more or less necessary? Thursday, February 27, 14
  52. 52. rethinking pedagogy print information age digital information age Course presentations and Course presentations and materials are typically devel- materials are developed oped in advance outside of dynamically both inside and class with teachers as primary outside of class with students developers as co-developers or even primary developers Thursday, February 27, 14
  53. 53. co-development: campus-wide media literacy http://blogs.acu.edu/learningstudio/ Thursday, February 27, 14
  54. 54. mobile blogging: community “We saw deep interest in being able to access... material on the fly, wherever [students] are, and being able to have a large-scale conversation with 1,000 freshmen. A professor can look at it and pull out special information for a discussion. What was only a virtual space becomes both a virtual and an interactive space in the classroom.” Thursday, February 27, 14
  55. 55. rethinking pedagogy print information age digital information age Course activity typically Course activity typically focuses on presentation of focuses on students con- information with students textualizing, practicing, or contextualizing, practicing, or using information with using information at home. delivery of information occurring outside of class through media. Thursday, February 27, 14
  56. 56. course materials delivered on iPad... majority of students positive about functionality: ease of use, accessibility, and convenience use of glossary, formulas, quizzes and flashcard features increased motivation and study time Source: Mayrath, Nihilani, & Perkins, 2011 Thursday, February 27, 14
  57. 57. rethinking pedagogy print information age digital information age The classroom is the primary Access to course content is site of access to course often recursive or “on- content, and access is often demand,” allowing students to “linear”– students cannot return to content when and as typically return to previous often as they’d like class presentations Thursday, February 27, 14
  58. 58. MEIBL: addressing student preparation written documents MSDS/safety info search tool response tool Podcasts in two categories: chemistry calculations and laboratory techniques Thursday, February 27, 14
  59. 59. MEIBL: addressing student preparation Podcast treatment n = 33 Lecture treatment n = 20 Lab Reports 95.99 ± 2.74 91.80 ± 4.45 Quizzes 86.95 ± 6.56 79.44 ± 11.00 Lab Final Exam 83.24 ± 6.91 79.45 ± 10.28 Lab Course Grade 93.64* ± 3.13 88.72* ± 5.93 “Highly motivated” * Welch’s t-test indicates these are statistically significantly different at α = .05 level Thursday, February 27, 14
  60. 60. MEIBL: clarifying interactions Mean clarifying interactions by treatment block Treatment group Contrasting treatment Equivalent treatment Week 4 M SD M SD Podcast treatment teams (n = 24) 2.942* .662 1.942 .485 3.950 Lecture treatment teams (n = 14) 4.478* .866 1.977 .605 4.210 * Welch’s t-test indicates these are statistically significantly different at α = .05 level Thursday, February 27, 14 Cohen’s d = ( Mt – Mc ) / Spooled for contrasting treatment block = 2.18
  61. 61. rethinking pedagogy print information age digital information age Course activity often focuses Course activity focuses on on the students as audience students as participants and and the teacher as presenter agents and the teacher as guide or mentor Thursday, February 27, 14
  62. 62. flipping Blooms Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Thursday, February 27, 14
  63. 63. flipping Blooms Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Thursday, February 27, 14
  64. 64. flipping Blooms Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Thursday, February 27, 14
  65. 65. flipping Blooms Evaluation Relevancy Synthesis Thinking Skills Analysis Making Connections Application Comprehension Knowledge Thursday, February 27, 14 Pure Memorization
  66. 66. flipping Blooms Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Thursday, February 27, 14
  67. 67. flipping Blooms Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Thursday, February 27, 14
  68. 68. flipping Blooms Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Thursday, February 27, 14
  69. 69. flipping Blooms Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Thursday, February 27, 14
  70. 70. flipping Blooms Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Thursday, February 27, 14
  71. 71. flipping Blooms Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Thursday, February 27, 14
  72. 72. real world projects to drive engagement Bell Labs Cambridge University Press Thursday, February 27, 14
  73. 73. rethinking pedagogy print information age digital information age Course activity emphasizes Course activity emphasizes exposition and analysis of discovery and application of pre-screened information –  information “in the wild” –  displaying, organizing, and finding, assessing, summarizing, explaining and synthesizing, and applying critiquing are central become more central activities Thursday, February 27, 14
  74. 74. John Medina c1943– Professor of Bioengineering at the University of Washington School of Medicine Director of the Brain Center for Applied Learning Research at Seattle Pacific University Thursday, February 27, 14
  75. 75. John Medina c1943– Professor of Bioengineering at the University of Washington School of Medicine Director of the Brain Center for Applied Learning Research at Seattle Pacific University Thursday, February 27, 14
  76. 76. John Medina c1943– Thursday, February 27, 14
  77. 77. John Medina c1943– you’re doing it wrong! Thursday, February 27, 14
  78. 78. John Medina c1943– Thursday, February 27, 14
  79. 79. John Medina c1943– “If you wanted to design a learning environment that was diametrically opposed to how the brain works, you’d design something like the modern classroom” Thursday, February 27, 14
  80. 80. remote teaching examples Thursday, February 27, 14
  81. 81. Thursday, February 27, 14
  82. 82. Thursday, February 27, 14
  83. 83. Thursday, February 27, 14
  84. 84. remote teaching examples Thursday, February 27, 14
  85. 85. Thursday, February 27, 14
  86. 86. Thursday, February 27, 14
  87. 87. rethinking pedagogy print information age digital information age Students and teachers have In addition to classroom access to one another pri- access, students and teachers marily in the classroom have access to one another virtually – through online discussions, email, chat, social networking, etc. Thursday, February 27, 14
  88. 88. Thursday, February 27, 14
  89. 89. Thursday, February 27, 14
  90. 90. Thursday, February 27, 14
  91. 91. rethinking pedagogy print information age digital information age Discrete disciplinary bound- Interdisciplinary connec- aries are established and tions are encouraged and preserved for organizational disciplinary boundaries are necessity seen as porous or even arbitrary Thursday, February 27, 14
  92. 92. what’s holding us back? Thursday, February 27, 14
  93. 93. what’s holding us back? Thursday, February 27, 14
  94. 94. Thursday, February 27, 14
  95. 95. Search for: Vision of ACU City Square Thursday, February 27, 14
  96. 96. the purpose for learning? Thursday, February 27, 14
  97. 97. Thursday, February 27, 14
  98. 98. Thursday, February 27, 14
  99. 99. the trash Thursday, February 27, 14
  100. 100. Thursday, February 27, 14
  101. 101. Thursday, February 27, 14
  102. 102. Thursday, February 27, 14
  103. 103. Thursday, February 27, 14
  104. 104. Thursday, February 27, 14
  105. 105. Thursday, February 27, 14
  106. 106. Thursday, February 27, 14
  107. 107. Thank You George Saltsman saltsman@acu.edu Thursday, February 27, 14

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